Xuzhou

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Xuzhou

徐州市
TV Tower of Xuzhou.jpg
ChinaJiangsuXuzhou.png
Location of Xuzhou City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
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Red pog.svg
Xuzhou
Location in China
Coordinates: 34°16′N117°13′E / 34.26°N 117.21°E / 34.26; 117.21 Coordinates: 34°16′N117°13′E / 34.26°N 117.21°E / 34.26; 117.21
Country People's Republic of China
Province Jiangsu
County-level divisions 10
Township-level divisions 161
Government
  MayorZhou Tiegen (周铁根)
  CPC Committee SecretaryZhang Guohua (张国华)
Area
   Prefecture-level city 11,259 km2 (4,347 sq mi)
  Urban
3,037 km2 (1,173 sq mi)
  Metro
2,347 km2 (906 sq mi)
Population
(2010 census)
   Prefecture-level city 8,577,225
  Density760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
   Urban
3,053,778
  Urban density1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
   Metro
2,623,066
  Metro density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
221000(Urban center), 221000, 221000, 221000(Other areas)
Area code(s) 0516
ISO 3166 code CN-JS-03
GDP ¥ 660.595 billion (2017)
GDP per capita US$ 11,200 (2017)
Major Nationalities Han
Licence plate prefixes 苏C
Website Archived link
Xuzhou
XZ name.svg
"Xuzhou" in Chinese characters
Chinese 徐州
Postal Suchow
Pengcheng
Chinese 彭城

Xuzhou, known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in Jiangsu province, China. The city, with a recorded population of 8,577,225 at the 2010 census (2,623,066 of which lived in the built-up area), [1] is a national complex transport hub and the central city of Huaihai Economic Zone. [2]

Jiangsu Province of China

Jiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.

China State in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Contents

The city is designated as National Famous Historical and Cultural City since 1986 for its relics, especially the terracotta armies, the Mausoleums of the princes and the art of relief of Han dynasty.

Relief Sculptural technique

Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised. The technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, which is a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, and is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round, especially one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point, especially in stone. In other materials such as metal, clay, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, and monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting.

Romanization

Before the adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the city's name was typically romanized as Suchow [3] or Süchow, [4] [5] though it also appeared as Siu Tcheou [Fou], [6] Hsu-chou, [7] Hsuchow, [8] and Hsü-chow. [5] [9]

The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese. Chinese uses a logographic script, and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys." The dominant international standard for Putonghua since about 1982 has been Hanyu Pinyin. Other well-known systems include Wade-Giles (Mandarin) and Yale Romanization.

History

Early history

The early prehistoric relics around Xuzhou are classified as Dawenkou culture system. Liulin (劉林) site together with Dadunzi (大墩子) site, Huating (花廳) site, and Liangwangcheng (梁王城) site correspond to the initial, middle and late stages of this culture, respectively. [10] While the remains of sacrificial rituals performed to Tudi deity found at Qiuwan (丘灣) site and Gaohuangmiao (高皇廟) site, both of them are in the outskirts of the city, indicate that Shang dynasty affected the area. [11] History relates that Peng or Great Peng, the transitions from a tribe to a chiefdom contained within the boundary of the city. Peng Zu is believed to be the first chief, while the state was eventually conquered by King Wu Ding of Shang in around 1208 BC. [12] [13]

Dawenkou culture archaeological culture

The Dawenkou culture is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China. The culture existed from 4100 to 2600 BC, co-existing with the Yangshao culture. Turquoise, jade and ivory artefacts are commonly found at Dawenkou sites. The earliest examples of alligator drums appear at Dawenkou sites. Neolithic signs, perhaps related to subsequent scripts, such as those of the Shang Dynasty, have been found on Dawenkou pottery.

Tudi village in Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran

Tudi is a village in Sangan Rural District, in the Central District of Khash County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 70, in 20 families.

Peng Zu legendary long-lived figure in China

Peng Zu (篯铿) is a legendary long-lived figure in China. He supposedly lived over 800 years in the Shang dynasty. Some legends say that one year was 60 days in ancient China; that made him more than 130 years old. Others say he was over 200 years old or over 400 years old. Another says he was accidentally left off of the death list in heaven.

During the Western Zhou, a chiefdom called Xuyi or Xu rose and controlled the Lower Yellow River Valley. Allied with Huaiyi, Xuyi fought against Zhou and its vassals at irregular intervals. Since its declining, Xuyi once moved the capital to the area of Xuzhou and populated it with people who were migrated southwards.

Western Zhou dynasty of ancient China

The Western Zhou was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It began when King Wu of Zhou overthrew the Shang dynasty at the Battle of Muye and ended when the Quanrong nomads sacked its capital Haojing and killed King You of Zhou in 771 BC.

After Song annexed the area, the city within was designated as Pengcheng. In 573 BC, Chu and Zheng armies seized Pengcheng, for a corridor connects Wu. Song laid siege to recapture, but failed. Thus Song had recourse to Jin. In the next year,the allies succeed in regaining Pengcheng. [14] In 385 BC, Marquess Wen of Han invaded Song and capture a duke in Pengcheng.

Song (state) state in Ancient China

Sòng was a state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, with its capital at Shangqiu. The state was founded soon after King Wu of Zhou conquered the Shang dynasty to establish the Zhou dynasty in 1046/46 BC. It was conquered by the State of Qi in 286 BC, during the Warring States period. Confucius was a descendant of a Song nobleman who moved to the State of Lu.

Chu (state) ancient chinese state

Chu was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state. From King Wu of Chu in the early 8th century BCE, the rulers of Chu declared themselves kings on an equal footing with the Zhou kings. Though initially inconsequential, removed to the south of the Zhou heartland and practising differing customs, Chu began a series of administrative reforms, becoming a successful expansionist state during the Spring and Autumn period. With its continued expansion Chu became a great Warring States period power, until it was overthrown by the Qin in 223 BCE.

