Last updated

Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge in 2020.jpg
Yellow Crane Tower, 2013 photo.jpg
Gui Shan Dian Shi Ta .jpg
Guiyuan temple Wuhan1.jpg
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Wuhan from the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, Tortoise Mountain TV Tower, causeway at East Lake, Guiyuan Temple, Yellow Crane Tower
("Wuhan, Different Every Day!")
Location of Wuhan Prefecture within Hubei (China).png
Location of Wuhan City jurisdiction in Hubei
China Hubei location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of the city center in Hubei
Eastern China blank relief map.svg
Red pog.svg
Wuhan (Eastern China)
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Wuhan (China)
Coordinates(Wuhan municipal government): 30°35′36″N114°18′17″E / 30.5934°N 114.3046°E / 30.5934; 114.3046
Country China
Province Hubei
Settled1500 BC
First unifiedJanuary 1, 1927 [6]
Hancheng walls built223 BC
Municipal seat Jiang'an District
  Type Prefecture-level and sub-provincial city
  Body Wuhan Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Guo Yuanqiang
   Congress ChairmanHu Lishan
  Mayor Cheng Yongwen
   CPPCC Chairman Yang Zhi
  City8,494.41 km2 (3,279.71 sq mi)
(2018) [9]
1,528 km2 (590 sq mi)
  City12,326,500 [10]
Demonym Wuhanese
  Languages Wuhan dialect, Standard Chinese
Major ethnic groups
  Major ethnic groups Han
Time zone UTC+08:00 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code 0027
ISO 3166 code CN-HB-01
 – Total
  • CNY 1.772 trillion
  • US$274.68 billion (8th) [11]
 - Per capita
  • CNY 143,729
  • US$22,284 (nominal) (11th)
 - GrowthIncrease2.svg 12.2% (2021)
License plate prefixes
  • 鄂A
  • 鄂O (police and authorities)
HDI (2015)0.839 [12] (9th) – very high
City tree Metasequoia [13]
City flower Plum blossom
Website 武汉政府门户网站 (Wuhan Government Web Portal) (in Chinese); English Wuhan (in English)

Antiquity era

Panlongcheng, located in the southernmost area of the Erligang culture Erligang map.svg
Panlongcheng, located in the southernmost area of the Erligang culture

The Wuhan area has been settled for 3,500 years. Panlongcheng, an archaeological site primarily associated with the Erligang culture (c.1510 – c.1460 BC) (being sparsely populated during the earlier Erlitou period), is located in modern-day Huangpi District of Wuhan.

During the Western Zhou the State of E, which gives its name to the single character abbreviation for Hubei province, controlled the present-day Wuchang area south of the Yangtze River. After the conquest of the E state in 863 BC, the present-day Wuhan area was controlled by the State of Chu for the rest of the Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou periods. After the State of Huang was conquered by State of Chu in the summer of 648 BC, [37] the people of Huang were moved into the area in and around present-day Wuhan. Local geographical terms including the name of Wuhan's Huangpi District were named after the State of Huang.[ citation needed ] Chu was in turn conquered by Qin in 223 BC.

Imperial China

Yellow Crane Tower Wu Yi Huang He Lou .jpg
Yellow Crane Tower

During the Han dynasty, Hanyang became a fairly busy port. The Battle of Xiakou in AD 203 and Battle of Jiangxia five years later were fought in the region over control of Jiangxia Commandery, territories of which included much of present-day eastern Hubei. In the winter of 208/9, one of the most famous battles in Chinese history and a central event in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms —the Battle of Red Cliffs—took place near the Yangtze River, with the cliffs near Wuhan identified as one of the potential locations. [38] Around that time, walls were built to protect Hanyang (AD 206) and Wuchang (AD 223). The latter event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD 223, the Yellow Crane Tower, one of the Four Great Towers of China, was constructed on the Wuchang side of the Yangtze River by order of Sun Quan, leader of the Eastern Wu. The tower become a sacred site of Taoism. [39]

Due to tensions between the Eastern Wu and Cao Wei kingdoms, in the autumn of 228, [lower-alpha 1] Cao Rui, grandson of Cao Cao and the second emperor of the state of Cao Wei, ordered the general Man Chong to lead troops to Xiakou (夏口; in present-day Wuhan). [41] [42] In 279, Wang Jun and his army conquered strategic locations in Wu territory such as Xiling (in present-day Yichang, Hubei), Xiakou (夏口; present-day Hankou) and Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei).

During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, the Wuhan area was part of the successive Southern dynasty states Liu Song (420–479), Southern Qi (479–502), Liang,[ citation needed ] and Western Liang.[ citation needed ]

In fall 550, Hou Jing sent Ren Yue to attack both Xiao Daxin and Xiao Fan's son Xiao Si (蕭嗣). Ren killed Xiao Si in battle, and Xiao Daxin, unable to resist, surrendered, allowing Hou to take his domain under control. Meanwhile, Xiao Guan, who had by now settled at Jiangxia (江夏, in modern Wuhan), was planning to attack Hou, but this drew Xiao Yi's ire—believing that Xiao Guan was intending to contend for the throne—and he sent Wang to attack Xiao Guan. In summer 567, Chen Xu commissioned Wu Mingche as the governor of Xiang Province and had him command a major part of the troops against Hua, along with Chunyu Liang (淳于量). The opposing sides met at Zhuankou (沌口, in modern Wuhan).

The city has long been renowned as a center for the arts (especially poetry) and for intellectual studies. Cui Hao, a celebrated poet of the Tang dynasty, visited the Yellow Crane Tower in the early 8th century; his poem made it the most celebrated building in southern China. [43]

In spring 877, Wang Xianzhi captured E Prefecture (鄂州, in modern Wuhan). He then returned north, joining forces with Huang again, and they surrounded Song Wei at Song Prefecture (宋州, in modern Shangqiu, Henan). In winter 877, Huang Chao pillaged Qi and Huang (黃州, in modern Wuhan) Prefectures.

Before Kublai Khan arrived in 1259, word reached him that Möngke had died. Kublai decided to keep the death of his brother secret and continued the attack on the Wuhan area, near the Yangtze. The present-day Wuying Pagoda was constructed at the end of the Song dynasty between attacks by the Mongolian forces. Under the Mongol rulers (Yuan dynasty) (after 1301), the Wuchang prefecture, headquartered in the town, became the capital of Hubei province. Hankou, from the Ming to late Qing, was under the administration of the local government in Hanyang, although it was already one of the four major national markets ( zh:四大名镇 ) of the Ming dynasty.

Hanyang's Guiyuan Temple was completed in the 15th year of Shunzhi (1658). [44]

By the dawn of the 18th century, Hankou had become one of China's top four trading centers. In the late 19th century, railroads were extended on a north–south axis through the city, making Wuhan an important transshipment point between rail and river traffic. Also during this period foreign powers extracted mercantile concessions, with the riverfront of Hankou being divided up into foreign-controlled merchant districts. These districts contained trading firm offices, warehouses, and docking facilities. The French had a concession in Hankou. [45] During the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the Wuhan area was controlled for many years by rebel forces and the Yellow Crane Tower, Xingfu Temple, Zhuodaoquan Temple and other buildings were repurposed or damaged. During the Second Opium War (known in the West as the Arrow War, 1856–1860), the government of the Qing dynasty was defeated by the western powers and signed the Treaties of Tianjin and the Convention of Peking, which stipulated eleven cities or regions (including Hankou) as trading ports. In December 1858, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, High Commissioner to China, led four warships up the Yangtze River in Wuhan to collect the information needed for opening the trading port in Wuhan.

In the spring of 1861, Counselor Harry Smith Parkes and Admiral Herbert were sent to Wuhan to open a trading port. On the basis of the Convention of Peking, Parkes concluded the Hankou Lend-Lease Treaty with Guan Wen, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei. It brought an area of 30.53 square kilometers (11.79 sq mi) along the Yangtze River (from latter-day Jianghan Road to Hezuo Road) to become a British Concession and permitted Britain to set up its consulate in the concession.

In 1862, Russian tea merchants arrived in the treaty port of Hankou. Russians in Hankou established four factories using assembly lines and machinery to produce brick tea, and became the city's richest industrialists in what would become the Russian concession. [46] [47] Japanese immigrants, mainly traders, also started arriving in 1874. [46]

Wuhan in 1864 Wuhan 1864.jpg
Wuhan in 1864
Foreign concessions along the Hankou Bund c. 1900. Hankow Bund c. 1900.jpg
Foreign concessions along the Hankou Bund c. 1900.

In 1889, Zhang Zhidong was transferred from Viceroy of Liangguang (Guangdong and Guangxi provinces) to Viceroy of Huguang (Hunan and Hubei provinces). He governed the province for 18 years, until 1907. During this period, he elucidated the theory of "Chinese learning as the basis, Western learning for application," known as the ti-yong ideal. He set up many heavy industries, founded Hanyang Steel Plant, Daye Iron Mine, Pingxiang Coal Mine and Hubei Arsenal and set up local textile industries, boosting the flourishing modern industry in Wuhan. Meanwhile, he initiated education reform, opened dozens of modern educational organizations successively, such as Lianghu (Hunan and Hubei) Academy of Classical Learning, Civil General Institute, Military General Institute, Foreign Languages Institute and Lianghu (Hunan and Hubei) General Normal School, and selected a great many students for study overseas, which well promoted the development of China's modern education. Furthermore, he trained a modern military and organized a modern army including a zhen and a xie (both zhen and xie are military units in the Qing dynasty) in Hubei.

Originally known as the Hubei Arsenal, the Hanyang Arsenal was founded in 1891, who diverted funds from the Nanyang Fleet in Guangdong to build the arsenal. It cost about 250,000 pounds sterling and was built in 4 years. [48] On April 23, 1894, construction was completed and the arsenal, occupying some 40 acres (160,000 m2), could start production of small-caliber cannons. It built magazine-fed rifles, Gruson quick fire guns, and cartridges. [49]

In 1896, the Russian Empire also acquired a concession in Hankou. [50]

Wuchang Uprising

Wuchang Uprising Memorial, the original site of revolutionary government in 1911 Xin Hai Ge Ming Wu Chang Feng Qi Ji Nian Guan .jpg
Wuchang Uprising Memorial, the original site of revolutionary government in 1911
Present-day Wuhan area in 1915 Hankow 1915.jpg
Present-day Wuhan area in 1915

By 1900, according to Collier's magazine, Hankou, the Yangtze River boom town, was "the St. Louis and Chicago of China." [4] On October 10, 1911, Sun Yat-sen's followers launched the Wuchang Uprising, [51] which led to the collapse of the Qing state and 2,000 years of dynastic rule, [52] as well as the establishment of the Republic of China. [53]

The Wuchang Uprising of October 1911, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, originated in Wuhan. [51] Before the uprising, anti-Qing secret societies were active in Wuhan. In September 1911, the outbreak of the protests in Sichuan forced the Qing authorities to send part of the New Army garrisoned in Wuhan to suppress the rebellion. [54] On September 14 the Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會), two local revolutionary organizations in Hubei, [54] set up joint headquarters in Wuchang and planned for an uprising. On the morning of October 9, a bomb at the office of the political arrangement exploded prematurely and alerted local authorities. [55] The proclamation for the uprising, beadroll and the revolutionaries’ official seal fell into the hands of Rui Cheng, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei, who demolished the uprising headquarters the same day and set out to arrest the revolutionaries listed in the beadroll. [55] This forced the revolutionaries to launch the uprising earlier than planned. [51]

