Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
연변 조선족 자치주
Yanji, the prefectural seat of Yanbian
Location of Yanbian Prefecture (red) in Jilin (orange) and China (yellow)
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|County-level divisions||6 county-level cities|
|• Party Secretary||Jiang Zhiying|
|• Governor||Jin Shouhao|
|• Total||43,509 km2 (16,799 sq mi)|
|• Density||52/km2 (140/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic composition|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-JL-24|
|Licence plate prefixes||吉H|
|Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture|
|Simplified Chinese||延边 朝鲜族 自治州|
|Traditional Chinese||延邊 朝鮮族 自治州|
|Chinese Korean name|
|Chosŏn'gŭl||연변 조선족 자치주|
Yanbian (Chinese :延边; Chosŏn'gŭl: 연변, Yŏnbyŏn) is an autonomous prefecture in the east of Jilin Province, China. Yanbian is bordered to the north by Heilongjiang, on the west by Baishan and Jilin City, on the south by North Korea's North Hamgyong Province and on the east by Primorsky Krai in Russia. Yanbian is designated as a Korean autonomous prefecture due to the large number of ethnic Koreans living in the region. The prefectural capital is Yanji and the total area is 42,700 square kilometres (16,500 sq mi).
The prefecture has an important Balhae archaeological site: the Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, which includes the Mausoleum of Princess Jeonghyo.
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In the Ming dynasty, Yanbian was governed by the Jianzhou Guard (建州衛) and in the late Qing dynasty the area was divided into the Yanji (延吉廳) and Hunchun (琿春廳) subprefectures. From 1644 to the 1800s the Manchurian administrators of the Qing state attempted to separate Northeast China, politically and ethnographically, into a "Manchuria" to which they could retreat in case an ethnically Han Chinese dynasty regained control over China. However, this effort failed because of the trading and agricultural opportunities available to Han Chinese migrants in the northeast region which made it profitable to evade the rules, as well as later Qing relaxation of the same rules to discourage Russian encroachment.
In the 19th century, Korean immigrants migrated en masse from the Korean peninsula to China. After the foundation of the Republic of China, a second wave arrived. Of the 2 million ethnic Koreans in Manchuria at the time of the communist takeover, 1.2 million remained in the region after the end of World War II. Many participated in the Chinese Civil War, most on the side of the Chinese communists. When the civil war was over, the new Chinese government gave these Koreans their own autonomous region (区) in 1952. Yanbian was upgraded to an ethnic autonomous prefecture in 1955.
Korean (Joseon) migration into northeast China began in significant numbers in the last quarter of the 19th century and was mainly motivated by economic hardship on the Korean side of the border. After the Japanese annexed Korea in 1910, a small but significant number of migrants also came to Manchuria for political reasons.
In 1952, the Korean migrants comprised some 60% of the local population, but by 2000 that was down to 32%. The Chinese authorities subsidize Korean language schools and publications, but also take measures to prevent an emergence of Korean irredentism in the area. From the late 1990s, the Koreans have assimilated into mainstream Chinese culture with increasing speed, often switching to daily use of Chinese and choosing to attend Chinese-language schools.
Mountains that are in the prefecture are:
There have been over 40 types of minerals and 50 kinds of metals – including gold, lead, zinc, copper, silver, manganese and mercury – discovered near or in the mountains.
The average land height is 500 metres above sea level.
Main rivers include:
The rivers sustain 28 running water processing facilities. They created basins, which are suitable for agricultural uses, like rice paddies and bean farms.