Zheng (state) ancient state in China

Zheng was a vassal state in China during the Zhou Dynasty located in the centre of ancient China in modern-day Henan Province on the North China Plain about 75 miles (121 km) east of the royal capital at Luoyang. It was the most powerful of the vassal states at the beginning of the Eastern Zhou, and was the first state to clearly establish a code of law in its late period of 543 BCE. Its ruling house had the surname Ji (姬), making them a branch of the Zhou royal house, who were given the rank of Bo (伯), corresponding roughly to being a Count.

Imperial China

In 208 BC, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang pull their troops into Pengcheng, to where the Emperor Yi of Chu transferred his capital from Xuyi later, after Xiang Liang’s death. [15] [16] The Emperor Yi was exiled to the southern China by Xiang Yu in 206 BC, the latter then proclaimed himself the Hegemon-King of Western Chu, and established his capital in Pengcheng too, until 202 BC.

Liu Jiao, the younger half-brother of Liu Bang, became the Prince of Chu whose seat was Pengcheng. His grandson, Wu succeeded the title. Wu participated the Rebellion of the Seven Princes, he was defeated afterwards and his power was diminish by reducing the fief. By the end of the 2nd century, a prosperous Buddhist community had been settled at Pengcheng. [17]

At the turn of the 2nd century, Pengcheng changed hands several times among Cao Cao and his rivals before being annexed to Cao Wei in about 200. In the intervening years, the seat of Xuzhou (Xu province) was transferred from Tancheng to Xiapi, which located in the northwest of Suining. While Pengcheng became the seat later than 220.

With the invasions of the Five Barbarians, considerable local households migrated to the south, a Liu clan from Pengcheng ascended to the gentry, its most well known descendant is Liu Yu, the Emperor Wu of Liu Song. Pengcheng was taken by the Northern dynasties later. Liu Yu recaptured the lost territory in the north of the Huai River in about 408. Xuzhou was divided into two parts: Beixuzhou (North Xuzhou) and Xuzhou (with Jingkou as its seat) in 411. North Xuzhou whose seat was Pengcheng bounded on the south by the Huai River. Beixuzhou was restored as Xuzhou a decade later, while its south counterpart was renamed Nanxuzhou (South Xuzhou). Since then, Pengcheng remained being the seat of Xuzhou until it was eliminated in the early Ming.

The raging wars inflicted upon Xuzhou until the Emperor Taizong of Tang's enthronement in 626. Keeping the northern rebellions and warfare a distance gave Xuzhou scope for developing during the most period of the Tang dynasty. According to the Old Book of Tang and the New book of Tang, in 639, the total population of Pengcheng County, Fei County and Pei County was only 21,768, versus 205,286 in 742. [18]

Throughout Sui and Tang dynasties, Xuzhou was heavily garrisoned for defending the Bian Canal (汴渠), a crucial course to supply Chang'an ran in a south-easterly direction through the region. In 781, General Li Na revolted against the court. His cousin Li Wei, the then prefect of Xuzhou, refused to cooperate with him. So Na's army lay siege to the city of Xuzhou afterwards. Although the revolted was quell, the halt of the transport by the Bian Canal made the court feel necessary to reinforce the defence in Xuzhou. [19]

The then prefect of Xuzhou, Zhang Jiafeng (張建封) was designated as the first military governor of Xuzhou-Sizhou-Haozhou (徐泗濠節度使) in 788. Its seat was in Xuzhou. The title was invaild since 800, but was reinstated and renamed Wuning (武寧) fiver years later. Mutinies had broken out among the garrison periodically since the early years of the ninth century. The court managed to restore order and continued to appoint its military governors. Wang Zhixing recruited some insubordinate and unscrupulous soldiers. That made the army notorious. In 832. Li Ting took it over and got a death threat from the garrsion soon afterwards. He obliged to resign even before he was in office. [20]

Later, Wuning suffered renewed garrison revolts in 849, 859 and again in 862. [21] Two governors on their term were expelled by the soldiers. [22] Thus, the government decided to demilitarize the region. Wang Shi (王式) was sent to put down the mutiny in 862. He executed large numbers of the garrison troops and disbanded the rest. But the consequence was proved worse. The fleeing and disbanded soldiers became bandits plundering the surrounding area. In 864, the court declared an amnesty in the area, and promised that all former soldiers who willingly re-enrolled would be sent for a tour of duty in the southern, and then, presumably, returned to regular army service in the north. [23]

Three thousand men surrendered and were sent to the south to join the two thousand Wuning soldiers sent there two years before. However, the pledge to send them back was broken. Led by Pang Xun, eight hundred of them mutinied and marched back north. [24] The two-months march was unimpeded, they moved into the region by the winter of 868. [25] The civil governor refused Pang's demand to have the officers the hated removed, and a military confrontation ensued. Thousands of local peasants joined the rebels. They took the prefectural city of Xuzhou, captured the civil governor, and killed those officers. Pang acquired a considerable following. Still, the rebellion was crushed a year later eventually. Wuning was renamed Ganhua (感化; literal meaning: "Reclaiming [from insubordination]") with admonishment lest the garrison to revolt again. [26]

After the Yellow River began to change course during the Song dynasty, heavy silting at the Yellow River estuary forced the river to channel its flow into the lower Huai River tributary. The area became barren thereafter due to persistent flooding, nutrient depletion and salination of the once fertile soil.