On the night of October 10, the revolutionaries fired shots to signal the uprising at the engineering barracks of Hubei New Army. [51] They then led the New Army of all barracks to join the revolution. [56] Under the guidance of Wu Zhaolin, Cai Jimin and others, this revolutionary army seized the official residence of the governor and government offices. [54] Rui Cheng fled in panic into the Chuyu ship. Zhang Biao, the commander of the Qing army, also fled the city. On the morning of the 11th, the revolutionary army took the whole city of Wuchang, but leaders such as Jiang Yiwu and Sun Wu disappeared. [51] Thus the leaderless revolutionary army recommended Li Yuanhong, the assistant governor of the Qing army, as the commander-in-chief. [57] Li founded the Hubei Military Government, proclaimed the abolition of the Qing rule in Hubei, the founding of the Republic of China and published an open telegram calling for other provinces to join the revolution. [51] [54]

As the revolution spread to other parts of the country, the Qing government concentrated loyalist military forces to suppress the uprising in Wuhan. From October 17 to December 1, the revolutionary army and local volunteers defended the city in the Battle of Yangxia against better armed and more numerous Qing forces commanded by Yuan Shikai. Huang Xing would arrive in Wuhan in early November to take command of the revolutionary army. [54] After fierce fighting and heavy casualties, Qing forces seized Hankou and Hanyang. But Yuan agreed to halt the advance on Wuchang and participated in peace talks, which would eventually lead to the return of Sun Yat-sen from exile, founding of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912. [53] [58] Through the Wuchang Uprising, Wuhan is known as the birthplace of the Xinhai Revolution, named after the Xinhai year on the Chinese calendar. [59] The city has several museums and memorials to the revolution and the thousands of martyrs who died defending the revolution.

Republic of China

A map of Wuhan painted by the Japanese in 1930, with Hankou being the most prosperous sector Hankou 1930.jpg
A map of Wuhan painted by the Japanese in 1930, with Hankou being the most prosperous sector

With the northern extension of the Northern Expedition, the center of the Great Revolution shifted from the Pearl River basin to the Yangtze River basin. On November 26, the Kuomintang Central Political Committee decided to move the capital from Guangzhou to Wuhan. In mid-December, most of the KMT central executive commissioners and national government commissioners arrived in Wuhan, set up the temporary joint conference of central executive commissioners and National Government commissioners, performed the top functions of central party headquarters and National Government, declared they would work in Wuhan on January 1, 1927, and decided to combine the towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang into Wuhan City, called "Capital District". The new national government, later known as "Wuhan nationalist government", was based in the Nanyang Building in Hankou, while the central party headquarters and other organizations chose their locations in Hankou or Wuchang. [18]

In March 1927, Mao Zedong appeared at the Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in Wuhan, which sought to strip General Chiang of his power by appointing Wang Jingwei leader. The first phase of the Northern Expedition was interrupted by the political split in the Kuomintang following the formation of the Nanjing faction in April 1927 against the existing faction in Wuhan. [60] Members of the Chinese Communist Party, who had survived the April 12 massacre, met at Wuhan and reelected Chen Duxiu (Ch'en Tu-hsiu) as the Party's Secretary General. [61] The split was partially motivated by the purge of the Communists within the party, which marked the end of the First United Front, and Chiang Kai-shek briefly stepped down as the commander of the National Revolutionary Army. [62]

In June 1927, Stalin sent a telegram to the Communists in Wuhan, calling for the mobilization of an army of workers and peasants. [63] This alarmed Wang Jingwei, who decided to break with the Communists and come to terms with Chiang Kai-shek. The Wuhan coup was a political shift made on July 15, 1927, by Wang Jingwei towards Chiang Kai-shek, and his Shanghai-based rival in the Kuomintang. The Wuhan Nationalist Government was established in Wuhan on February 21, 1927, and ended by August 19, 1927. [64] After the end of the Northern Expedition, Hankou was elevated to a centrally-controlled municipality.

In the 1931 China floods, one of the deadliest flood disasters in world history, Wuhan was a refuge for flood victims from outlying areas, who had been arriving since the late spring. But when the city itself was inundated in the early summer, and after a catastrophic dike failure just before 6:00 AM on July 27, [65] :270 an estimated 782,189 urban citizens and rural refugees were left homeless. The flood covered an area of 32 square miles and the city was flooded under many feet of water for close to three months. [65] :269–270 Large numbers gathered on flood islands throughout the city, with 30,000 sheltering on a railway embankment in central Hankou. With little food and a complete breakdown in sanitation, thousands soon began to succumb to diseases. [66] Jin Shilong, Senior Engineer at the Hubei Flood Prevention Agency, described the flooding:

There was no warning, only a sudden great wall of water. Most of Wuhan's buildings in those days were only one story high, and for many people there was no escape – they died by the tens of thousands. ... I was just coming off duty at the company's main office, a fairly new three-story building near the center of town ... When I heard the terrible noise and saw the wall of water coming, I raced to the top story of the building. ... I was in one of the tallest and strongest buildings left standing. At that time no one knew whether the water would subside or rise even higher. [65] :270

The high-water mark was reached on August 19 at Hankou, with the water level exceeding 16 m (53 ft) above normal. [67] [68] In 1936, when natural disaster struck Central China with widespread flooding affecting Hebei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Wuhan and Chongqing caused by the Yangtze and Huai Rivers bursting their banks, Ong Seok Kim, as Chairman of the Sitiawan Fundraising and Disaster Relief Committee, raised money and materials in support of the victims. [69] [70] [71] [72]

The gunboat Zhongshan Zhongshan Warship 1.jpg
The gunboat Zhongshan

During the Second Sino-Japanese War and following the fall of Nanking in December 1937, Wuhan had become the provisional capital of China's Kuomintang government, and became another focal point of pitched air battles beginning in early 1938 between modern monoplane bomber and fighter aircraft of the Imperial Japanese forces and the Chinese Air Force, which included support from the Soviet Volunteer Group in both planes and personnel, as U.S. support in war materials waned. As the battle raged on through 1938, Wuhan and the surrounding region had become the site of the Battle of Wuhan. After being taken by the Japanese in late 1938, Wuhan became a major Japanese logistics center for operations in southern China.

Chiang Kai-Shek inspecting Chinese soldiers in Wuhan as Japanese forces approach the city Chiang Kai-Shek in Wuhan University.jpg
Chiang Kai-Shek inspecting Chinese soldiers in Wuhan as Japanese forces approach the city

In early October 1938, Japanese troops moved east and north in the outskirts of Wuhan. As a result, numerous companies and enterprises and large numbers of people had to withdraw from Wuhan to the west of Hubei and Sichuan. The KMT navy undertook the responsibility of defending the Yangtze River on patrol and covering the withdrawal. On October 24, while overseeing the waters of the Yangtze River near the town of Jinkou (Jiangxia District in Wuhan) in Wuchang, the KMT gunboat Zhongshan came up against six Japanese aircraft. Though two were eventually shot down, the Zhongshan sank with 25 casualties. Raised from the bottom of the Yangtze River in 1997, and restored at a local shipyard, the Zhongshan has been moved to a purpose-built museum in Wuhan's suburban Jiangxia District, which opened on September 26, 2011.[ citation needed ]

As a key center on the Yangtze, Wuhan was an important base for Japanese operations in China. [73] On December 18, 1944, in a planned strategic move, and as revenge for the torture and execution of three captured American pilots by Japanese soldiers in the city, Wuhan was bombed by 77 American bombers with the approval of Chiang Kai-Shek. This set off a firestorm that destroyed much of the military resources of the city. [74] For the next three days, Wuhan was bombed by the Americans, destroying all of the docks and warehouses of Wuhan, as well as the Japanese air bases in the city. The air raids also killed thousands of Chinese civilians. [74] "According to casualty statistics compiled by Hankou city in 1946, more than 20,000 were killed or injured in the December bombings of 1944." [75]

Wuhan returned to Chinese control in September 1945. Administratively, Wuchang and Hanyang were initially combined into a new City of Wuchang, but in October 1946 were separated into the City of Wuchang (including Wuchang only) and the County of Hanyang. Hankou became a centrally controlled municipality in August 1947. Militarily, the Wuhan Forward Headquarters was established in Wuhan, headed by Bai Chongxi. [76]

People's Liberation Army troops at Zhongshan Avenue, Hankou on May 16, 1949 PLA troops enter to Hankou.jpg
People's Liberation Army troops at Zhongshan Avenue, Hankou on May 16, 1949

During the later stages of the Chinese Civil War, Bai sought to broker peace, proposing that the Communist Party could rule northern China while the Nationalist government retained southern China. This was rejected, and on May 15, 1949, Bai and the Wuhan garrison retreated from the city. People's Liberation Army troops entered Wuhan on the afternoon of Monday, May 16, 1949. [77] [78] [79]

People's Republic

In his poem "Swimming" (1956), engraved on the 1954 Flood Memorial in Wuhan, Mao Zedong envisions "walls of stone" to be erected upstream. Wuhan-Flood-Memorial-0220.jpg
In his poem "Swimming" (1956), engraved on the 1954 Flood Memorial in Wuhan, Mao Zedong envisions "walls of stone" to be erected upstream.

The Changjiang Water Resources Commission was reestablished in February 1950 with its headquarters in Wuhan. From June to September 1954, the Yangtze River Floods were a series of catastrophic floodings that occurred mostly in Hubei Province. Due to an unusually high volume of precipitation as well as an extraordinarily long rainy season in the middle stretch of the Yangtze River late in the spring of 1954, the river started to rise above its usual level in around late June. In 1969, a large stone monument was erected in the riverside park in Hankou honoring the heroic deeds in fighting the 1954 Yangtze River floods.

Before construction of the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, Hunslet Engine Company built two extra heavy 0-8-0 locomotives for loading the train ferries for crossing the Yangtze River in Wuhan.

The project of building the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, also known as the First Yangtze River Bridge, was regarded as one of the key projects during the first five-year plan. On October 25, 1955, construction began on the bridge proper. The same day in 1957, the whole project was completed and an opening-to-traffic ceremony was held on October 15. The First Yangtze River Bridge united the Beijing–Hankou railway with the Guangdong–Hankou railway into the Beijing–Guangzhou railway, making Wuhan a 'thoroughfare to nine provinces' ( 九省通衢 ) in name and in fact.