The prefecture is subdivided into eight county-level divisions: six county-level cities and two counties:
|Name||Chinese (S)||Hanyu Pinyin||Chinese Korean transliteration||Population (2003 est.)||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)|
|Yanji City||延吉市||Yánjí Shì||연길시||Yeongil-si||Yŏngil-si||410,000||1,332||308|
|Tumen City||图们市||Túmén Shì||도문시||Domun-si||Tomun-si||130,000||1,142||114|
|Dunhua City||敦化市||Dūnhuà Shì||돈화시||Donhwa-si||Tonhwa-si||480,000||11,963||40|
|Hunchun City||珲春市||Húnchūn Shì||훈춘시||Hunchun-si||Hunch’un-si||220,000||4,938||45|
|Longjing City||龙井市||Lóngjǐng Shì||룡정시||Ryongjeong-si||Ryongjŏng-si||250,000||2,592||96|
|Helong City||和龙市||Hélóng Shì||화룡시||Hwaryong-si||Hwaryong-si||210,000||5,069||41|
|Wangqing County||汪清县||Wāngqīng Xiàn||왕청현||Wangcheong-hyeon||Wangch’ŏng-hyŏn||250,000||8,994||28|
|Antu County||安图县||Āntú Xiàn||안도현||Ando-hyeon||Ando-hyŏn||210,000||7,444||28|
The above counties and cities are divided into 642 villages (边境村).
There are 1,480 kilometres of public roads altogether. There are four airports.
Population density: 51 people per km2 (132 per mi2).
As on the Korean peninsula, Yanbian Koreans' most common surname is Kim. Many emigrated from Korea during the 19th century and again during the Japanese occupation.
Between 1952 and 2002, the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture had among the highest rates of urbanization (城市化水平) at 55.6%, 20 percentage points greater than the provincial average (31.3%) and 25 more than the national average (26.5%).
Colleges and universities:
Both Mandarin Chinese and Korean are used as official languages in Yanbian.
The Museum of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture was planned in 1960, and constructed in 1982. It contains over 10,000 exhibits, including 11 first-level artifacts.[ citation needed ] The exhibits' labels and explanations are bilingual in Korean and Chinese and tour guides are also available in both languages.
There are seven public parks in Yanbian's green space (18% of whole prefecture), including:
Also popular among locals during holidays and festivities.
Over 70% are originally forest in the prefecture, so there is a rich diversity of life.[ citation needed ]
Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture is an important region for Chinese football. Over 50 years more than 40 footballers have been selected by the Chinese national football team.
In 1955, Yanbian Football Club was founded, although it was a semi-professional one.
The first professional football team in this prefecture is Jilin Three Stars Football Club. From 1994 to 2000, this club had played each year in the top Chinese football league. In 2000, they were relegated from the top league. Because of poor economic conditions the club was sold to Lucheng Group in Zhejiang Province.
In 2001, Yanbian Football Club was founded. They are currently playing in the 32,000-seater Hailanjiang Stadium in the Chinese Super League, the top tier of the Chinese football league system.
In 2016, Yanbian Football Club was sponsored by Shenzhen Funde Group when they got the permission of Chinese Super League, since they acquired the 1st place in the Chinese Second League in 2015.
Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. Along with the rest of Northeast China, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by heavy industry, has been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale.
Jiandao or Chientao, known in Korean as Gando or Kando, is a historical border region along the north bank of the Tumen River in Jilin province, Northeast China that has a high population of ethnic Koreans. The word "Jiandao" itself, literally "Middle Island", was initially referred to a shoal in Tumen River between today's Chuankou Village, Kaishantun in Longjing, Jilin, China and Chongsŏng, Onsong County in North Korea. The island was an important landmark for immigrants from the Korean peninsula looking for settlements across the river. As the number of immigrants increased, the area that the word "Jiandao" gradually changed to reflect the areas of Korean settlement.
Yanji is a county-level city in the east of China's Jilin Province, and is the seat of the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture. Its population is approximately 400,000 of which a large portion is ethnic Korean. Yanji is a busy hub of transport and trade between China and North Korea. The city is home to Yanbian University, a comprehensive university and the only Project 211 university in Yanji.