In the first month of 1129, Nijuhun took the city after a siege of 27 days, and the then governor Wang Fu (王復) was executed for refusing to submit. Wang's inferior Zhao Li (趙立) rallied the remains and constructed a local militia. They recaptured the city two months later but withdrew from there strategically soon. Henceforth, Xuzhou was ruled by Jurchen over a century. [27]

In 1232, the general Wang You (王佑), Feng Xian (封仙) revolted, they expelled the Jurchen's governor Tuktan. Then the Mongolian army led by Anyong (安用), a Han Chinese general captured Xuzhou soon. Both the general of the state of Su (宿州) Liu Anguo (刘安国) and the general of Pizhou Du Zheng (杜政) yielded their owned city to Anyong. Regarding Anyong's behave as grabbing reputation, the Mongolian general Asuru (Chinese :阿术鲁/额苏伦) irritated and persisted to kill him. Felt panic, Anyong sought refuge from Jurchen. [28] The Jin Dynasty resumed its ruling in Xuzhou, and it was quite transient. The serious disunity made betraying recur. On November 1233, the garrison of Xuzhou welcomed the Mongolian. [29] Meantime, Anyong pledged loyalty to the Song Dynasty. He captured the city again after the Mongolian army left. In the spring of the next year, the Mongolian commander Zhang Rong (张荣) attacked Xuzhou, [30] Anyong drowned himself after the final defeat. [28] The Mongolian governor of Xuzhou and Pizhou called Li Gaoge (李杲哥) surrendered to the Song in 1262. Then he failed and was killed after several days. [31]

A rebellion against Yuan rose by Li Er (李二) who was nicknamed Sesame Li in the area around Xuzhou. In the eighth month of 1351, they took the city. Toghon Temür gave an edict that they would be granted amnesty if they surrendered to the authority, in the spring of the next year. The rebels ignored that, so he agreed that Toqto to suppress the unrest. The city fell in the autumn, and the multitudes were killed by Toqto's army afterwards. [32] It may be the symbolically most important victory for Toqto. [33] Thus, Xuzhou was renamed Wuan (武安; literal meaning: Restoring peace by force") as an favour for him, and a stone slab celebrating his deed was erected by the court in the city. [34]

Zhang Shicheng occupied Xuzhou as the northernmost city of his domain in 1360. [35] The Ming forces under Xu Da , captured Xuzhou in 1366. [36] Soon Köke Temür sent an army under General Li Er to attack Xuzhou. Fu Youde (傅友德) and Lu Ju (陸聚) who held the city raided them outside, most of the enemy were drowned while the remained about 270 soldiers and 500 horses were captured. [37]

The rubbing images of a copper identification token (which usually fastened on a belt) for a patrol officer in Xuzhou Guard. Its front was engraved with "Xuzhou Guard" in seal script, while the back was engraved with "Patrol". A Yaopai, or identification token for a patrol officer in Xuzhou Guard.png
The rubbing images of a copper identification token (which usually fastened on a belt) for a patrol officer in Xuzhou Guard. Its front was engraved with "Xuzhou Guard" in seal script, while the back was engraved with "Patrol".

Xuzhou had a long period of prosperity during the Ming dynasty. The flourishness largely attributed to the carriage, especially by the Grand Canal, [38] one of seven customs barriers (or customs houses, 鈔關) under the Ministry of Revenue was located in Xuzhou. [39] It was retained until the late Qing. [40] Korean Choe Bu affirmed that the city where he travelled by way of, hardly pale by comparison to the Jiangnan region. [41]

As a hub for both the national courier system and the grain tribute system for several centuries, Xuzhou was of vital importance. [42] Thus, the government of Ming established three garrison areas namely guards in the present-day area: Xuzhou guard (徐州衛), Xuzhou Left guard (徐州左衛) and Pizhou guard (邳州衛) for its security.

Yet, the local navigation was considerably constrained by two Rapids: the Xuzhou Rapids (徐州洪), a kilometer southeast of the city, and the Lüliang Rapids (呂梁洪), another 24 kilometers further south. [43] The remedy provided by the Ministry of Works is constructing the Jia Canal, which paralleled the treacherous stretch of Xuzhou. However, the canal completed in the 1600s ravaged the city. Not only it disrupted the former drainage system, but also depressed the local economy. [44] Prior to the recession, flooding and the famines followed struck Xuzhou frequently. [45] The worst flooding occurred in 1624: it was immersed up to 1 zhang and 3 chi (about 4m) within the city. [46]

After the Hongguang Emperor enthroned in Nanjing, the court designated four defense areas along the southern bank of the Yellow River (江北四鎮) to repulse the Qing armies. While the former bandit general, Gao Jie (高傑) was designated to take the crucial forward position at Xuzhou by Shi Kefa. [47] But the assassination of Gao seriously reduced the court's capacity to deal with challenges from Qing. [48] Gao's successor was Li Chengdong (李成棟). Being aware of forthcoming attack, Li deserted Xuzhou in the early summer of 1645. Then Dodo's army captured the city.

Map of the prefectural city of Xuzhou in the late Qing, the outer earthen ramparts against the Nian Rebellion is also shown. Map of Xuzhou Walled City (Qing, Qing Xu Zhou Fu Cheng Tu ).jpg
Map of the prefectural city of Xuzhou in the late Qing, the outer earthen ramparts against the Nian Rebellion is also shown.

The seismic activity of the Tancheng earthquake in 1688 was also involved Xuzhou. "More than half the houses of the city were ruined" and "led to enormous deaths", accroding to the gazetteer. [49]

In the 1850s, the Yellow River shifted its course from the southern to the northern side of the Shandong peninsula, the process caused serious floods and famine in Xuzhou, and almost made the waterway system within the prefecture defunct.

Modern China

Zhang Xun and his remaining army fled to Xuzhou after the Revolution of 1911. They entered the city on 5 December. The Nanking Government sent three armies to attack Xuzhou. In the middle of February, 1912, Zhang evacuated the city and moved north after he was defeated.

Since the Second Revolution began, Xuzhou became a front-line city. The Revolutionary Army fared badly as it advanced from there towards the north, and a rout ensued. Then the Beiyang Army captured the city on 24 July. Thereafter, Zhang Xun made Xuzhou his base. he convened four meetings of the Beiyang leadership. Involved the stalemate among Li Yuanhong and Duan Qirui in 1917, he marched on Beijing with a troop in June. His failure spread and caused a terrible wave of theft and arson committed by his garrisons later in Xuzhou in July.