After Chengdu Conference, Mao went to Chongqing and Wuhan in April to inspect the countryside and factories. In Wuhan, he called all the leaders of provinces and municipalities who had not attended Chengdu Conference to report their work. Tian Jiaying, the secretary of Mao, said that Wuhan Conference was a supplement to Chengdu Conference. [81]

In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident ("July 20th Incident"), an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution. [82]

In 1981, the Wuhan City Government commenced reconstruction of the Yellow Crane Tower at a new location, about 1 km (0.62 mi) from the original site, and it was completed in 1985. In 1957, the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was built with one trestle of the bridge on the site of the tower, which had been last destroyed in 1884. [83]

During the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, students in Wuhan blocked the Yangtze River Railway bridge and another 4,000 gathered at the railway station. [84] :400 About one thousand students staged a railroad 'sit-in'. Rail traffic on the Beijing-Guangzhou and Wuhan-Dalian lines was interrupted. The students also urged employees of major state-owned enterprises to go on strike. [84] :405 The situation was so tense that residents reportedly began a bank run and resorted to panic-buying. [84] :408

In the wake of the United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade on May 7, 1999, protests broke out throughout China, including in Wuhan. [85]

On June 22, 2000, a Wuhan Airlines flight from Enshi to Wuhan was forced to circle for 30 minutes due to thunderstorms. The aircraft eventually crashed on the banks of Han River in Hanyang District, [86] all on-board perished (there were varying accounts of number of crews and passengers). In addition, the crash also killed 7 people on the ground. [87] [88] [89]

Chinese protesters organized boycotts of the French-owned retail chain Carrefour in major Chinese cities including Kunming, Hefei and Wuhan, accusing the French nation of pro-secessionist conspiracy and anti-Chinese racism. [90] The BBC reported that hundreds of people demonstrated in Beijing, Wuhan, Hefei, Kunming and Qingdao. [91] [92] On May 19, 2011, Fang Binxing, the Principal of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (also known as "Father of China's Great Fire Wall" [93] ) was hit on the chest by a shoe thrown at him by a Huazhong University of Science and Technology student who calls herself "hanjunyi" (寒君依, or 小湖北) while Fang was giving a lecture at Wuhan University. [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] [99]

The city has been subject to devastating floods, which are now supposed to be controlled by the ambitious Three Gorges Dam, a project which was completed in 2008. [100] [101] The 2008 Chinese winter storms damaged water supply equipment in Wuhan: up to 100,000 people were out of running water when several water pipes burst, cutting the supply to local households. [102] The 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave hit Wuhan on July 3. [103] In the 2010 China floods, the Han River at Wuhan experienced its worst flooding in twenty years, as officials continued sandbagging efforts along the Han and Yangtze Rivers in the city and checked reservoirs. [104] In the 2011 China floods, Wuhan was flooded, with parts of the city losing power. [105] In the 2016 China floods, Wuhan saw 570 mm (22 in) of rainfall during the first week of July, surpassing the record that fell on the city in 1991. A red alert for heavy rainfall was issued on July 2, the same day that eight people died after a 15-meter (49 ft) section of a 2 m (6.6 ft) tall wall collapsed on top of them. [106] The city's subway system, the Wuhan Metro was partially submerged as was the main railway station. [107] At least 14 city residents were killed, one was missing, and more than 80,000 were relocated. [108]

In early July 2019, there were protests against plans for a new incinerator in Xinzhou District.

The 2019 Military World Games were hosted in Wuhan in October. [109] [110]

In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, was first discovered in Wuhan, [30] [31] and the city was the location of the first lockdown of the pandemic in January 2020. [32] Wuhan and other Hubei cities were placed under lockdown for nearly three months to contain the disease. [32] [111] On April 8, 2020, the Wuhan lockdown officially came to an end after no new domestic cases were reported in Hubei province. [112] The virus is believed to have been a mutation of a virus that existed in bats which came from a wet market in Wuhan, although no bats are sold there. [113] There were, however, some 38 other species of animals offered, including marmots, raccoons, badgers, hedgehogs, peacocks, and various reptiles, including some endangered species.[ relevant? ]



Map including the Wuhan area (AMS, 1953) Txu-oclc-10552568-nh50-5.jpg
Map including the Wuhan area (AMS, 1953)

Wuhan is in east-central Hubei, at latitude 29° 58'–31° 22' N and longitude 113° 41'–115° 05' E. Wuhan sits at the confluence of the Han River flowing into the Yangtze River at the East of the Jianghan Plain along the Yangtze's middle reaches.

The metropolitan area comprises three parts—Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang—commonly called the "Three Towns of Wuhan" (hence the name "Wuhan", combining "Wu" from the first city and "Han" from the other two). The consolidation of these cities occurred in 1927 and Wuhan was thereby established. The three former cities face each other across the rivers and are linked by bridges, including one of the first modern bridges in China, known as the "First Bridge".

  • Wuchang lies south east of the Yangtze River that separates it from both Hankou and Hanyang.
  • Hankou sits north of the Yangtze River separating it from Wuchang. Hankou is north of the Han River separating it from Hanyang.
  • Hanyang lies west of the Yangtze separating it from Wuchang. Hanyang is south of the Han river separating it from Hankou.
East Lake East Lake Wuhan.JPG
East Lake

It is simple in terrain—low and flat in the middle and hilly in the south, with the Yangtze and Han rivers winding through the city. The She River enters the Yangtze in Huangpi District. Wuhan occupies a land area of 8,494.41 square kilometers (3,279.71 sq mi), most of which is alluvial plain and decorated with hills and a great number of lakes and ponds. Water makes up one quarter of Wuhan's urban territory, which is the highest percentage among major cities in China. [114] Wuhan has nearly 200 lakes, including the East Lake of 33 km2, and Tangxun Lake, which are the largest lakes entirely within a city in China. [114]

Other well-known lakes include South Lake and Sand Lake. Liangzi Lake, the largest lake by surface area in Hubei province, is located in the southeast of Jiangxia District. At 709 m (2,326 ft) above sea level, the highest point in Wuhan is the main peak of Yunwu Mountain (云雾山) in northwestern Huangpi District. There are also several mountains within the city limits of Wuhan including Mount Luojia (珞珈山) in Wuchang District as well as Mount Hong (洪山) and Mount Yujia (喻家山/瑜珈山) in Hongshan District. [115]


Wuhan's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) with abundant rainfall in summer and four distinctive seasons. Wuhan is known for its humid summers, when dewpoints can often reach 26 °C (79 °F) or more. [116] Historically, along with Chongqing and Nanjing, Wuhan is referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities" along the Yangtze River for their hot summers. [117] However, the climate data of recent years suggests that Wuhan is no longer among the top tier of "The hottest cities in summer" list, the New Four Furnacelike Cities are Chongqing, Fuzhou, Hangzhou, and Nanchang. [118] [119] Spring and autumn are generally mild, while winter is cool with quite low rainfall and occasional snow. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 4.1 °C (39.4 °F) in January to 29.3 °C (84.7 °F) in July. [120] Annual precipitation totals just under 1,320 mm (52 in), [120] the majority of which falls from April to July; the annual mean temperature is 17.4 °C (63.3 °F), [120] the frost-free period lasts 211 to 272 days. [121] With monthly possible sunshine percentage ranging from 30 percent in January to 53 percent in August, the city proper receives 1,783 hours of bright sunshine annually. [122] Extreme low and high temperatures recorded are −18.1 °C (−1 °F) on January 31, 1977, and 39.7 °C (103 °F) on July 27, 2017 (unofficial record of 41.3 °C (106 °F) in 1934).[ when? ] [123] [124]

Wuhan (Chinese characters).svg
"Wuhan" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Climate data for Wuhan (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1951–present)
Record high °C (°F)25.4
Average high °C (°F)8.3
Daily mean °C (°F)4.1
Average low °C (°F)1.0
Record low °C (°F)−18.1
Average precipitation mm (inches)52.5
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)9.79.912.611.612.512.
Average snowy days4.32.40.900000000.41.49.4
Average relative humidity (%)76767574747876777576777476
Mean monthly sunshine hours 95.497.8126.4152.5165.9155.8210.9214.8166.0149.1132.1116.71,783.4
Percent possible sunshine 30313439393749534543374040
Source: China Meteorological Administration [120] [125] [122]

Government and politics

The main gate of Wuhan Municipal Party Committee The main gate of Wuhan Municipal Party Committee.jpg
The main gate of Wuhan Municipal Party Committee

Wuhan is a sub-provincial city. Municipal government is regulated by the local Chinese Communist Party (CCP), led by the Wuhan CCP Secretary (Chinese :武汉市委书记), Wang Zhonglin (王忠林). The local CCP issues administrative orders, collects taxes, manages the economy, and directs a standing committee of the Municipal People's Congress in making policy decisions and overseeing the local government.

Government officials include the Mayor of Wuhan (市长), Cheng Yongwen ( 程用文 ), and vice-mayors. Numerous bureaus focus on law, public security, and other affairs. Zhou Xianwang (周先旺) was mayor from 2018 to 2021.

Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Wuhan currently comprises 13 districts. [126] As of the Sixth Census of China in 2010, the 13 districts comprised 160 township-level divisions including 156 subdistricts, 3 towns, 1 townships. [6] [7]

MapDistrictChinese (S)PinyinPopulation
(2010 census) [127] [6] [7]
Area (km2) [8] Density
Central Districts6,434,373888.427,242
Jiang'an 江岸 Jiāng'àn Qū895,63564.2413,942
Jianghan 江汉 Jiānghàn Qū683,49233.4320,445
Qiaokou 硚口 Qiáokǒu Qū828,64446.3917,863
Hanyang 汉阳 Hànyáng Qū792,183 [128] 108.347,312
Wuchang 武昌 Wǔchāng Qū1,199,12787.4213,717
Qingshan 青山 Qīngshān Qū485,37568.407,096
Hongshan 洪山 Hóngshān Qū1,549,917 [129] 480.203,228
Suburban and Rural Districts3,346,2717,605.99440
Dongxihu 东西湖 Dōngxīhú Qū451,880439.191,029
Hannan 汉南 Hànnán Qū114,970287.70400
Caidian 蔡甸 Càidiàn Qū410,8881,108.10371
Jiangxia 江夏 Jiāngxià Qū644,8352,010.00321
Huangpi 黄陂 Huángpí Qū874,9382,261.00387
Xinzhou 新洲 Xīnzhōu Qū848,7601,500.00566
Water Region (水域)4,748--

Diplomatic missions

There are four countries that have consulates in Wuhan:

ConsulateYearConsular District
Flag of France.svg France Consulate General Wuhan [130] October 10, 1998Hubei/Hunan/Jiangxi
Flag of the United States.svg United States Consulate General Wuhan [131] November 20, 2008Hubei/Hunan/Henan/Jiangxi
Flag of South Korea.svg Republic of Korea Consulate General Wuhan [132] October 25, 2010Hubei/Hunan/Henan/Jiangxi
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Consulate General Wuhan [133] January 8, 2015Hubei/Henan

The current U.S. Consul General, the Honorable Mr. Jamie Fouss, was posted to Wuhan in August 2017. The office of the U.S. Consulate General, Central China (located in Wuhan) celebrated its official opening on November 20, 2008, and is the first new American consulate in China in over 20 years. [134] [135]

In 2015, Japan [136] and Russia [137] announced their intentions to establish consular offices in Wuhan.


Wuhan Tiandi shopping plaza in Jiang'an District Wuhan Tiandi 20230524.jpg
Wuhan Tiandi shopping plaza in Jiang'an District

Up until the 21st century, Wuhan was largely an agricultural region. Since 2004 it has been a focal point of the Rise of Central China Plan, which aims to build less-developed inland economies into hubs of advanced manufacturing.

