Shaanxi

Last updated
Shaanxi Province
陕西省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese陕西省 (Shǎnxī Shěng)
  AbbreviationSN / or (pinyin :Shǎn / Qín)
Shaanxi in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Shaanxi Province
Coordinates: 35°36′N108°24′E / 35.6°N 108.4°E / 35.6; 108.4 Coordinates: 35°36′N108°24′E / 35.6°N 108.4°E / 35.6; 108.4
CountryChina
Capital
(and largest city)
Xi'an
Divisions10 prefectures, 107 counties, 1745 townships
Government
  Type Province
  BodyShaanxi Provincial People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Liu Guozhong
  Congress chairmanLiu Guozhong
   Governor Zhao Yide
   CPPCC chairman Han Yong
Area
[1]
  Total205,800 km2 (79,500 sq mi)
Area rank 11th
Highest elevation3,771 m (12,372 ft)
Population
 (2020) [2]
  Total39,530,000
  Rank 16th
  Density190/km2 (500/sq mi)
  Density rank 21st
Demographics
  Ethnic composition Han – 99.5%
Hui – 0.4%
  Languages and dialects Zhongyuan Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 code CN-SN
GDP (2020) CNY 2.618 trillion
USD 380 billion (14th) [3]
 - per capita CNY 66,234
USD 9,599 (14th)
 • growthIncrease2.svg 2.2%
HDI (2019)Increase2.svg 0.762 [4]
high · 13th
Website www.shaanxi.gov.cn (Simplified Chinese)
   Sub-provincial cities
Shaanxi
Shaanxi (Chinese characters).svg
"Shaanxi" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters

The ten prefecture-level cities of Shaanxi are subdivided into 107 county-level divisions (30 districts, 4 county-level cities, and 73 counties).

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [17] District area [17] City proper [17] Census date
1 Xi'an [lower-alpha 1] 5,206,2536,501,1908,467,8382010-11-01
(1)Xi'an (new districts) [lower-alpha 1] 389,830889,854see Xi'an2010-11-01
2 Baoji 871,9401,437,8023,716,7372010-11-01
3 Xianyang [lower-alpha 2] 730,704945,4205,096,0012010-11-01
4 Tongchuan 463,866743,277834,4372010-11-01
5 Yulin [lower-alpha 3] 429,189637,6173,351,4362010-11-01
(5)Yulin (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 114,188288,053see Yulin2010-11-01
6 Ankang 379,707870,1262,629,9062010-11-01
7 Hanzhong [lower-alpha 4] 350,167534,9233,416,1962010-11-01
(7)Hanzhong (new district) [lower-alpha 4] 144,596471,634see Hanzhong2010-11-01
8 Weinan [lower-alpha 5] 347,484877,1425,286,0772010-11-01
(8)Weinan (new district) [lower-alpha 5] 107,467322,148see Weinan2010-11-01
9 Yan'an [lower-alpha 6] 336,856475,2342,187,0092010-11-01
(9)Yan'an (new district) [lower-alpha 6] 74,945171,552see Yan'an2010-11-01
(10) Shenmu [lower-alpha 7] 282,650455,493see Yulin2010-11-01
11 Xingping 247,539541,554see Xianyang2010-11-01
12 Hancheng 196,574391,164see Weinan2010-11-01
13 Shangluo 156,781531,6962,341,7422010-11-01
14 Huayin 127,987258,113see Weinan2010-11-01
(15) Binzhou [lower-alpha 8] 106,710171,462see Xianyang2010-11-01
16 Yangling [lower-alpha 2] 104,944201,172see Xianyang2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New districts established after census: Gaoling (Gaoling County), Huyi (Huxian County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 Yangling is a satellite urban area separated from Xianyang and it is not included in the urban area & district area count.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Hengshan (Hengshan County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Nanzheng (Nanzheng County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Huazhou (Huaxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. 1 2 New district established after census: Ansai (Ansai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  7. Shenmu County is currently known as Shenmu CLC after census.
  8. Binxian County is currently known as Binzhou CLC after census.

Politics

Shaanxi People's Government Shan Xi Sheng Ren Min Zheng Fu 2017.jpg
Shaanxi People's Government

The politics of Shaanxi is structured in a triple party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.

The Governor of Shaanxi is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Shaanxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor is considered to have less power than the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (中共陕西省委书记), colloquially termed the "Shaanxi CPC Party Chief"; since the Governor is always ranked as the First-Deputy Secretary in the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee.