The Zhili clique dominated Xuzhou by 1924. In the autumn of this year, the Second Zhili–Fengtian War broke out, Zhang Zongchang who supported the Fengtian clique seized the city with his thirty thousand soldiers. Sun Chuanfang led a coalition of forces to sortie the Fengtian Army in October 1925. They occupied the city on 8 November. As the leader of the Northern Expedition, Chiang Kai-shek arrived in Xuzhou on 17 June 1927. [50] He conferred with Feng Yuxiang and other Kuomintang officers on 20 June, Feng was courted by Nanjing. [51] Then Sun Chuanfang and Zhang Zongchang began to fight in unison against the Nationalist government. They captured the city on 24 June. The fall of Xuzhou arouse public outrage, Chiang 's first resignation ensued. On 16 December, Nanjing force took the area again. [52]

Chinese killed by Japanese Army in a ditch, Xuzhou Chinese killed by Japanese Army in a ditch, Hsuchow.jpg
Chinese killed by Japanese Army in a ditch, Xuzhou

The area was the main site both of the Battle of Xuzhou in 1938 against the Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War and of the battle in the Chinese Civil War, the Huaihai Campaign in 1948-49.

On 19 May 1938, Chiang gave the order to abandon Xuzhou, then Japanese military took control of the city.

The Administrative Commission of the Su-Huai Special Region (蘇淮特別區) was established in January 1942, with its seat at Xuzhou. It was replaced by a new puppet province, Huaihai (淮海省). Hao Pengju was appointed as the governor. [53]

After the Second Sino-Japanese War, the troop under He Zhuguo entered Xuzhou on 6 September. The Xuzhou Pacification Commission (徐州綏靖公署) was founded in the end of year, and Gu Zhutong was appointed as the Chief. It was disbanded when the Army Command Headquarters of transferred to Xuzhou on 5 March 1947. Meantime, a military tribunal attached to the commission was organized to sentence 25 Japanese soldiers. [54] [55]

Guo Yingqiu as the representative of the CPC went to Xuzhou to negotiate a regional truce, since 10 February 1946. On 2 March, the "Committee of Three", comprising George Marshall, Zhang Zhizhong and Zhou Enlai arrived for the ceasefire in Central China. Still, the KMT and the CPC came into conflict soon. The CPC revealed that Yasuji Okamura assisted the KMT in the local warfare against the PLA.

The Huaihai was the a critical of the trinity of the major campaigns during the Chinese Civil War. Fighting centred around the city of Xuzhou, seat of the Bandit Suppression Headquarters (剿匪總司令部) established on 6 June 1948. It turned into a fiasco, which led to the fall of the Nationalist Chinese capital Nanjing. [56] The CPC controlled the city on 1 December.

Then Xuzhou (the old urban area) was made a part of Shandong province temporarily, together with the rest area of the northern Jiangsu along the Longhai Railway. The city was returned to Jiangsu as the province was restored in 1953.

The railways in Xuzhou bore the brunt of the transporting muddle in the 1970s, Beijing was concerned with the issue in 1974. Thus, the then Minister of Railways, Wan Li went to Xuzhou to inspect and rectify in March. It was deemed as a breakthrough on restoring order later. [57]

On April 22, 1993, Xuzhou was ratified as a "Larger Municipality" with legislative power by the State Council. [58]

Administration

The evolutionary history

The present administrative division

The prefecture-level city of Xuzhou administers ten county-level divisions, including five districts, two county-level cities and three counties. These are further divided into 161 township-level divisions, including 63 subdistricts and 98 towns. [59]

Map
NameChineseHanyu PinyinPopulation (2010)Area (km2)Density (/km2)
City Proper
Gulou District 鼓楼区Gǔlóu Qū490,855218.582,245.65
Yunlong District 云龙区Yúnlóng Qū345,393119.722,885.00
Quanshan District 泉山区Quánshān Qū539,69399.975,398.55
Suburban
Jiawang District 贾汪区Jiǎwāng Qū430,712620.26694.41
Tongshan District 铜山区Tóngshān Qū1,247,1252,003.99622.32
Rural
Feng County 丰县Fēng Xiàn963,5311,450.28666.38
Pei County 沛县Pèi Xiàn1,141,9351,805.77632.38
Suining County 睢宁县Suīníng Xiàn1,039,3151,769.34587.40
Satellite cities (County-level cities)
Xinyi City 新沂市Xīnyí Shì920,6281,592.30578.17
Pizhou City 邳州市Pīzhōu Shì1,458,0382,084.69699.40
Total8,577,22511,764.88729.05

Geography

Xuzhou is of strategic importance for linking South China and North China. The boundaries of its jurisdiction are adjacent to Lianyungang and Suqian in east; Suzhou of Anhui province to the south; Huaibei to the west; Linyi, Zaozhuang, Jining and Heze of Shandong province to the north.

The area can be divided into four sectors from east to west, constitute the Shandong-Jiangsu Traps (鲁苏地盾), the Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (郯庐断裂带), the Xu-Huai Downwarp-fold Belt (徐淮坳褶带) and the Fault-block of West Shandong (鲁西断块) respectively. Most of the area is located in the Xu-Huai Alluvial Plain, the southeast part of the North China Plain.

The confluence of the former Si River and the former Bian Canal, situated off the ancient Xuzhou city north-eastwards. The city and its hinterland were the areas liable to severe flooding by the Yellow River since the 10th century. In 1194, the river changed its course to join the Si River, the former tributary of the Huai. From then on, it flowed along the north of the walled city until 1855. The city proper is bisected by its ancient course nowadays, while the Yunlong Lake (云龙湖) is located in the southwest. North of the lake is Yunlong Park.