Since 1890, [114] the steel industry has been the backbone of Wuhan's industry. [138] In 2010, automobile industry exceeded GDP for Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation (WISCO) steel for the first time. There are 5 car manufacturers, including Dongfeng Honda, Citroën, SAIC-GM, DFM Passenger Vehicle and Dongfeng Renault. Dongfeng-Citroen Automobile Co., Ltd is headquartered in the city. [138]

As of 2016, Wuhan has attracted foreign investment from over 80 countries, with 5,973 foreign-invested enterprises established in the city with a total capital injection of $22.45 billion USD. [139] Among these, about 50 French companies including Renault and PSA Group have operations in the city, representing over one third of French investment in China, and the highest level of French investment in any Chinese city. [140]

Wuhan is an important center for economy, trade, finance, transportation, information technology, and education in China. Its major industries include optic-electronic, automobile manufacturing, iron and steel manufacturing, new pharmaceutical sector, biology engineering, new materials industry and environmental protection. Environmental sustainability is highlighted in Wuhan's list of emerging industries, which include energy efficiency technology and renewable energy. [139]

As of 2021, Wuhan is ranked among the world's top 100 financial centers, according to the Global Financial Centres Index. [29]

Wuhan CBD Buildings.jpg
Wuhan CBD
San Yang Lu &Wu Yi Chang Jiang Gong Tie Sui Dao (4).jpg
Wuhan Yangtze River Tunnel of Road and Rail

Industrial zones

Major industrial zones in Wuhan include in chronological order:

Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993. [141] Its current zone size is about 10–25 square km and it plans to expand to 25–50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone include Auto-mobile Production/Assembly, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Food/Beverage Processing, Heavy Industry, and Telecommunications Equipment.

Wuhan Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan Economic and Technology Development Zone, planned to cover 2.7 square kilometers (1.0 square mile) of land. The first 0.7-square-kilometer (0.3-square-mile) area has already been created. [142]

Wuhan Donghu New Technology Development Zone is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production center for optoelectronic products with key players like Yangtze Optical Fiber and Cable, [143] (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), and Fiberhome Telecommunications. [144] Wuhan Donghu New Technology Development Zone also represents the development center for China's laser industry with key players such as HG Tech [145] and Chutian Laser being based in the zone. [146]

Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is located in Wuhan Donghu New Technology Development Zone. Wuhan Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd. [147] The planned area is 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 square miles) with total floor area of 6,000,000 square meters (65,000,000 square feet). The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km (29.02 mi) away from the Wuhan Tianhe Airport.

Biolake is an industrial base established in 2008 in the Optics Valley of China. Located in East Lake New Technology Development Zone of Wuhan, Biolake covers 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi), and has six parks including Bio-innovation Park, Bio-pharma Park, Bio-agriculture Park, Bio-manufacturing Park, Medical Device Park and Medical Health Park, to accommodate both research activities and living. [148] [149] [150] [151] [152]


Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions. 2022 yearend est. [153] 1953, [154] [155] 1982, [156] 1990, [157] 2000 [127] 2007 [158] 2015 [159]

Wuhan is the most populous city in Central China and among the most populous in China. In the Seventh Census of China in 2020, Wuhan was home to 12,326,500 inhabitants, a 25.97% increase by 2.5411 million compared to the last census in 2010. 2010-2020 is the fastest growing 10 years in history since the census was established, averaging 2.34% annually, and it was the first time that Wuhan's population reached 10 million. [160]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 19 million. [161] [162] As of November 2019, urban development status considering both spatial and socioeconomic processes has been examined using Night Time Lighting data and land cover data as proxies; it showed Wuhan's high concentration of socioeconomic activities compared to its urban spatial development. [163]


Religion in Wuhan (2017) [164]

   Chinese religion or not religious (including Taoists (0.9%)) (79.2%)
   Buddhism (14.7%)
   Protestantism (2.9%)
   Islam (1.6%)
   Catholicism (0.3%)
  Other (1.6%)

According to a survey published in 2017, 79.2% of the population of Wuhan are either irreligious or practice worship of gods and ancestors; among these 0.9% are Taoists. Among other religious doctrines, 14.7% of the population adheres to Buddhism, 2.9% to Protestantism, 0.3% to Catholicism and 1.6% to Islam, and 1.6% of the population adheres to unspecified other religions. [164]



China Railway Wuhan Group manages the Wuhan Railway Hub. Wuhan Railway Hub is considered one of the four key railway hubs of China. [165] The city of Wuhan is served by three major railway stations: the Hankou railway station in Hankou, the Wuchang railway station in Wuchang, and the Wuhan railway station, located in a newly developed area east of the East Lake (Hongshan District). As the stations are many miles apart, it is important for passengers to be aware of the particular station(s) used by a particular train.

The (original) Hankou Station was the terminus for the Jinghan railway from Beijing, while the Wuchang Station was the terminus for the Yuehan railway to Guangzhou. Since the construction of the First Yangtze Bridge and the linking of the two lines into the Jingguang railway, both Hankou and Wuchang stations have been served by trains going to all directions, which contrasts with the situation in such cities as New York or Moscow, where different stations serve different directions.

With the opening of the Hefei-Wuhan high-speed railway on April 1, 2009, [166] Wuhan became served by high-speed trains with Hefei, Nanjing, and Shanghai; several trains a day now connect the city with Shanghai, getting there in under six hours. As of early 2010, most of these express trains leave from the Hankou railway station.

In 2006, construction began on the new Wuhan railway station with 11 platforms, located on the northeastern outskirts of the city. In December 2009, the station was opened, as China unveiled its second high-speed train with scheduled runs from Guangzhou to Wuhan. Billed as the fastest train in the world, it can reach a speed of 394 km/h (244.82 mph). The travel time between the two cities has been reduced from ten and a half hours to just three. The rail service has been extended north to Beijing. [167]

As of 2011, the new Wuhan railway station is primarily used by the Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed trains, while most regular trains to other destinations continue to use the Hankou and Wuchang stations.

Construction work is carried out on several lines of the new Wuhan Metropolitan Area intercity railway, which will eventually connect Wuhan's three main rail terminals with several stations throughout the city's outer areas and farther suburbs, as well as with the nearby cities of Xianning, Huangshi, Huanggang, and Xiaogan. The first line of the system, the one to Xianning, opened for passenger operations at the end of 2013. The line to Xiaogen opened on December 1, 2016, and it was extended with the opening of the Wuhan–Shiyan high-speed railway to Shiyan on November 29, 2019. [168] [169]

The main freight railway station and classification yard of the Wuhan metropolitan area is the extensive Wuhan North railway station, with 112 tracks and over 650 switches. It is located in Hengdian Subdistrict  [ zh ] of Huangpi District, located 20 km (12 mi) north of the Wuhan Station and 23 km (14 mi) from Hankou Station.


Wuhan Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Wuhan. Owned and operated by Wuhan Metro Group Co., Ltd., the network now includes 11 lines, 282 stations, and 435 km (270 mi) of route length. Line 1, the first line in the system, opened on July 28, 2004, making Wuhan the seventh city in mainland China with a rapid transit system, after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Changchun, and Dalian. [170] Line 2 opened on December 28, 2012, and is the first underground metro line crossing the Yangtze River. Commuting across the Yangtze River and Han River has been the bottleneck of Wuhan traffic. However, the appearance of Wuhan Metro greatly relieved this problem. With 1.22 billion annual passengers in 2019, Wuhan Metro is the sixth-busiest rapid transit system in mainland China. [171] Wuhan Metro is a rapidly developing metro system. There are a number of lines or sections under construction. The government of Wuhan City promised the citizens that at least two lines or sections open every year. [172] Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the entire network was out of service from January 23 to March 27, 2020.


A tram in University Science Park Station Wuhan - Guanngu Streetcar - Wudayuan - P1520430.JPG
A tram in University Science Park Station
Optics Valley Sky Rail Optics Valley Sky Rail.jpg
Optics Valley Sky Rail

Trams were brought to the streets of Wuhan on July 28, 2017, with the first line (Auto-city T1 Line) opened that day. [173] The trams under construction or planning in Wuhan are:

Maritime transport

Wuhan is a major hub for maritime transport in central China. The Port of Wuhan provide services for the local population and shipping services.


Located on the banks of the Yangtze River, Wuhan has a long history of ferry services. Modern ferry services were established in 1900 by steam boat. In 1937, a train ferry was established to transport train cars from Hankou to Wuchang. [175] There are numbered stops around Wuhan where people can get on and off the ferry and there is a tourist ferry in the night.

Currently, ferry services are provided by the Wuhan Ferry Company. In 2010, the company bought ten new ships to replace those that had been in service for 29 years. [176]


Terminal 3 of Wuhan Tianhe Airport Tianhe Airport Terminal 3 (03).jpg
Terminal 3 of Wuhan Tianhe Airport

Wuhan Tianhe International Airport is one of the busiest airports in central China. The airport opened in April 1995 to replace the old Hankou Wangjiadun Airport and Nanhu Airport as the major airport of Wuhan. [177] [178] It is located in Wuhan's suburban Huangpi District, 26 kilometers (16 mi) north of Wuhan city proper. The extension of Line 2 of Wuhan Metro to Tianhe Airport opened on December 28, 2016. [179] It has also been selected as China's fourth international hub airport after Beijing Capital, Shanghai Pudong and Guangzhou Baiyun. A second terminal was completed in March 2008, having been started in February 2005 with an investment of CNY 3.372 billion. International flights to neighboring Asian countries have also been enhanced, including direct flights to Tokyo and Nagoya, Japan. Terminal 3 has been available for service since early 2017.

Wuhan Hannan General Airport is an airport dedicated to general aviation, located in Hannan District of Wuhan. It is the largest airport in China that only handles general aviation. [180] On December 1, 2017, construction began on Wuhan Caidian General Airport, another airport dedicated to general aviation, which is located in Caidian District of Wuhan. [181]

Highways and expressways

Numerous major highways and expressways pass through Wuhan, including:

Bicycle-sharing system

As of May 2011, the Wuhan and Hangzhou Public Bicycle bike-share systems in China were the largest in the world, with around 90,000 and 60,000 bicycles respectively. [182] In 2012 the Wuhan and Hangzhou Public Bicycle programs in China are the largest in the world, with around 90,000 and 60,000 bicycles respectively. China has seen a rise in private "dockless" bike shares with fleets that dwarf systems in size outside China. [183] Initially, a number of traditional (third-generation) docked public bike systems operated by local municipal governments opened across China, with the largest ones being in Wuhan and Hangzhou. The first was introduced in Beijing in 2007. However, third-generation bike sharing is not considered successful for the majority cities in China. Bike sharing in Beijing virtually stopped and it also has encountered difficulties in Shanghai and Wuhan. [184]


Replica instruments of ancient originals are played at the Hubei Provincial Museum.
A replica set of bronze concert bells is in the background and a set of stone chimes is to the right.
Hubei Provincial Museum Hu Bei Sheng Bo Wu Guan Niao Kan Tu .jpg
Hubei Provincial Museum
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, made in 433 BC, now on display at the Hubei Provincial Museum in Wuhan Hu Bei Bo Wu Guan Ceng Hou Yi Bian Zhong .jpg
Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, made in 433 BC, now on display at the Hubei Provincial Museum in Wuhan


Tanawin mula sa Loob ng mga Parke ng mga Bato sa Wuhan (Wu Yi Qi Shi Yuan -Wuhan Stones Park).jpg
View from within the Wuhan Stones Park (武汉奇石园) along Lumo Road.