Shaanxi was established as a provincial government since Qing dynasty. On 10 January 1950, the People's Government of Shaanxi was established in Xi'an. Ma Minfang was then appointed as the first Governor of Shaanxi.

Economy

As of the mid-19th century, Shaanxi exported animal skins, wine, liquor, and musk. Money loans were also common, with Shaanxi business people involved in the Guangzhou loan business. Shaanxi commonly imported European animal skins, watches, Chinese language books, and cloth. [18]

The fossil fuel and high technology sectors compose the two largest industries in Shaanxi province. During 2009, the province ranked third in China for production of coal, natural gas and crude oil. [8] As the home of several of the leading universities and research institutes in Western China, Shaanxi province also plays a major role in China's burgeoning aircraft and aerospace industries, producing more than 50% of the R&D and manufacturing equipment for the country's domestic commercial air industry. [8] Nominal GDP for 2011 was 1,239 billion RMB (US$196.7 billion) and GDP per capita was 21,729 RMB (US$3,179), ranking 17th in the PRC.

In the first half of 2019, Shaanxi's total production value reached 1,162.557 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 5.4%. The added value of the primary industry was 55.319 billion yuan, an increase of 4.5%; the second industry was 557.935 billion yuan, an increase of 4.2%; the tertiary industry was 549.303 billion yuan, an increase of 6.8%. [19]

Economic and technological development zones

Baoji Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Established in 1992, Baoji Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved as a national hi-tech zone by the State Council. It has a long-term planned area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi). The transportation system around the zone includes Xi'an-Xianyang International Airport and National Highway 310, and industries operating within the zone include auto parts, electronics, IT, pharmaceuticals and bioengineering industries and new materials. [20]

Shaanxi Xi'an Export Processing Zone

Shaanxi Xi'an Export Processing Zone (XEPZ) was approved on 21 June 2002 by the State Council for its establishment and was put on 5 April 2004. As the first state-level export processing zone in northwest China, XEPZ has become one of the seven pioneer EPZs with the function of bonded logistics in China. XEPZ is under the leadership of the Administrative Committee of Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone (XETDZ), which is designated by Xi'an municipal government to exercise economic and administrative power within the zone. XEPZ is a special economic zone. By now, there are more than 40 enterprises home and abroad settled in XEPZ. The pillar industries feature aviation, machinery, electronics and new energy. [21]

Western Triangle

The Western Triangle is a new economic zone composing the three major city-level economies of Western China: Xi'an, Chongqing and Chengdu. It is believed that the addition of Xi'an to the Triangle will spur economic growth in the region and allow the city an opportunity to capitalize on the commercial potential of its high-technology industries. [8]

Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone

Established in 1993, Xi'an Economic and Technology Development Zone was approved as a national zone in 2000. The zone is 20 minutes from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport, and national highways pass through. It has formed four pillar industries: automotive, electronics, food, and new materials industries. So far, the zone has attracted more than 1,700 enterprises. [22]

Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Xi'an HTDZ opened its gates in 1991. It was established as a "pivotal location" for investment by high-tech industry companies in central and northwest China. Established in 1991, Xi'an Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone is a national high-tech zone. It is surrounded by national highways and it is 30 minutes from Xi'an International Airport. Furthermore, it is ranked in the top three high-tech zones in China. [23]

Xi'an Software Park

Xi'an Software Park, established in December 1998, is the professional park for Xi'an to develop scale software and service outsourcing industries. The park has been appraised as a software industry base under the National Torch Program, national software industry base, national software export base, city demonstrational area of national service outsourcing base. It is one of the four parks with "double bases" of software in China. Xi'an Software Park assembles 90% of enterprises engaging in software and service outsourcing in Xi'an. There were nearly 780 companies, of which foreign-funded enterprises account for 170, and over 71,000 jobholders in the park by the end of 2008. [24]

Yangling Agriculture Hi-Tech Industrial Zone

Yangling Agriculture Hi-Tech Industrial Zone was approved as a national-level hi-tech development zone by State Council in 1997. It is 82 km (51 mi) from Xi'an to the east and 70 km (43 mi) from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport. [25]

Demographics

Nearly all the people in Shaanxi are ethnic Han Chinese, with pockets of Hui population in the northwestern region (adjacent to Ningxia). Shaanxi province is one of the centers of ancient Chinese civilization. The central part of Shaanxi, known as Guanzhong, where the provincial capital Xi'an is located, is more populous compared to the others (Shaannan and Shaanbei),

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 [26] 9,364,000    
1928 [27] 11,802,000+26.0%
1936–37 [28] 9,780,000−17.1%
1947 [29] 10,011,000+2.4%
1954 [30] 15,881,281+58.6%
1964 [31] 20,766,915+30.8%
YearPop.±%
1982 [32] 28,904,423+39.2%
1990 [33] 32,882,403+13.8%
2000 [34] 35,365,072+7.6%
2010 [35] 37,327,378+5.5%
2020 [2] 39,528,999+5.9%
Xi'an part of Shaanxi Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Shaanxi Province.