Climate

Xuzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool, dry winters, warm springs, long, hot and humid summers, and crisp autumns. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 0.4 °C (32.7 °F) in January to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in July; the annual mean is 14.48 °C (58.1 °F). Snow may occur during winter, though rarely heavily. Precipitation is light in winter, and a majority of the annual total of 832 millimetres (32.8 in) occurs from June thru August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 44% in July to 54% in three months, the city receives 2,221 hours of bright sunshine annually.

The lowest temperature recorded in Xuzhou was -23.3 °C, on 6 February 1969, while the highest was 43.4 °C, on 15 July 1955. [60]

Climate data for Xuzhou (1971−2000)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)19.8
(67.6)
25.9
(78.6)
30.1
(86.2)
34.8
(94.6)
38.2
(100.8)
40.6
(105.1)
40.0
(104.0)
38.2
(100.8)
36.2
(97.2)
34.5
(94.1)
29.0
(84.2)
21.3
(70.3)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F)5.2
(41.4)
7.8
(46.0)
13.4
(56.1)
20.9
(69.6)
26.3
(79.3)
30.4
(86.7)
31.4
(88.5)
30.6
(87.1)
26.9
(80.4)
21.5
(70.7)
14.1
(57.4)
7.7
(45.9)
19.7
(67.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.4
(32.7)
2.7
(36.9)
8.0
(46.4)
15.1
(59.2)
20.6
(69.1)
25.0
(77.0)
27.1
(80.8)
26.3
(79.3)
21.7
(71.1)
15.7
(60.3)
8.5
(47.3)
2.6
(36.7)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F)−3.3
(26.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.2
(37.8)
9.8
(49.6)
15.1
(59.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.5
(74.3)
22.7
(72.9)
17.4
(63.3)
10.9
(51.6)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
10.0
(50.1)
Record low °C (°F)−17.3
(0.9)
−23.3
(−9.9)
−7.6
(18.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
4.8
(40.6)
12.4
(54.3)
15.9
(60.6)
13.4
(56.1)
5.0
(41.0)
−1.0
(30.2)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.5
(7.7)
−23.3
(−9.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)17.6
(0.69)
20.5
(0.81)
36.0
(1.42)
47.1
(1.85)
65.5
(2.58)
106.8
(4.20)
241.0
(9.49)
132.6
(5.22)
72.3
(2.85)
51.5
(2.03)
26.7
(1.05)
14.0
(0.55)
831.6
(32.74)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)4.05.46.47.17.48.013.59.97.26.85.13.784.5
Average relative humidity (%)66646262646780817470696669
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.8147.5177.0210.5232.7218.6191.9202.8188.3190.8164.2151.82,220.9
Percent possible sunshine 46484854545144495154535050
Source: China Meteorological Administration [61]

Demographics

According to the 1% National Population Sample Survey in 2015, the total resident population of Xuzhou reached 8.66 millions, and the sex ratio was 101.40 males to 100 females. [62]

Historical resident population [18]
YearUrban areasTongshanFengPeiSuiningPizhouXinyiTotal
1913826,083291,562280,345501,867636,0402,535,897
1918854,213281,696294,604506,975639,0642,576,552
1928954,939308,968329,933508,226568,1932,670,259
1932986,536304,480346,593547,848584,9042,770,361
19351,099,296364,007391,121645,890642,6413,142,955
1953333,1901,072,430473,815395,094653,854683,113452,2034,063,699
1964505,4171,001,377587,822575,237729,619861,117518,0864,778,675
1982779,2891,414,460834,568869,778981,9171,187,526741,6006,809,138
1990949,2671,741,522952,7601,042,2801,160,7721,431,728883,6508,161,979
200216796261,262,4891,068,4041,183,0481,217,8201,539,922962,6568,913,965
20101,911,5851,142,193963,5971,141,9351,042,5441,458,036920,6108,580,500

Economy

Historically, Xuzhou and the surrounding regions were a predominantly agricultural area. Its arable land was severely depleted by the changes in the course of the Yellow River since the mid 11th century, and the drought-resistant crops: wheat, sorghum, soybean, maize and potato, became the local staples. Besides, cotton, peanut, tobacco and sesame also grew in low-yield. The local mining traces it origins to an iron mine, Liguo. It was exploited since Han dynasty, and managed by a particular bureau in Song. And the city had major coal reserves of the province. [63] Local coaling began by the 1070s, according to a lyric of the then governor Su Shi. [64] Copper smelting in this area supposedly started in the Three Kingdoms era. [65]

The city astride the old course of the Grand Canal had been through several transitory periods of prosperity, before the grain tribute system was abolished in 1855. It remained being economically backward in the 1940s for wars, and a few people engaged in industrial sectors.

Later the CPC positioned the city as a region of coal mining and heavy industry. Its dominant sectors are machinery, energy and food production nowadays. The construction machinery manufacturer XCMG is the largest company based in Xuzhou. It was the world's tenth-largest construction equipment maker measured by 2011 revenues, and the third-largest based in China (after Sany and Zoomlion). [66]

Education

Xuzhou was not a regional centre for education, but two defunct institutions once chose their sites within the city: Provincial College of Kiangsu (省立江蘇學院) and North China Theological Seminary. In the 1950s, the then Jiangsu Normal Academy relocated to the city in 1958, and the then Nanjing Medical College, Xuzhou was founded later, both survived the Great Leap Forward. In 1978, the then China Institute of Mining and Technology relocated to Xuzhou.

North gate of Wenchang Campus, Xuzhou Branch, China University of Mining and Technology North gate of Wenchang Campus, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou.jpg
North gate of Wenchang Campus, Xuzhou Branch, China University of Mining and Technology

Schools

Universities and colleges

Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Diocese of Xuzhou Sacred Heart Cathedral, Xuzhou.jpg
Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Diocese of Xuzhou

Religion

The buildings of Xinghua Temple were erected from the Song dynasty onwards Xinghua Temple in Xuzhou 09 2013-01.jpg
The buildings of Xinghua Temple were erected from the Song dynasty onwards

According to the local administrator's survey in 2014, around 4.76% of the population of Xuzhou, namely 0.46 million people belongs to organised religions.The largest groups being Protestants with 350,000 people, followed by Buddhists with 70,000 people.