Schools and universities

The old library of Wuhan University Whu old library 1.JPG
The old library of Wuhan University

There are 35 higher educational institutions in Wuhan, making it a leading educational hub for China. Prominent institutions include Huazhong University of Science and Technology and Wuhan University. Three state-level development zones and many enterprise incubators are also significant in Wuhan's education and business development. Wuhan ranks third in China in overall strength of science and technology. [193]

As of the end of 2013, in Wuhan there were 1,024 kindergartens with 224,300 children, 590 primary schools with 424,000 students, 369 general high schools with 314,000 students, 105 secondary vocational and technical schools with 98,600 students, and 80 colleges and universities with 966,400 undergraduates and junior college students and 107,400 postgraduate students. [194] There are several international schools in Wuhan.

Wuhan is also a major city in the world by scientific research outputs and it ranks 10th globally, 6th in the Asia-Pacific and 5th in China (after Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Guangzhou). [26]

Huazhong University of Science and Technology Hust-gc4a6ced49 1920.jpg
Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), located in the Optics Valley of China near East Lake, is a Project 985 and Class A Double First Class University. [195] HUST manages Wuhan National Laboratories for Opto-electronics (WNLO), which is one of the five national laboratories in China. HUST is also one of four Chinese universities eligible to run the national laboratory and the national major science and technology infrastructure. Founded in 1953 as Huazhong Institute of Technology, it combined with three other universities (including former Tongji Medical University founded in 1907) in 2000 to form the new HUST, and has 42 schools and departments covering 12 comprehensive disciplines. [196] [197] HUST has 12 Fellows of Chinese Academy of Sciences and 17 Fellows of Chinese Academy of Engineering. [198] As of 2022, the U.S. News' 2023 U.S. News & World Report ranked HUST 109th in the world, 15th in Asia and 6th in China, [199] while the Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university 96th in the world, 14th in Asia and 8th in China. [200] More than 2,000 international students from 120 countries pursue degrees at HUST. [201]

Wuhan University is another Project 985 and Class A Double First Class University, [195] which was ranked 101th in the world, 15th in Asia and 9th in China by the 2023 Academic Ranking of World Universities [202] and 150th in the world by the U.S. News & World Report , [203] whiile it was ranked the 194th by the 2024 QS World University Rankings [204] and 164th by the 2024 Times Higher Education; [205] established in 1893, the old Wuhan University absorbed three other schools (two of them being its spin-offs since the 1950s) in 2000 to become a university with 36 schools in 6 faculties. Since the 1950s it has received international students from more than 109 countries. [206]

Scientific research

Wuhan contains three national development zones and four scientific and technological development parks, as well as numerous enterprise incubators, over 350 research institutes, 1470 high-tech enterprises, and over 400,000 experts and technicians.

Founded in 1958, the Wuhan Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences is one of the twelve national branches of CAS. It is composed of 9 independent organizations, including the headquarters at Xiaohongshan, Wuchang. It has had a staff of 3,900, among which 8 are CAS fellows, and one is a Chinese Academy of Engineering fellow. As of 2013, the achievements gained by WHB had won 23 National Awards and 778 Provincial Awards. [207] Wuhan Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (now known as FiberHome Technologies Group) is the national center for optical communication research in China, and is where the first optical fiber in the country was produced. [208] The Wuhan Institute of Virology is also operated by the CAS.

Wuhan University of Technology is another major national university with three main campuses located in the Wuchang District. Founded in the year 2000, it was merged from three major universities, Wuhan University of Technology (established in 1948), Wuhan Transportation University (established in 1946) and Wuhan Automotive Polytechnic University (established in 1958). Wuhan University of Technology, together with China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Huazhong Agricultural University, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law and Central China Normal University (or Huazhong Normal University), are the leading Chinese universities accredited by the Ministry of Education under the "State Project 211" for Chinese higher education institutions. Other major research universities have its seat in the city, including Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Hubei University, Hubei University of Technology, and South Central University for Nationalities. [209] [210]


Tortoise Mountain TV Tower Gui Shan Dian Shi Ta .jpg
Tortoise Mountain TV Tower

The headquarters of Hubei Television is located in Wuchang District. Tortoise Mountain TV Tower is China's first self-developed TV tower, opened in 1986. The modern newspapers in Wuhan can be dated back to 1866, when Hankow Times, a newspaper in English, was founded. Before 1949, more than 50 newspapers and magazines were published by foreigners in Wuhan. Chao-wen Hsin-pao, founded by Ai Xiaomei in 1873, was the first Chinese newspaper to appear in Hankou (one of the cities that was merged into Wuhan). During the Northern Expedition era (1926–1928), journalism in Wuhan came to a climax; more than 120 newspapers and periodicals, including national newspapers such as Central Daily News and Republican Daily News , were founded or published during this time. [211] Chutian Metropolis Daily and Wuhan Evening News are two major local commercial tabloid newspapers. Both of them have entered the list of 100 most widely circulated newspapers of the world.[ citation needed ]


The plum blossom is the city's emblem, chosen partly because of the long history of local plum cultivation and use, and partly to recognize the plum's current economic significance in terms of cultivation and research. Local wild plums were used medicinally during the Qin and Han dynasties. Cultivation of the fruit began during the Song dynasty. Some traditional new year customs revolve around the planting of plums.


Wuhan natives speak a variety of Southwestern Mandarin Chinese referred to as Wuhan dialect that differs slightly between the districts of Wuhan, including Wuchang dialect in Wuchang District, Hankou dialect in the Hankou districts, Hanyang dialect in Hanyang District, and Qingshan dialect in Qingshan District.


Hot Dry Noodles Hot Dry Noodles.jpg
Hot Dry Noodles

Hubei cuisine is one of China's ten major styles of cooking. With a history of more than 2,000 years, Hubei cuisine, originating in ancient Chu cuisine, has developed a number of distinctive dishes, such as steamed blunt-snout bream in clear soup, preserved ham with flowering Chinese cabbage, and others. On the third day of the third month of the lunar calendar, many in Wuhan eat dìcài zhǔ jīdàn (地菜煮鸡蛋), an egg dish which is supposed to prevent illness in the coming year. [212]

"No need to be particular about the recipes; all foods have their own uses. Rice wine and tangyuan are excellent midnight snacks, while fat bream and flowering Chinese cabbages are great delicacies." [213] This attitude expressed in Hankou Zhuzhici reflects indirectly the eating habits and a wide variety of distinctive snacks with a long history in Wuhan, such as Qingshuizong (a pyramid-shaped dumpling made of glutinous rice wrapped in bamboo or reed leaves) in the Period of the Warring States, Chunbinbian in Northern and Southern dynasties, mung bean jelly in the Sui dynasty, youguo (a deep-fried twisted dough stick) in the Song and Yuan dynasties, rice wine and mianwo in the Ming and Qing dynasties, as well as three-delicacy stuffed skin of bean milk,[ clarification needed ] tangbao (steamed dumpling filled with minced meat and gravy) and hot braised noodles (reganmian) in modern times.

Guozao ( 過早 ) is a popular way to say 'having breakfast' in Wuhan, and a part of the city's culture. As a hub for land transport in China, Wuhan has gathered and mixed together various habits and customs from neighboring cities and provinces in all directions, which gives rise to a concentration of diverse cuisines from different places. The most famous place to guozao (have breakfast) is Hubu Street (戶部巷), a 150-meter-long street in the neighborhood of Simenkou (司门口). Along its short length one can find nearly all the traditional foods of Wuhan, such as:

Mianwo, a donut-shaped snack from Wuhan Mianwo.JPG
Mianwo, a donut-shaped snack from Wuhan


Han opera, which is the local opera of Wuhan area, was one of China's oldest and most popular operas. During the late Qing dynasty, Han opera, blended with Hui opera, gave birth to Peking opera, the most popular opera in modern China. Thus Han opera has been called the "mother of Peking opera." [214] [215]


Wuhan Sports Center Wuhan Sport Centre 01.jpg
Wuhan Sports Center

Wuhan had a professional football team, Wuhan, that plays in the China League One. Xinhua Road Sport Center, the team's home stadium, with a capacity of 32,137, is located in the heart of the city next to Zhongshan Park. For the 2013 season, Wuhan Zall was promoted to the top-tier league of Chinese football, Chinese Super League, and relocated its home to Wuhan Sports Center Stadium, a modern stadium with 54,357 seats located in the suburbs of the city. However, the team did not play well in the ensuing season and was demoted back to China League One as the 2013 season ended. For financial and transportation reasons, the team moved back to Xinhua Road Sport Center in 2014. In January 2023, the team folded. Wuhan also has the Wuhan Three Towns in the Chinese Super League, who won the title during the 2022 season for the first time upon promotion from China League One.

The Wuhan Gators are a professional arena football team based in Wuhan. They are members of the China Arena Football League (CAFL). [216]

The 13,000-seat Wuhan Sports Center Gymnasium held the 2011 FIBA Asia Championship and was one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup. [217] The 7th Military World Games were hosted in Wuhan from Oct 18 to 27, 2019. [218] [219]

The city has been the venue for the women's tennis tournament, the Wuhan Open, one of the WTA's Premier 5 tournaments, since 2014.



Wuhan has eleven bridges and one tunnel across the Yangtze River. The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, also called the First Bridge, was built over the Yangtze in 1957, carrying a railroad directly across the river between hills known as Snake Hill and Turtle Hill. Before this bridge was built it could take up to an entire day to barge railcars across. Including its approaches, it is 5,511 feet (1,680 m) long, and it accommodates both a double-track railway on a lower deck and a four-lane roadway above. It was built with the assistance of advisers from the Soviet Union.

The Second Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge built of prestressed concrete, has a central span of 400 meters (1,300 feet); it is 4,678 meters (15,348 feet) in length (including 1,877 meters (6,158 feet) of the main bridge) and 26.5 to 33.5 meters (86.9 to 109.9 feet) in width. Its main bridgeheads are 90 meters (300 feet) high each, pulling 392 thick slanting cables together in the shape of double fans so that the central span of the bridge is well poised on the piers and the bridge's stability and vibration resistance are ensured. With six lanes on the deck, the bridge is designed to handle the daily passage of 50,000 motor vehicles. The bridge was completed in 1995.

Second bridge Yangzi Wuhan Second Bridge.jpg
Second bridge

The Third Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, also called Baishazhou Bridge, was completed in September 2000. Located 8.6 kilometers (5.3 miles) southwest of the First Bridge, construction of Baishazhou Bridge started in 1997. With an investment of over 1.4 billion yuan (about US$ 170,000,000), the bridge, which is 3,586 meters (11,765 feet) long and 26.5 meters (86.9 feet) wide, has six lanes and has a capacity of 50,000 vehicles a day. The bridge is expected to serve as a major passage for the future Wuhan Ring Road, greatly easing the city's traffic and aiding local economic development.

The Yangluo Bridge carries Wuhan's Ring Road across the Yangtze in the city's eastern suburbs (connecting the Hongshan District with the Xinzhou District). It was opened on December 26, 2007.

The Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze River Bridge crosses the Yangtze in the northeastern part of the city, downstream of the Second bridge. It is named after Tianxing Island (Tianxingzhou), above which it crosses the river. Built at a cost of 11 billion yuan, the 4,657-meter cable suspension bridge was opened on December 26, 2009, [220] in time for the opening of the Wuhan railway station. It is a combined road and rail bridge, and carries the Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway across the river.


