Chahar Province

Last updated

province of the Republic of China
察哈爾省
Chahar Province

(1928–1948)
ROC Div Chahaer.svg
Capital Changyuan [lower-alpha 1]
former province of the People's Republic of China
察哈尔省
Qahar Province

(1948-1952)
PRC-Chahar.png
Capital Zhangjiakou

Chahar (Mongolian : ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ, Чахар; traditional Chinese :察哈爾; simplified Chinese :察哈尔; pinyin :Cháhā'ěr), also known as Chaha'er, Chakhar or Qahar, was a province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of Eastern Inner Mongolia. It was named after the Chahar Mongols.

Contents

Administration and history

Chahar Province is named after the Chahar, a tribal group of the Mongols who live in that area. Before the unification of the Mongol tribes under Genghis Khan, the area had seen intermittent Chinese influence over the native Mongols. After the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), the area was only intermittently controlled by China. The Chahar had become the personal appanage of the monarchs of the Northern Yuan dynasty since the reign of Batumongke Dayan Khan (r. 1479–1517). By the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), Chahar was not yet a Chinese province, but "Zhangyuan Special Region" (張垣特區), although Yao Xiguang (姚錫光) proposed making Chahar a province as early as 1908. [1] [2]

In 1913, the second year of the Republic of China, Chahar Special Administrative Region was created as a subdivision of Zhili Province, containing 6 Banners and 11 counties: [3]

  • Zhāngbèi (張北)
  • Duōlún (多倫)
  • Gǔyuán (沽源)
  • Shāngdū (商都)
  • Bǎochāng (寶昌)
  • Kāngbǎo (康保)
  • Xīnghé (興和)
  • Táolín (陶林)
  • Jíníng (集寧)
  • Fēngzhèn (豐鎮)
  • Liángchéng (涼城)

In 1928, it became a province. The last five counties on the above list (starting from Xinghe) were partitioned to Suiyuan province. And ten counties were included from Xuanhua Subprefecture (宣化府), Koubei Circuit (口北道), Hebei Province: [3]

  • Xuānhuà (宣化)
  • Chìchéng (赤城)
  • Wànquán (萬全)
  • Huáilái (懷來)
  • Wèi (蔚)
  • Yángyuán (陽原)
  • Lóngguān (龍關)
  • Yánqìng (延慶)
  • Huái'ān (懷安)
  • Zhuōlù (涿鹿)

All banners belong to the Shilingol League (ᠰᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨᠭᠣᠤᠯ, 锡林郭勒盟).

From 1937 to 1945, it was occupied by Japan and made a part of Mengjiang, a Japanese-controlled region led by Mongol Prince Demchugdongrub of the Shilingol Alliance. The Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army Alliance (察哈爾民眾抗日同盟軍) was established in Kalgan on May 26, 1933 by Feng Yuxiang (馮玉祥) and Ji Hongchang (吉鴻昌).

1948–1952

In 1952, six years after becoming communist, the province was abolished and divided into parts of Inner Mongolia, Beijing Municipality and Hebei.

NameAdministrative SeatSimplified ChineseHanyu PinyinSubdivisions
ZhangjiakouZhangjiakou张家口市Zhāngjiākǒu Shìnone
DatongDatong大同市Dàtóng Shìnone
Yanbei DivisionDatong County雁北专区Yànběi Zhuānqū13 counties
Qanan DivisionXuanhua County察南专区Chánán Zhuānqū11 counties
Qabei DivisionZhangbei County察北专区Cháběi Zhuānqū9 counties

Geography

Chahar Province was divided north-south by the Great Wall, with North Chahar being the larger in area and South Chahar, with the capital, Zhangjiakou, being far larger in population. It had an area of 278.957 km2 (107.706 sq mi). In North Chahar most of the land was part of the northeastern extension of the Gobi Desert.