Xuzhou is deemed one of earlier Buddhist centres in China supposedly because the Emperor Ming of Han mentioned that the then Prince of Chu Liu Ying built a "temple for Buddha". [67]

The local Catholic activities were dominated by the French-Canadians of the Society of Jesus since the 1880s, [68] and there were 73,932 adherents and seventeen churches in 1940. Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, completed in 1910, is still a principal church nowadays. While the initial Protestant mission in Xuzhou was led by Alfred G. Jones of BMS, then American Southern Presbyterian Mission took over it in the 1890s.

Culture

Arts

According to Xu Wei's Nanci Xulu (南詞敘錄; [Treatises and Catalogue of Nanqu]), Yuyao Tone (余姚腔), one of then major Southern Operas, was prevalent in Xuzhou during the Mid-Ming period. Shanxi merchants popularized Bangzi in Xuzhou afterwards, since it was introduced in the late Ming along the Great Cannel. Fused the local ballads in dialect, this localized version evolved into a new opera over the following centuries. The opera was designated as Jiangsu Bangzi (江蘇梆子) in 1962.

The new municipal concert hall was opened in 2011, shaped like a myrtle flower. However, the various regular performances are unattainable. While the first local philharmonic orchestra is established in 2015.

Media

The first local newspaper entitled Hsing-hsü Daily (醒徐日報) was started in 1913. Nowadays, Xuzhou's major newspaper is Xuzhou Daily (徐州日報), which was founded in the end of 1948. It is owned and operated by the Xuzhou Committee of the Communist Party of China. [69]

Local radio stations
StationChinese nameFrequency
News Radio新闻广播93 FM
Private Motor Radio私家车广播91.6 FM
Traffic Radio交通广播103.3 FM
Joy Radio文艺广播89.6 FM
Local television channels
ChannelChinese nameDescription
XZ·1徐州·1News & General
XZ·2徐州·2Economy & Life
XZ·3徐州·3Arts & Entertainment
XZ·4徐州·4Public

The earliest local radio was broadcasting in 1934 for public education. Then Japanese military founded Hsuchow Broadcasting Station (徐州放送局; Joshi Hōsōkyoku) in 1938, after the city was captured. The National Army took over it after the World War II. Broadcasting was resumed in 1949, operated by the CPC. In 1980, Xuzhou TV Station was established. A decade later, Xuzhou TV Tower was completed.

Museums

Dialect

As a subdialect of Central Plains Mandarin, Xuzhou dialect is spoken in the whole area, especially in the suburb and countryside.

Cuisine

Xuzhou cuisine is closely related to Shandong cuisine's Jinan-style. Xuzhou's most well known foods include bǎzi ròu (pork belly, and other items stewed in a thick broth), sha tang ( Shi Ta .svg 汤), and various dog meat dishes.

Another one of Xuzhou's famous dishes is di guo (地锅) style cooking which places ingredients with a spicy sauce in a deep black skillet and cooks little pieces of flatbread on the side or top. Common staples of di guo style cooking include chicken, fish, lamb, pork rib and eggplant.

Fu Yang Festival (伏羊节) is a traditional festival celebrated in the city. It starts on Chufu (初伏) which is around mid-July and lasts for about one month. During the festival, people eat lamb meat and drink lamb soup. This festival is very popular among all the citizens.

Transport

Roads

Expressways

National Highway

Rail

Xuzhou is an important railway hub, where two major passenger stations: Xuzhou and Xuzhou East are situated in. Xuzhou Railway Station is at the intersection of Jinghu Railway and Longhai Railway. While Xuzhou East Railway Station on the eastern outskirts is the junction of the Beijing–Shanghai and Xuzhou–Lanzhou high-speed railways.

Aviation

Xuzhou Guanyin International Airport serves the area with scheduled passenger flights to major airports in China including Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Hong Kong and many other cities.

Public transportation

The Xuzhou Metro will be the first subway in North Jiangsu. The project was approved by State Council in 2013. 3 subway lines are being built and expected to be completed by 2019-2020 one after another, with total length of 67 km.

The others

The Grand Canal flows through Xuzhou, and the navigation route extends from Jining to Hangzhou.

Luning oil pipeline, which originates from Linyi county of Shandong to Nanjing, passes through Xuzhou.

Military

Xuzhou is headquarters of the 12th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that compose the Nanjing Military Region responsible for the defense of China's eastern coast and possible military engagement with Taiwan. The People's Liberation Army Navy also has a Type 054A frigate that shares the name of the region.