Wuhan Greenland Center, the tallest building in Wuhan since 2023 Wuhan Greenland Center.jpg
Wuhan Greenland Center, the tallest building in Wuhan since 2023

The Yellow Crane Tower, historically one of the tallest buildings in Wuhan, is considered one of the Four Great Towers of China and was destroyed twelve times, both by warfare and by fire. The tower is classified as an AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration. [221] At 475.6 meters (1,560 ft) in height, the Wuhan Greenland Center is the tallest skyscraper in Wuhan and in Central China, as well as the eighth tallest building in China. [222]

The Wuhan Center, the second tallest skyscraper in Wuhan, was the tallest building in the city when it was completed in 2019. It retained the title until Wuhan Greenland Center surpassed it in 2023. [223] Riverview Plaza is a 376 meters (1,234 ft) tall skyscraper located in Wuhan. It was completed in 2021 and is currently the third tallest building in the city. The Phoenix Towers are proposed supertall skyscrapers planned for construction in Wuhan. At 1 kilometer (3,300 ft) high, the towers would be among the tallest structures in the world when completed. [224]

Notable Wuhanese

Li Na, a former professional tennis player and two-time Grand Slam champion, serving at Wimbledon 2008, 1st round against Anastasia Rodionova Li na wim08 1.JPG
Li Na, a former professional tennis player and two-time Grand Slam champion, serving at Wimbledon 2008, 1st round against Anastasia Rodionova
President Li Yuanhong Li Yuanhong.jpg
President Li Yuanhong






Other fields

Sister cities

Wuhan is twinned with: [229]

Symbol of Oita Oita.svg Ōita Flag of Japan.svg JapanSeptember 7, 1979
Coat of arms of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.svg Pittsburgh Flag of the United States.svg United StatesSeptember 8, 1982
Stadtwappen der Stadt Duisburg.svg Duisburg Flag of Germany.svg GermanyOctober 8, 1982
Arms of the City of Manchester.svg Manchester Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United KingdomSeptember 16, 1986 [230]
ROU GL Galati CoA.png Galați Flag of Romania.svg RomaniaAugust 12, 1987
COA of Kyiv Kurovskyi.svg Kyiv Flag of Ukraine.svg UkraineOctober 19, 1990
Khartoum Flag of Sudan.svg SudanSeptember 27, 1995
HUN Gyor Cimer.svg Győr Flag of Hungary.svg HungaryOctober 19, 1995
Coat of Arms of Bordeaux.svg Bordeaux [231] Flag of France.svg FranceJune 18, 1998
Cheongju City logo(without text).png Cheongju Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaOctober 29, 2000
AUT Sankt Poelten COA.svg Sankt Pölten Flag of Austria.svg AustriaDecember 20, 2005
Chch COA.JPG Christchurch [232] Flag of New Zealand.svg New ZealandApril 4, 2006
Markham Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg CanadaSeptember 12, 2006
Kopavogur COA.svg Kópavogur Flag of Iceland.svg IcelandApril 25, 2008
Coat of arms of Ashdod.png Ashdod [233] Flag of Israel.svg IsraelNovember 8, 2011
Blason departement fr Essonne.svg Essonne (not a city but a department) [234] Flag of France.svg FranceDecember 21, 2012
İzmir Flag of Turkey.svg TurkeyJune 6, 2013
Escudo .jpg Tijuana [235] Flag of Mexico.svg MexicoJuly 12, 2013 [236]
Coat of Arms of Saratov.svg Saratov [237] Flag of Russia.svg RussiaAugust 7, 2015
Escudo de Concepcion (Chile).svg Concepción [238] Flag of Chile.svg ChileApril 7, 2016
Coat of arms of Bishkek Kyrgyzstan.svg Bishkek Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg KyrgyzstanNovember 15, 2016
Chalcis Flag of Greece.svg GreeceMay 11, 2017
Coat of Arms of Izhevsk (Udmurtia).svg Izhevsk Flag of Russia.svg RussiaJune 16, 2017
Swansea [239] Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg WalesJanuary 31, 2018
Entebbe Flag of Uganda.svg UgandaApril 13, 2018
Seal of Bangkok Metro Authority.png Bangkok [240] Flag of Thailand.svg ThailandNovember 16, 2018

And Wuhan has friendly exchange relationships with: [241]

Emblem of Kobe, Hyogo.svg Kobe Flag of Japan.svg JapanFebruary 16, 1998
Symbol of Hirosaki Aomori.svg Hirosaki Flag of Japan.svg JapanOctober 17, 2003
St. Louis Flag of the United States.svg United StatesSeptember 27, 2004
Seal of Atlanta.png Atlanta Flag of the United States.svg United StatesSeptember 9, 2006
Daejeon Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaNovember 1, 2006
Gwangju Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaSeptember 6, 2007
Kolkata Flag of India.svg IndiaJuly 24, 2008
Suwon Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaDecember 5, 2008
Taebaek Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaDecember 5, 2008
Seal of Columbus, Ohio.svg Columbus Flag of the United States.svg United StatesOctober 30, 2009
Grosses Wappen Bremen.png Bremen Flag of Germany.svg GermanyNovember 6, 2009
Coat of arms of Port Louis, Mauritius.svg Port Louis Flag of Mauritius.svg MauritiusNovember 10, 2009
Cebu City Flag of the Philippines.svg PhilippinesAugust 19, 2011
Seal of the City of Yogyakarta.svg Yogyakarta Flag of Indonesia.svg IndonesiaNovember 12, 2011
Coat of Arms of Perm.svg Perm Flag of Russia.svg RussiaSeptember 10, 2012
Seal of Chicago, Illinois.svg Chicago Flag of the United States.svg United StatesSeptember 20, 2012
Coat of Arms of Kosice.svg Košice Flag of Slovakia.svg SlovakiaNovember 6, 2012
CoA Citta di Napoli.svg Naples Flag of Italy.svg ItalySeptember 18, 2012
Blason departement fr Moselle.svg Moselle Flag of France.svg FranceJuly 16, 2013
Seal of San Francisco.svg San Francisco Flag of the United States.svg United StatesNovember 21, 2013
Siem Reap Province Flag of Cambodia.svg CambodiaNovember 21, 2013
Biratnagar Flag of Nepal.svg   NepalNovember 21, 2013
Seal of Bangkok Metro Authority.png Bangkok Flag of Thailand.svg ThailandNovember 21, 2013
POL Czestochowa COA.svg Częstochowa Flag of Poland.svg PolandMarch 14, 2014
OAZ.png Oliveira de Azeméis Flag of Portugal.svg PortugalApril 11, 2014
Sydney - COA.svg Sydney Flag of Australia (converted).svg AustraliaMay 30, 2014
DurbanCoatOfArms.jpg Durban Flag of South Africa.svg South AfricaJune 2014
Seal of Burlingame, California.png Burlingame Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Menlo Park California Logo.gif Menlo Park Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Seal of Cupertino, California.png Cupertino Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
East Palo Alto California seal.png East Palo Alto Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Hayward Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Citysealmillbrae.png Millbrae Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Moraga Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Flag of Morgan Hill, California.svg Morgan Hill Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Mountain View Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Oakley California Logo.png Oakley Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Union City Flag of the United States.svg United StatesJune 23, 2014
Betong Flag of Thailand.svg ThailandJune 25, 2014
Halikko vaakuna.svg Salo Flag of Finland.svg FinlandAugust 25, 2014
Gavle vapen.svg Gävle Flag of Sweden.svg SwedenAugust 27, 2014
Patan Flag of Nepal.svg   NepalOctober 20, 2014
Pattaya seal.png Pattaya Flag of Thailand.svg ThailandOctober 24, 2014
BeraneCoatOfArms.png Berane Flag of Montenegro.svg MontenegroOctober 24, 2014
Escudo ciudad de cordoba argentina.svg Córdoba Flag of Argentina.svg ArgentinaOctober 24, 2014
Blason liege.svg Liège Flag of Belgium (civil).svg BelgiumOctober 29, 2014
Blason ville fr Lille (Nord).svg Lille Flag of France.svg FranceNovember 3, 2014
Coat of arms of Holbaek.svg Holbæk Flag of Denmark.svg DenmarkNovember 24, 2014
Seal of Heraklion.svg Heraklion Flag of Greece.svg GreeceDecember 11, 2014
Cape Town Flag of South Africa.svg South AfricaDecember 9, 2014
Brasao de Sao Luis.svg São Luís Flag of Brazil.svg BrazilApril 29, 2015
Varazdin (grb).gif Varaždin Flag of Croatia.svg CroatiaMay 7, 2015
Seal of Kota Kinabalu.svg Kota Kinabalu Flag of Malaysia.svg MalaysiaMay 20, 2015
HUN Erdokertes COA.jpg Erdőkertes, HUN Pest megye COA.svg Pest Megye Flag of Hungary.svg HungaryJuly 4, 2015
Gold Coast Flag of Australia (converted).svg AustraliaSeptember 29, 2015
Blason ville fr Le Mans (Sarthe) (orn ext).svg Le Mans Flag of France.svg FranceNovember 1, 2015
Flag of the Southern Province (Sri Lanka).PNG Southern Province Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri LankaDecember 3, 2015
Galle Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri LankaDecember 5, 2015
Mungyeong Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaDecember 22, 2015
Daegu Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaMarch 25, 2016
Tacoma Flag of the United States.svg United StatesApril 5, 2016
Coat of arms of Lima.svg Lima Flag of Peru.svg PeruApril 8, 2016
Tabriz Flag of Iran.svg IranMay 28, 2016
Marrakesh Flag of Morocco.svg MoroccoJune 3, 2016
Seal of Phnom Penh.svg Phnom Penh Flag of Cambodia.svg CambodiaJuly 11, 2016
Coat-of-arms-of-Dublin.svg Dublin Flag of Ireland.svg IrelandSeptember 5, 2016
Seal of Houston, Texas.svg Houston Flag of the United States.svg United StatesSeptember 10, 2016
Jinja Flag of Uganda.svg UgandaSeptember 20, 2016
Escudo de Pucallpa.svg Pucallpa Flag of Peru.svg PeruSeptember 20, 2016
Maribor Flag of Slovenia.svg SloveniaSeptember 23, 2016
Montego Bay Flag of Jamaica.svg JamaicaSeptember 28, 2016
Victoria Flag of Seychelles.svg SeychellesOctober 17, 2016
Kemi.vaakuna.svg Kemi Flag of Finland.svg FinlandNovember 25, 2016
San Nicolás de los Arroyos Flag of Argentina.svg ArgentinaDecember 16, 2016
Brasao de Armas do Municipio de Foz do Iguacu.png Foz do Iguaçu Flag of Brazil.svg BrazilMarch 9, 2017
Greater Coat of Arms of Dunkerque.svg Dunkirk Flag of France.svg FranceMarch 20, 2017
Jihlava CoA CZ.svg Jihlava Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech RepublicMay 10, 2017
Coat of Arms of Brest, Belarus.svg Brest Flag of Belarus.svg BelarusAugust 29, 2017
Coat of Arms of Zhytomyr.svg Zhytomyr Flag of Ukraine.svg UkraineNovember 14, 2017
Armoiries de Marseille.svg Marseille Flag of France.svg FranceNovember 20, 2017
Blason Herstal.svg Herstal Flag of Belgium (civil).svg BelgiumMay 21, 2018
Fergana Flag of Uzbekistan.svg UzbekistanOctober 14, 2018