Tumen is a county-level city in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, eastern Jilin province, Northeast China. Of its 136,000 inhabitants, approximately 78,000 are of Korean descent. The two official languages are Chinese and Korean. Tumen is separated from Namyang of North Hamgyong province of North Korea by the Tumen River. Due to this proximity, many North Koreans escaping North Korea pass through Tumen. Tumen is also the location of a large detention center for captured North Koreans awaiting deportation. Tumen has two major food markets, the South Market and the North Market, where most of the residents purchase their food. Packaged foods and meats are usually sold inside the building, and vegetables are sold outside. There are six elementary schools, with three Korean schools, and three Chinese schools.
Longjing is a city in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, southeastern Jilin province, Northeast China. It lies on the Tumen River opposite the North Korean city Hoeryong.
The population of Koreans in China include millions of descendants of Korean immigrants with People's Republic of China citizenship, as well as smaller groups of South and North Korean expatriates, totaling roughly 2.3 million people as of 2009, making it the largest ethnic Korean population living outside the Korean Peninsula.
The Yanji People's Stadium was a multi-use stadium in Yanji, China with a capacity of 30,000 people. It is used mostly for football matches. It was demolished in 2013 to make way for a new stadium with the same name. It was the home stadium of Yanbian Changbaishan.
Yanbian Funde F.C. was a Chinese football club. The team was based in Yanji, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin province where their home stadium is the Yanji Nationwide Fitness Centre Stadium that has a seating capacity of 30,000.
Hunchun is a county-level city in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, far eastern Jilin province. It borders North Korea and Russia, has over 250,000 inhabitants, and covers 5,145 square kilometers. The site of the eastern capital of Balhae/Bohai Kingdom between 785–793, Donggyeong, was located here.
Songshan is a town under the administration of Panshi City in southern Jilin province, China, situated 46 kilometres (29 mi) from downtown Panshi as the crow flies. In 2011, it had one residential community and ten villages under its administration.
Yanbian International Academy is a K-12 international school in Yanji, Yanbian, China. It is a part of the Yanbian University of Science and Technology.
Jilin–Hunchun intercity railway, also known as Jihun Passenger Dedicated Line, is a high-speed railway operated by China Railway High-speed in Jilin Province. It connects the major city of Jilin City with the eastern city of Hunchun near the border with Russia and North Korea. It will have a total length of 359 km (223 mi) of electrified double-track railways, built to the Grade 1 standard. Project construction started on October 30, 2010, with operations commencing on September 20, 2015. The railway has been described as "Dongbei's most beautiful railway" and "the fastest way to Vladivostok". Reflecting the border location of the city, the new train station has its sign in four languages: Chinese, Korean, Russian, and English. Future prospects could see the line extended to Vladivostok.
Korean International School in Yanbian is a Korean international school in Yanji, Yanbian, Jilin, China. It serves students in elementary school through high school.
The Yanji Nationwide Fitness Centre Stadium, also known as Yanji New Stadium or Yanji People's Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium in Yanji, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin, China. It is currently used mostly for association football matches. The stadium holds 30,000 people, and is the home stadium of Yanbian Funde F.C.. It was built in August 2010 to replace the Yanji People's Stadium and opened in November 2013, at a cost of 220 million RMB.
Hunchun River, is a river located in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, in the Chinese province of Jilin. It is the tributary of the left bank of the Tumen River.
Yanbian Beiguo Football Club is an amateur Chinese football club that currently participates in the China League Two. The team was based in Hunchun and it used 18,000-capacity Hunchun People's Stadium of Hunchun as their home stadium.
Yanbian Library is a library located in Yanji City, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin Province, China. With a collection of over 80 thousand books in Korean, it is the largest and the only one Korean literature collection center in China.
Yanbian Longding Football Club is a professional Chinese football club based in Longjing, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin Province. They currently play in Chinese League Two.
Li Jinghao is a Chinese politician of Korean ethnicity. He is the head of the Jilin Provincial United Front Work Department and a member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Jilin Provincial Committee. He entered the workforce in August 1983 and joined the Communist Party of China in March 1989.
Yanbian People's Publishing House, commonly known as Yanbian People's Press, is a Yanji-based publishing house in the People's Republic of China. It is the first publishing house established in Jilin Province after the founding of PRC.
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