See also

Notes

  1. "China: Jiāngsū (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de.
  2. "国务院关于徐州市城市总体规划的批复(国函〔2017〕78号)_政府信息公开专栏". www.gov.cn. Retrieved 2018-01-15.
  3. Postal romanization, See, e.g., this 1947 ROC map.
  4. Rosario Renaud, Süchow. Diocèse de Chine 1882-1931, Montréal, 1955.
  5. 1 2 Canadian Missionaries, Indigenous Peoples: Representing Religion at Home and Abroad. University of Toronto Press. 2005. p. 208.
  6. Louis Hermand, Les étapes de la Mission du Kiang-nan 1842-1922 et de la Mission de Nanking 1922-1932, Shanghai, 1933.
  7. See: Wade-Giles.
  8. Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1116. ISBN   978-0-313-33539-6.
  9. Twitchett, Fairbank (2009). The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 5: The Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors, 960-1279 AD, Part I. Cambridge University Press. p. 1042. ISBN   978-0521812481.
  10. "江苏邳州梁王城遗址大汶口文化遗存发掘简报 (Brief Excavation Report of the Remains of Dawenkou Culture at the Site of Liangwangcheng in Pizhou, Jiangsu Province)" (PDF). 东南文化 (Southeast Culture). 2013(4): 21–41.
  11. Yu, Weichao. "銅山丘湾商代社祀遗迹的推定". 考古 (Archaeology). 1973(5): 296–298.
  12. 竹書紀年[ Bamboo Annals ]. 武丁…四十三年,王師滅大彭
  13. 國語 Guoyu [Discourses of the States]. 彭、豕韋為商伯矣。當週未有…彭姓彭祖、豕韋、諸稽,則商滅之矣
  14. Ji (2008), p. 8.
  15. Ji (2008), p. 17.
  16. Twitchett, Loewe (1987), p. 114.
  17. Twitchett, Loewe (1987), p. 670.
  18. 1 2 Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Demography Chorography (in Chinese). Nanjing: Jiangsu Guji Press. 1999. ISBN   7-80122-5260.
  19. Twitchett (2007), p. 593.
  20. Twitchett (2007), p. 541.
  21. Twitchett (2007), p. 687, 697.
  22. Twitchett (2007), p. 516, 557.
  23. Twitchett (2007), p. 558, 697.
  24. Twitchett (2007), p. 696.
  25. Twitchett (2007), p. 697.
  26. Twitchett (2007), p. 727.
  27. History of Song . 25. "三年春正月...丙午,粘罕陷徐州,守臣王復及子倚死之,軍校趙立結鄉兵為興復計...金兵執淮陽守臣李寬,殺轉運副使李跋,以騎兵三千取彭城,間道趣淮甸", "三月...趙立復徐州"; 448. "建炎三年,金人攻徐,王復拒守…城始破,立巷戰…陰結鄉民為收復計。金人北還,立率殘兵邀擊,斷其歸路,奪舟船金帛以千計,軍聲複振。乃盡結鄉民為兵,遂複徐州"; Study of Northern Alliances During the Three Reigns [三朝北盟會編]. 134. "趙立方知徐州,以徐州城孤且乏糧不可守,乃率将兵及民兵約三萬趨行在"
  28. 1 2 金史·列传第五十五.
  29. 金史·列传第五十一.
  30. 元史·列传第三十七.
  31. 元史·列传第三十五.
  32. History of Yuan. 42. "八月...丙戌,蕭縣李二及老彭、趙君用攻陷徐州。李二號芝麻李,與其黨亦以燒香聚眾而反", "二月...戊子,詔:「徐州內外群聚之眾,限二十日,不分首從,並與赦原」", "秋七月...以征西元帥斡羅為章佩添設少監,討徐州。脫脫請親出師討徐州,詔許之", "八月...辛卯,脫脫復徐州,屠其城,芝麻李等遁走"; 138. "十二年,紅巾有號芝麻李者,據徐州。脫脫請自行討之,以逯魯曾為淮南宣慰使,募鹽丁及城邑趫捷,通二萬人,與所統兵俱發。九月,師次徐州,攻其西門。賊出戰,以鐵翎箭射馬首,脫脫不為動,麾軍奮擊之,大破其衆,入其外郛。明日,大兵四集,亟攻之,賊不能支,城破,芝麻李遁去。獲其黃繖旗鼓,燒其積聚,追擒其偽千戶數十人,遂屠其城".
  33. Franke, Twitchett (2006). The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 6: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. p. 577. ISBN   978-0-521-24331-5.
  34. History of Yuan. 138. 詔改徐州為武安州,而立碑以著其績
  35. History of Ming. 123. 當是時,士誠所據,南抵紹興,北逾徐州
  36. History of Ming. 1. 二十六年春...濠、徐、宿三州相繼下
  37. 明太祖實錄[Veritable Records of the Hongwu Reign]. 22. 元將擴廓帖木兒遣左丞李二侵徐州,兵駐陵子村。參政陸聚令指揮傅友德禦之,友德率兵二千餘泛舟至呂梁,伺其出掠,即舍舟登入擊之。李二遣禆將韓乙盛兵迎戰,友德奮槊刺韓乙墜馬,其兵敗去。友德度李二必益兵來鬥,趨還城開門,出兵陳城外,令士皆臥槍以待。有頃,李二果率眾至,友德令鳴鼓,我師奮起,沖其前鋒。李二眾大潰,多溺死,遂生擒李二及其將士二百七十餘人,獲馬五百餘疋。
  38. Twitchett, Mote (1998), p. 598.
  39. Twitchett, Mote (1998), p. 603.
  40. Peterson (2002). The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9: The Ch'ing Empire to 1800, Part I. Cambridge University Press. p. 647. ISBN   0 521 24334 3.
  41. 錦南漂海錄[A Record of Drifting Across the Southern Brocade Sea]. 3. 江以北,若揚州、淮安,及淮河以北,若徐州、濟寧、臨清,繁華豐阜,無異江南,臨清為尤盛
  42. Twitchett, Mote (1998), p. 590.
  43. Twitchett, Mote (1998), p. 599.
  44. Shen, Defu. 萬曆野獲編[Unofficial Gleanings from the Wanli Era]. 12. 徐州卑濕,自堤上視之,如居釜底,與汴梁相似;而堤之堅厚重復,十不得汴二三餘見彼中故老,皆云目中已三見漂溺。須急徒城於高阜,如雲龍、子房等山,皆善地可版築,不然終有其魚之歎。又城下洪河,為古今孔道,自通泇後,軍民二運,俱不復經。商賈散徒,井邑蕭條,全不似一都會
  45. For instances, in 1453, see History of Ming. 177. "景泰...四年...先是,鳳陽、淮安、徐州大水,道堇相望...至是山東、河南饑民就食者坌至,廩不能給。惟徐州廣運倉有余積..."; in 1465, see History of Ming. 161. "夏寅...成化元年考滿入都,上言:「徐州旱澇,民不聊生...」"; in 1518, see 江南通志 [General Gazetteer of Jiangnan]. 83. "正德...十三年淮徐等處歲饑,截漕運粟數萬石并益以倉儲賑濟"; in 1544, see 明世宗實錄 [Veritable Records of the Jiajin Reign]. 290. "嘉靖二十三年九月…以鳳陽、淮安、揚州、廬州並徐州灾傷重大,命正兌米俱准折色"; in 1576, see History of Ming. 84. "萬曆...四年...未幾,河決韋家樓,又決沛縣縷水堤,豐、曹二縣長堤,豐、沛、徐州、睢甯、金鄉、魚臺、單、曹田廬漂溺無算"
  46. History of Ming. 84. 天啟...四年六月,決徐州魁山堤,東北灌州城,城中水深一丈三尺
  47. Mote, Twitchett (2007), p. 633.
  48. Mote, Twitchett (2007), p. 656.
  49. 江苏省志·地震事业志 [Jiangsu Provincial Gazetteer, Volume on Seismic Project](PDF). 1994. pp. 78–9. ISBN   7-80519-550-1.
  50. Fairbank (2005), p. 651.
  51. Fairbank (2005), p. 665.
  52. Fairbank (2005), p. 700.
  53. Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Civil Administration Chorography. Beijing: China Local Records Publishing. 2002.
  54. "徐州绥靖公署军事法庭审判日本战犯回顾(in Chinese)".
  55. "不能忘却的审判(in Chinese)".
  56. "Battle of Suchow". Life Magazine, December 6, 1948.
  57. "万里同志与1975年铁路整顿". China Railway (in Chinese).
  58. "国务院关于同意苏州市和徐州市为"较大的市"的批复".
  59. "徐州市区划简册(2016)".
  60. "沂沭泗流域介绍(in Chinese)".
  61. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
  62. "The bulletin of 1% National Population Sample Survey in Xuzhou 2015 's main data".
  63. "Jiangsu Provincial Geography" (in Chinese). Beijing: Beijing Normal University Publishing Group. 2011. ISBN   9787303131686.
  64. Feng, Yingliu (2001). "石炭". 蘇軾詩詞合注[Commentary to an Integrator of Several Versions of the Collection of Su Shi's Poetry and Lyrics]. Shanghai. p. 878. ISBN   9787532526529. 彭城舊無石炭。元豐元年十二月,始遣人訪獲於州之西南白土鎮之北,冶鐵作兵
  65. A triangle-edge copper mirror with carved divine beasts unearthed at the Kurozuka Kofun [黒塚古墳], Tenri, Japan, bore "銅出徐州;師出洛陽[Copper from Xuzhou; craftman from Luoyang]".
  66. "Analysis: China's budding Caterpillars break new ground overseas". Reuters. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  67. History of the Later Han. 42. 詔報曰:「楚王誦黃老之微言,尚浮屠之仁祠,絜齋三月,與神為誓,何嫌何疑,當有悔吝?其還贖,以助伊蒲塞桑門之盛饌。」
  68. "Le financement canadien-français de la mission chinoise des Jésuites au Xuzhou de 1931 à 1949" (PDF) (in French).
  69. "Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Press Chorography" (in Chinese). Nanjing:Jiangsu Guji Press.