Former Twinnings

The city of Arnhem has unilaterally ended its twinning with Wuhan on July 21, 2021, citing concerns about the Uyghur genocide. [242]

Coat of arms of Arnhem.svg Arnhem Flag of the Netherlands.svg NetherlandsSeptember 6, 1999July 21, 2021

Nature and wildlife

In Chinese mythology, the Baiji ("Yangtze River dolphin") has many origin stories. In one legend, the Baiji was the daughter of a general who was deported from the city of Wuhan during a war. During his duty, the daughter ran away. Later, the general met a woman who told him how her father was a general, and when he realized that she was his daughter, he threw himself into the river out of shame. The daughter ran after him and also fell into the river. Before they were drowned, the daughter was transformed into a dolphin, and the general a porpoise. [243]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wuchang, Wuhan</span> District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Wuchang is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. It is the oldest of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, and stood on the right (southeastern) bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the mouth of the Han River. The two other cities, Hanyang and Hankou, were on the left (northwestern) bank, separated from each other by the Han River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hanyang, Wuhan</span> District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Hanyang District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. Currently, it is a district and stands between the Han River and the Yangtze River, where the former drains into the latter. It is connected by bridges with its former sister cities, Hankou and Wuchang. Presently, on the left bank of the Yangtze, it borders the districts of Qiaokou to the north across the Han River, Jianghan to the northeast, Caidian to the southwest, and Dongxihu to the northwest; on the opposite bank it borders Wuchang and Hongshan. Guiyuan Temple is located in Hanyang.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hankou</span> Former town, now part of Wuhan

Hankou, alternately romanized as Hankow, was one of the three towns merged to become modern-day Wuhan city, the capital of the Hubei province, China. It stands north of the Han and Yangtze Rivers where the Han flows into the Yangtze. Hankou is connected by bridges to its triplet sister towns Hanyang and Wuchang.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wuhan Metro</span> Rapid transit system for Wuhan

Wuhan Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China. Owned and operated by Wuhan Metro Group Co., Ltd., the network now includes 11 lines, 291 stations, and 460 km (290 mi) of route length. With 1.22 billion annual passengers in 2019, Wuhan Metro is the sixth-busiest rapid transit system in mainland China. There are a number of lines or sections under construction. The government of Wuhan City promised the citizens that at least two lines or sections open every year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ezhou</span> Prefecture-level city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Ezhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hubei Province, China. As of the 2020 census, the city had a population of 1,079,353, of which 695,697 lived in the core Echeng District. The Ezhou - Huanggang built-up area was home to 1,152,559 inhabitants made of the Echeng and Huangzhou, Huanggang Districts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xianning</span> Prefecture-level city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Xianning is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, bordering Jiangxi to the southeast and Hunan to the southwest. It is known as the "City of Osmanthus".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jiangxia, Wuhan</span> District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Jiangxia District is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China, situated on the eastern (right) bank of the Yangtze River. Jiangxia district has an area of 2,009 square kilometres (776 sq mi) and a population of 680,000. It is the southernmost and most sparsely populated of Wuhan's districts. It borders the districts of Caidian and Hannan across the Yangtze and Hongshan to the north, as well as the prefecture-level cities of Ezhou to the east, Huangshi to the southeast, and Xianning to the south.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge</span> Bridge in Hubei, China that is very long

The Wuhan Yangtze Great Bridge, commonly known as Wuhan First Yangtze Bridge, is a double-deck road and rail bridge across the Yangtze River in Wuhan, in Central China. At its completion in 1957, the bridge was the easternmost crossing of the Yangtze, and was often referred to as the "First Bridge of the Yangtze".

Yangxin County is a county within the prefecture-level city of Huangshi in southeastern Hubei province, People's Republic of China. The county is mostly rural but is more prosperous than its neighbor, Tongshan County. According to the Fifth Population Census of China (2000), the county's population was 949,102 giving it a population density of 341 people per square kilometer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jianghan, Wuhan</span> District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Jianghan District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. The district is part of the historical Hankou.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qiaokou, Wuhan</span> District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Qiaokou District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China, situated on the northern (left) bank of the Han River. Along with Dongxihu, it is the only district of Wuhan to not have any shoreline along the Yangtze River, and it borders Dongxihu to the north, Jianghan to the east, and Hanyang to the south across the Han River. 'Qiaokou' is used as an example of the usage of the rarely used character 礄/硚 in the Contemporary Chinese Dictionary. It is said that the character 'qiao' refers to stone bridges constructed over the Han River in the Late Qing. The district is part of the historical Hankou.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hongshan, Wuhan</span> District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Hongshan District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. The district is named for Mount Hong, located near East Lake. It is the most populous of all the districts, and is the most spacious but least densely populated among the city's seven core districts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caidian, Wuhan</span> District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Caidian District is one of 13 urban districts that constitute the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China, forming part of the city's southwestern suburbs and situated on the northwestern (left) bank of the Yangtze River. On the left bank it borders the districts of Dongxihu to the north, Hanyang to the northeast, and Hannan to the south; on the opposite bank, Jiangxia and Hongshan. It also borders Xiaogan to the northwest and Xiantao to the southwest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Huangpi, Wuhan</span> District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Huangpi District is one of 13 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China, situated on the northern (left) bank of the Yangtze River. The Sheshui enters the Yangtze at Huangpi. The district is primarily rural, but also includes important infrastructure facilities, such as Wuhan Tianhe International Airport and Wuhan North Railway Station, which is one of the main freight stations and classification yards on the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway. It is the northernmost of Wuhan's districts as well as the most spacious. On the left bank of the Yangtze, it borders the districts of Xinzhou to the east, and Jiang'an to the south, and Dongxihu to the southwest; on the opposite bank, it borders Hongshan. It also borders the prefecture-level cities of Huanggang to the northeast and Xiaogan to the northwest. The Sheshui enters the Yangtze River at Shekou in Huangpi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hankou railway station</span> Railway station in Wuhan, China

Hankou railway station is one of the three main railway stations in the city of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province of the People's Republic of China. It is located within the section of the city commonly known as Hankou, several kilometers north of Hankou's historical center. Hankou Station is served by a station of the same name on Line 2 of Wuhan Metro.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wuhan–Jiujiang railway</span> Railway line in China

The Wuhan–Jiujiang railway or Wujiu railway, is a double-track, electrified railroad in central China between Wuhan in Hubei Province and Jiujiang in Jiangxi Province. The line is 258 km (160 mi) long and follows the south bank of the Yangtze River from Wuchang District in Wuhan to Lushan Station in Jiujiang. Major cities and towns along route include Wuhan, Huarong, Huanggang, Ezhou, Huangshi, Daye Yangxin, Ruichang and Jiujiang.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Line 1 (Wuhan Metro)</span> Line of Wuhan Metro

The Line 1 of Wuhan Metro is an elevated metro line in the city of Wuhan, Hubei. It is the longest continuous metro viaduct in the world. Line 1 opened on 28 July 2004, making Wuhan the fifth city in mainland China to have a metro system after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Guangzhou. This is the first Metro line in China incorrectly referred to as a light rail line in Chinese terminology because it is elevated. Originally a branch line was planned to cross the Yangtze to Wuchang District via the Second Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge. The Second Wuhan River Bridge even had a provision in the central median where Line 1 trains would run in anticipation for the branch line when it opened in 1995. However, by 2003 the reservation was removed to allow for more traffic lanes when the bridge was undergoing renovation.

The Port of Wuhan is the natural river port of the sub-provincial city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. The port lies at the confluence of the Yangtze and Hanjiang rivers. It is able to handle ocean-going ships of 10,000DWT. In 2013, it had a throughput of 42.2 million tons of cargo, and 513,229 TEU of containers.

Trams in Wuhan may refer to any one of the tram systems currently operational in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China. The first tram started revenue service in Wuhan is the Auto-city T1 Line, which began on July 28, 2017. Subsequently, Optics Valley tram started revenue service from April 1, 2018.

The prefecture-level city of Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province, China, has a long and rich history that dates back over 3,500 years. Starting out from the Shang dynasty-era archaeological site at Panlongcheng associated with Erligang culture, the region would become part of the E state and Chu state during the Zhou dynasty. The region evolved into an important port on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the cities of Hanyang, Hankou and Wuchang were united into the city of Wuhan in 1926. Wuhan briefly serving as the capital city of China in 1927 and in 1937. Modern-day Wuhan is known as 'China's Thoroughfare' (九省通衢) due to its status as a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major cities.