Bordered

Notes

  1. Zhangjiakou Subprefecture (Chinese :張家口廳; pinyin :Zhāngjiākǒu Tīng), also known as the Zhang Capital (Chinese :張垣; pinyin :Zhāng Yuán), and referred in some older Western literature as Kalgan (Хаалга: Mongolian for gate). Now Zhangjiakou City, Hebei.

Related Research Articles

Inner Mongolia Autonomous region of China

Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Its border includes most of the length of China's border with the country of Mongolia. The rest of the Sino–Mongolian border coincides with part of the international border of the Xinjiang autonomous region and the entirety of the international border of Gansu province. Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's border with Russia. Its capital is Hohhot; other major cities include Baotou, Chifeng, Tongliao and Ordos.

Chahars

The Chahars are a subgroup of Mongols that speak Chakhar Mongolian and predominantly live in southeastern Inner Mongolia, China.

Mengjiang Former autonomous area in Mongolia

Mengjiang (Mengkiang), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, formed in 1939 as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, then from 1940 being under the nominal sovereignty of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China. It consisted of the previously Chinese provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, corresponding to the central part of modern Inner Mongolia. It has also been called Mongukuo or Mengguguo. The capital was Kalgan, from where it was ruled by the Mongol nobleman Prince Demchugdongrub. The territory returned to Chinese control after the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945.

Demchugdongrub

Demchugdongrub, also known as Prince De, courtesy name Xixian (希賢), was a Qing dynasty Mongol prince descended from the Borjigin imperial clan who lived during the 20th century and became the leader of an independence movement in Inner Mongolia. He was most notable for being the chairman of the pro-Japanese Mongol Military Government (1938–39) and later of the puppet state of Mengjiang (1939–45), during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In modern day, some see Demchugdongrub as a Mongol nationalist promoting Pan-Mongolism while others view him as a traitor and as the pawn of the Japanese during World War II.

Provinces of China Peoples Republic of China province-level subdivision

Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of China, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. The political status of Taiwan Province along with a small fraction of Fujian Province remain in dispute, those are under separate rule by the Republic of China.

Hohhot Prefecture-level city in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China

Hohhot, abbreviated Hushi, formerly known as Kweisui, is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center. Its population is 2,866,615 inhabitants as of the 2010 census, of whom 1,980,774 lives in the built-up area made up of 4 urban districts.

Zhangjiakou Prefecture-level city in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Zhangjiakou also known as Kalgan and several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. By 2019, its population was 4,650,000 inhabitants on 36,861.56 square kilometres (14,232.33 sq mi), divided into 17 Counties and Districts. The built-up area made of Qiaoxi, Qiaodong, Chongli, Xuanhua, Xiahuayuan Districts largely being conurbated had 1,500,000 inhabitants in 2019 on 1,412.7 km2 (545.4 sq mi).

Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture Autonomous prefecture in Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Bortala is an autonomous prefecture for Mongol people in the northern middle of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Western China. It has an area of 27,000 km2 (10,000 sq mi). Bole is its capital. "Boro tala" comes from the Mongolian language and means "brown steppe".

Operation Chahar

Operation Chahar, known in Chinese as the Nankou Campaign, occurred in August 1937, following the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the beginning of Second Sino-Japanese War.

Hebei–Chahar Political Council

The Hebei–Chahar Political Council, or Hebei-Chahar Political Commission, was established at Beijing under Gen. Song Zheyuan, on 18th December 1935.

The Inner Mongolian campaign in the period from 1933 to 1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1931, the invasion of Manchuria secured the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo and in 1933, Operation Nekka detached the province of Jehol from the Republic of China. Blocked from further advance south by the Tanggu Truce, the Imperial Japanese Army turned its attention west, towards the Inner Mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, with the goal of establishing a northern China buffer state. In order to avoid overt violation of the Truce, the Japanese government used proxy armies in these campaigns while Chinese resistance was at first only provided by Anti-Japanese resistance movement forces in Chahar. The former included in the Inner Mongolian Army, the Manchukuo Imperial Army, and the Grand Han Righteous Army. Chinese government forces were overtly hostile to the anti-Japanese resistance and resisted Japanese aggression only in Suiyuan in 1936.

The Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army (察哈尔民众抗日同盟军) consisted mostly of former Northwestern Army units under Feng Yuxiang, troops from Fang Zhenwu's Resisting Japan and Saving China Army, remnants of the provincial forces from Jehol, Anti-Japanese volunteers from Manchuria and local forces from Chahar and Suiyuan. Even the Japanese puppet Liu Guitang switched sides, joining the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army, as did the Suiyuan bandit leader Wang Ying.

Li Shouxin

Li Shouxin was a pro-Japanese commander in the Manchukuo Imperial Army and later the Mengjiang National Army.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Xiwanzi/Chongli is a diocese located in the city of Xiwanzi in the Ecclesiastical province of Suiyuan in China.

Qahar Right Front Banner Banner in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China

Chahar or Qahar Right Front Banner is a Banner of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, surrounding Jining District and bordering Xinghe County to the east, Fengzhen City to the south, Zhuozi County to the west, and Chahar Right Back Banner to the north. Its territory includes Lake Huangqi. It is under the administration of Ulaan Chab City. Its most important settlement is Tuguiwula, where Tuguiwula railway station is located.

Qahar Right Middle Banner County in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China

Chahar Right Middle Banner is a banner of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, bordered by Chahar Right Back Banner to the east, Zhuozi County to the south, and Siziwang Banner to the northwest. It is under the administration of Ulaan Chab City.

Qahar Right Rear Banner Banner in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China

Chahar Right Rear Banner is a banner of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, bordering Shangdu County to the northeast, Xinghe County to the southeast, Chahar Right Front Banner to the south, Zhuozi County to the southwest, Chahar Right Rear Banner to the west, Siziwang Banner to the northwest, and Xilin Gol to the north. It is under the administration of Ulaan Chab City, which lies to the south along the G55 Erenhot–Guangzhou Expressway. The most important settlement in the banner is Baiyinchagan.

Yu Pinqing

Yu Pinqing was a politician and industrialist in the Republic of China. He was Supreme Member of the Southern Chahar Autonomous Government, later he was also appointed Vice-Chairman of the Mongolian United Autonomous Government and the Mongolian Autonomous Federation. He was born in Nangong, Zhili (Hebei).

Zhangjiakou–Hohhot dialect

Zhangjiakou–Hohhot is a dialect of Jin, one of the principal varieties of Chinese. It is colloquially referred to by native speakers as Cǐdì-huà. It is spoken in the city of Hohhot, in Inner Mongolia, and Zhangjiakou in Hebei Province in China. One of its sub-branches is Hohhot dialect, which is also locally referred as Hūshì-huà. The other sub-branch is Zhangjiakou dialect.

North Shanxi Autonomous Government Administratively autonomous region of Mengjiang

The North Shanxi Autonomous Government was an administratively autonomous component of Mengjiang from its creation in 1937 to its complete merger into Mengjiang in 1939. Following the Japanese invasion of China in July 1937, regional governments were established in Japanese-occupied territories. After Operation Chahar in September 1937, which extended Japanese control to northern Shanxi region, more formal control of the area was established through the creation of the North Shanxi Autonomous Government, as well as the South Chahar Autonomous Government to the east of Shanxi.

References

  1. Yao, Xiguang (1908), 籌蒙芻議[A Humble Suggestion on Planning of Mongolia], OCLC   32634034
  2. Facsimile reprinted in 1965 in Taipei by Wen-Hai Press OCLC   24615818
  3. 1 2 Aberle, David Friend; Vreeland, Herbert Harold (1957). Chahar and Dagor Mongol Bureaucratic Administration: 1912–1945 (2nd ed.). New Haven, Connecticut: HRAF Press. OCLC 7421313

Coordinates: 43°N115°E / 43°N 115°E / 43; 115