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Cao Caos invasion of Xu Province punitive invasion launched by the warlord Cao Cao against Tao Qian

Cao Cao's invasion of Xu Province was a punitive invasion launched by the warlord Cao Cao against Tao Qian, the Governor of Xu Province, in the late Eastern Han dynasty. The casus belli for the invasion was the murder of Cao Cao's father, Cao Song, in Xu Province. Although Tao Qian's culpability was questionable, Cao Cao nonetheless held him responsible. The invasion took place in two separate waves in 193 and 194, during each of which Cao Cao captured a number of towns and engaged in collective punishment of the civilian populace.

Xuzhou as a historical toponym refers to varied area in different eras.

Slavery in Vietnam

The practice of slavery in Vietnam persisted since the Hồng Bàng period. Vietnam has been both a source and a destination for slaves.

The Eastern Wu campaign against Cao Wei was a military offensive launched in 241 by the state of Eastern Wu against its rival state, Cao Wei, during the Three Kingdoms period of China. The campaign was initiated by Wu's founding emperor, Sun Quan, two years after the death of the second Wei emperor, Cao Rui. The campaign ended with an overall failure.

The Battle of Chuisha took place in 301 BC in modern-day Henan between a 4-state alliance of Qi, Wei, Han and Qin against Chu. The Chu forces were defeated and their commanding general was killed.

Geng Bingwen (1334–1403) was a Ming dynasty general. He participated in the Jingnan Campaign on the side of the Jianwen Emperor. He committed suicide.

Wei Kang, courtesy name Yuanjiang, was an official who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

Battle of Handan

The Battle of Handan began in 259 BC and concluded in 257 BC, during which the garrison of Handan, the capital city of Zhao, joined by the allied force of Wei and Chu, defeated Qin. It was one of the most remarkable failures of Qin army after the Reform of Shang Yang.

Zhou Tai was a military general who served in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

Cao Ju was an imperial prince of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.


Tie Xuan (1366–1402), courtesy name Dingshi (鼎石), was born in Dengzhou, Henan during the Yuan dynasty and was a Semu Hui. He served as a loyal officer to the deposed Ming-dynasty emperor Jianwen. During the Jingnan Campaign, when the Prince of Yan Zhu Di rebelled against his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor, Tie Xuan refused to support Zhu Di. He was sentenced to death by having his limbs torn off and fried in oil. Later generations honored him for his unyielding loyalty. In various regions of China, there are temples set up in Tie's honor to offer rituals to him. In the Southern Ming period, he was honored with the title of Grand Protector 太保 and given the posthumous name Zhongxiang (忠襄). Later, during Qianlong’s reign in the Qing dynasty, he was given the posthumous name Zhongding (忠定).

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