  1. 1 2 图文:"黄金十字架"写就第一笔. Sina. March 30, 2009. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2018. 武汉历史上就是"九省通衢",在中央促进中部崛起战略中被定位为"全国性综合交通运输枢纽"。
  2. 九省通衢. The government of Wuhan. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  3. 1 2 "Foreign News: On To Chicago". Time. June 13, 1938. Archived from the original on January 5, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  4. 1 2 3 Jacob, Mark (May 13, 2012). "Chicago is all over the place". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  5. 1 2 水野幸吉 (Mizuno Kokichi) (2014). 中国中部事情:汉口[Central China: Hankou]. Wuhan Press. p. 3. ISBN   9787543084612.
  6. 1 2 3 4 武汉市历史沿革 (in Simplified Chinese). www.XZQH.org. August 6, 2014. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  7. 1 2 3 行政建置 (in Simplified Chinese). Wuhan Municipal People's Government. January 8, 2018. Archived from the original on October 17, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  8. 1 2 "Wuhan Statistical Yearbook 2010" (PDF). Wuhan Statistics Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 5, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.p. 15
  9. Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (14th Annual ed.). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 3, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  10. 全国各地级市人口排名-红黑人口库.
  11. 超1.7万亿元,武汉2021年GDP同比增长12.2%-荆楚网-湖北日报网. News.cnhubei.com. January 24, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
  12. 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  13. "The Chronology of the "Living Fossil" Metasequoia Glyptostroibodes (Taxodiaceae): A Review (1943–2003)" (PDF). Harvard College. 2003. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 1984 In the spring, Metasequoia was chosen as the 'City Tree' of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei.
  14. "Wuhan". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021.
  15. "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions: Hubei". China.org.cn. PRC Central Government. Archived from the original on June 19, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  16. 1 2 "Focus on Wuhan, China". The Canadian Trade Commissioner Service. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  17. Zhao Manfeng (赵满丰). 国家中心城市 [National central cities]. usa.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on May 20, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  18. 1 2 MacKinnon, Stephen R. (2002). Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900–1950. University of Hawaii Press. p. 161. ISBN   978-0824825188.
  19. "An American in China: 1936–39 A Memoir". Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  20. MacKinnon, Stephen R. (2008). Wuhan, 1938: War, Refugees, and the Making of Modern China. University of California Press. p. 12. ISBN   978-0520254459.
  21. 武汉获批全国首个交通枢纽研究试点城市. Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. June 25, 2009. Archived from the original on December 24, 2012.
  22. Jing, Li (January 23, 2019). "Inside China's leading 'sponge city': Wuhan's war with water". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  23. Biswas, Asit K.; Hartley, Kris (September 18, 2017). "China's 'sponge cities' aim to re-use 70% of rainwater". CNN. Archived from the original on June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  24. Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada (September 8, 2009). "Focus on Wuhan, China". www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca. Archived from the original on December 17, 2018. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  25. 校友会2017中国大学排行榜700强揭晓,北京大学十连冠 – 艾瑞深校友会网2019中国大学排行榜,中国大学研究生院排行榜,中国 – 流大学,中国大学创业富豪榜,中国独立学院排行榜,中国民办大学排行榜. www.cuaa.net. Archived from the original on June 6, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  26. 1 2 "Leading 200 science cities | Nature Index 2023 Science Cities | Supplements | Nature Index". www.nature.com. Retrieved November 22, 2023.
  27. "Wuhan | Creative Cities Network". en.unesco.org. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  28. "The World According to GaWC 2020". GaWC – Research Network. Globalization and World Cities. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  29. 1 2 "The Global Financial Centres Index 30". Long Finance. September 2021. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  30. 1 2 "The Coronavirus: What Scientists Have Learned So Far". The New York Times . Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  31. 1 2 Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; MacDonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Roser, Max (March 5, 2020). "Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) – Research and Statistics". Our World in Data. Oxford University. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  32. 1 2 3 "China Quarantines Wuhan to Prevent Spread of Coronavirus". National Review. January 22, 2020. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
  33. 武汉市历史沿革 (in Simplified Chinese). XZQH.org. August 6, 2014. Archived from the original on December 11, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2018. 1927 年1月1日,中央临时联席会议宣布,国民政府在汉口开始办公。国民政府命令将武昌、汉口、汉阳三镇合为京兆区,定名"武汉",作为临时首都。4月16日,武汉市政委员会成立,武昌市政厅撤销;三镇首次统 – 行政建制。
  34. 历史沿革. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  35. 江汉综述. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  36. "武汉"的由来. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
  37. 《左传·僖公十二年》:"黄人恃诸侯之睦于齐也,不共楚职,曰:"自郢及我九百里,焉能害我?" 夏,楚灭黄。"
  38. "The engagement at the Red Cliffs took place in the winter of the 13th year of Jian'an, probably about the end of 208."( de Crespigny 1990 :264)
  39. Images of the Immortal: The Cult of Lü Dongbin at the Palace of Eternal Joy by Paul R. Katz, University of Hawaii Press, 1999, p. 80
  40. Zizhi Tongjian vol. 71.
  41. "Hanyang was founded during the Sui dynasty (581–618); and Hankou, then known as Hsia-k'ou, during the Song (Sung) dynasty (960–1279)". Archived from the original on April 8, 2018.
  42. (秋,使曹休從廬江南入合肥,令寵向夏口。) Sanguozhi vol. 26.
  43. Wan: p. 42.
  44. 归元描述 – 归元禅寺. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. 归元禅寺位于武汉市汉阳区,东眺晴川阁、南滨鹦鹉洲、北邻古琴台,占地153亩,是湖北省重点文物保护单位。由浙江僧人白光、主峰于清顺治十五年(1658 年)依王氏葵园而创建。
  45. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion, Google Print, p. 83 [ permanent dead link ], Robert Aldrich, Palgrave Macmillan, 1996, ISBN   0-312-16000-3
  46. 1 2 "The British Concession and the First Years of the Treaty Port · Hankou to Wuhan: Histories from China's Crossroads · Hankou to Wuhan". hankoutowuhan.org. Retrieved April 3, 2023.
  47. Lee, Chinyun (2014). "From Kiachta to Vladivostok: Russian Merchants and the Tea Trade". Region. 3 (2): 195–218. ISSN   2166-4307. JSTOR   43737542.
  48. Kathleen L Lodwick (2009). The Chinese Recorder. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 414. ISBN   978-1-115-48856-3 . Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  49. Anon (2009). Northern China, the Valley of the Blue River, Korea. 43 Maps and Plans. Read Books. p. 386. ISBN   978-1-4446-7840-6 . Retrieved June 28, 2010.
  50. Crawford, Alan (2018). "Imagining the Russian Concession in Hankou". The Historical Journal. 61 (4): 969–989. doi:10.1017/S0018246X17000528. ISSN   0018-246X. S2CID   159946531.
  51. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dai, Yi (戴逸); Gong, Shuduo (龔書鐸) (2003). 中國通史. 清. Intelligence press. pp. 86–89. ISBN   962-8792-89-X.
  52. Fenby, Jonathan. [2008] (2008). The History of Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power. ISBN   978-0-7139-9832-0. pp. 107, 116, 119.
  53. 1 2 Welland, Sasah Su-ling (2007). A Thousand Miles of Dreams: The Journeys of Two Chinese Sisters. Rowman Littlefield Publishing. ISBN   0-7425-5314-0 , 978-0-7425-5314-9. p. 87.
  54. 1 2 3 4 5 Wang, Ke-wen(1998). Modern China: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture and Nationalism. Taylor & Francis Publishing. ISBN   0-8153-0720-9 , 978-0-8153-0720-4. pp. 390-391.
  55. 1 2 Wang, Hengwei (王恆偉) (2006). 中國歷史講堂 #6 民國.. Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 3–7. ISBN   962-8885-29-4.
  56. Spence, Jonathan D. (1990). The Search for Modern China . W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN   0-393-30780-8 , 978-0-393-30780-1. pp. 250–256.
  57. Harrison Henrietta (2000). The Making of the Republican Citizen: Political Ceremonies and Symbols in China, 1911–1929. Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-829519-7 , 978-0-19-829519-8. pp. 16–17.
  58. Bergere, Marie-Claire. Lloyd Janet (2000). Sun Yat-sen. Stanford University Press. ISBN   0-8047-4011-9 , 978-0-8047-4011-1. p. 207.
  59. 雙十節是? 陸民眾:「國民黨」國慶 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). TVBS. Archived from the original on November 10, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
  60. Taylor 2009, p. 68.
  61. Robert Jackson Alexander, International Trotskyism, 1929–1985: A Documented Analysis of the Movement (Duke University Press, 1991) p. 206
  62. Taylor 2009, p. 72.
  63. Harrison, The Long March to Power, p. 111
  64. Clark, Anne Biller. Clark, Anne Bolling. Klein, Donald. Klein, Donald Walker (1971). Harvard Univ. Biographic Dictionary of Chinese communism. Original from the University of Michigan v.1. Digitized December 21, 2006. p. 134.
  65. 1 2 3 Graves, William (1982). The Torrent of Life (Journey into China) (5th ed.). National Geographic Society. ISBN   978-0-87044-437-1.
  66. Courtney, Chris (2018). The Nature of Disaster in China: The 1931 Yangzi River Flood. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1-108-41777-8.
  67. Pietz, David (2002). Engineering the State: The Huai River and Reconstruction in Nationalist China 1927–1937. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-93388-9. pp. xvii, 61–70.
  68. Winchester, Simon (2004). The River at the Center of the World: A Journey Up the Yangtze, and Back in Chinese Time. Macmillan. ISBN   0-312-42337-3.
  69. "420 results found for 王叔金". Archived from the original on January 31, 2016.
  70. Nanyang Siang Pau. Kuala Lumpur, 1940, p. 13
  71. Nanyang Siang Pau. Kuala Lumpur, September 2, 1935, p. 8
  72. Nanyang Siang Pau. Kuala Lumpur, 1938, p. 14
  73. "The US Firebombing of Wuhan, Part 1 – China in WW2". Archived from the original on February 18, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  74. 1 2 Fenby, Jonathan Chiang Kai-Shek China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost, New York: Carroll & Graf, 2004 p. 447.
  75. "The US Firebombing of Wuhan, Part 2". September 16, 2015. Archived from the original on February 18, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  76. 皮明庥,郑自来 2011 , pp. 108–109
  77. 三联生活周刊. 1949年5月的武汉_三联生活周刊. www.lifeweek.com.cn. Archived from the original on February 18, 2018. Retrieved February 18, 2018. 在 – 片树林里找到了解放军118师的师部,然后带着部队走进了武汉,进武汉市的时候已经是18点了"。{...}16日,解放军进城,{...}5月16日17点,张林苏就进了武汉。
  78. Hu, Puchen (胡甫臣) (1981). 武汉地下斗争回忆录. Hubei People's Press. p. 383. 统 – 书号 (National Standard Book Number of China) 11106·136. 共军于下午二时初刻自两端入城
  79. 陈芳国 (2009). 武汉解放述略. 武汉文史资料 (4): 4–10.
  80. ""Swimming" by Mao Zedong". Marxists.org. Archived from the original on September 12, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  81. Li, Rui (2007). Li Rui wen ji. Xianggang: Xianggang she hui ke xue jiao yu chu ban you xian gong si. ISBN   978-9889958114. OCLC   688480117.
  82. Robinson, Thomas W. (1971). "The Wuhan Incident: Local Strife and Provincial Rebellion During the Cultural Revolution". The China Quarterly . 47 (47): 413–418. doi:10.1017/S0305741000006172. JSTOR   652320. S2CID   154453395.
  83. Wang, Fang (2016). Geo-Architecture and Landscape in China's Geographic and Historic Context: Volume 1 Geo-Architecture Wandering in the Landscape. Springer. pp. 43–. ISBN   978-981-10-0483-4. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  84. 1 2 3 Zhang, Liang (2001). Nathan, Andrew; Link, Perry (eds.). The Tiananmen Papers. Public Affairs. ISBN   978-1-58648-122-3.
  85. John Pomfret, Michael Laris (May 9, 1999). "Thousands Vent Anger in China's Cities". The Washington Post . Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2019. Xian, Wuhan and Chongqing, as well as Hong Kong, were among other cities where protests exploded.
  86. 祸从天降:汉江边4人被武汉坠毁飞机扫入江中 (in Simplified Chinese). Sina. June 22, 2000. Archived from the original on February 21, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2009.
  87. Geoghegan, Tom (April 28, 2005). "How planes survive lightning". BBC News Magazine. BBC News. Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2009.
  88. "Fatal Events Since 1970 for Airlines of the People's Republic of China". AirSafe.com. December 10, 2007. Archived from the original on February 20, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2009.
  89. "Accident Report". Archived from the original on January 3, 2009. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  90. "National flag of France with Hakenkreuz added by Chinese protesters". Reuters (in French). April 19, 2008. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
  91. "Anti-French rallies across China" Archived February 18, 2018, at the Wayback Machine , BBC, April 19, 2008
  92. "National flag of France with Hakenkreuz added by Chinese protesters". Reuters (in French). April 19, 2008. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
  93. "防火墙之父"北邮校长方滨兴微博遭网民"围攻" (in Simplified Chinese). Yunnan Information Times. December 23, 2010. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  94. "China's Great Firewall designer 'hit by shoe". BBC. May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
  95. GFW之父武汉大学演讲遭遇学生扔鞋抗议 (in Simplified Chinese). RTI. May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on November 17, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
  96. "Designer of Chinese web controls hit by shoe". Associated Press. May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
  97. "Chinese Student Takes Aim, Literally, at Internet Regulator". NY Times. May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  98. 微博热点:方滨兴武汉大学遇"扔鞋"抗议?. Yunnan Information Times (in Simplified Chinese). May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2011.
  99. "Shoe attack on China web censor sparks online buzz(AFP)". AFP. May 19, 2011. Archived from the original on August 4, 2011. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  100. 三峡工程的防洪作用将提前两年实现-经济-人民网. People's Daily. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
  101. 三峡工程防洪