Religion

Religion in Shaanxi [36] [note 1]

   Christianity (1.57%)
   Muslims (0.8%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (90.05%)

The predominant religions in Shaanxi are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 7.58% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 1.57% of the population identifies as Christian. [36] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.85% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.

Culture

Shaanxi cuisine Shaanxi cuisine.JPG
Shaanxi cuisine

Tourism

Terracotta Army Xian guerreros terracota general.JPG
Terracotta Army

Media

Education

Education Department of Shaanxi Province Shan Xi Sheng Jiao Yu Ting .jpg
Education Department of Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Science and Technology Museum Shan Xi Ke Ji Guan 2017.jpg
Shaanxi Science and Technology Museum

Tertiary education

Sports

Professional sports teams based in Shaanxi include:

See also

Notes

  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [36] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:

Related Research Articles

Xian Sub-provincial & prefecture-level city in Shaanxi, China

Xi'an, sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital of Shaanxi Province. A sub-provincial city on the Guanzhong Plain in Northwest China, it is one of the oldest cities in China, the oldest prefecture capital and one of the Chinese Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, Northern Zhou and Tang. The city is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the UNESCO World Heritage set Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.

Hubei Province of China

Hubei is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China.

Anhui Province of China

Anhui is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the East China region. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is located across the basins of the Yangtze River and the Huai River, bordering Jiangsu to the east, Zhejiang to the southeast, Jiangxi to the south, Hubei to the southwest, Henan to the northwest, and Shandong for a short section in the north.

Gansu is a landlocked province in Northwest China. Its capital and largest city is Lanzhou, in the southeast part of the province.

Liaoning Province of China

Liaoning, is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

Hunan Province of south-central China

Hunan is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the South Central China region. Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed, it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west and Chongqing to the northwest. Its capital and largest city is Changsha, which also abuts the Xiang River. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous province and the 10th most extensive province by area. Its 2020 nominal GDP was more than US$600 billion, appearing in the top 30 largest sub-national economies in the world with its PPP GDP being over US$1 trillion.

Jilin Province of China

Jilin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. Along with the rest of Northeast China, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by heavy industry, has been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale.

Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province in northeast China. It is the northernmost and easternmost province of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area, the 15th-most populous, and the second-poorest by GDP per capita.

Jiangxi Province in eastern China

Jiangxi is a landlocked province in the east of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Nanchang. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.

Qinghai Province of China

Qinghai, also known Kokonor, is a landlocked province in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. It is the fourth largest province of China by area and has the third smallest population. Its capital and largest city is Xining.

Lintong District District in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Lintong District, formerly Lintong County, is one of 11 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China. The district was approved to establish from the former Lintong County (临潼县) by the Chinese State Council on June 25, 1997. The Terracotta Army and the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor was discovered in March 1974 near this district. The district borders the prefecture-level cities of Xianyang to the northwest and Weinan to the east, Gaoling County to the northeast, Baqiao District to the southeast, Lianhu and Xincheng Districts to the south, and Chang'an District to the southwest.

Shangluo Prefecture-level city in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Shangluo is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Shaanxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Henan to the northeast and Hubei to the southeast. Part of the Shannan region of the province, it is located in the eastern part of the Qin Mountains.

Northwest China Geographical region of China

Northwest China is a statistical region of China which includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai. It has an area of 3,107,900 km2.

Weinan Prefecture-level city in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Weinan is a prefecture-level city in the east central Shaanxi province, China. The city lies on the lower section of the Wei River confluence into the Yellow River, about 60 km (37 mi) east of the provincial capital Xi'an, and borders the provinces of Shanxi and Henan to the east.

Western China Geographical and cultural region in China

Western China is the west of China. In the definition of the Chinese government, Western China covers one municipality: Chongqing; six provinces: Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai; and three autonomous regions: Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang.

Xincheng District, Xian District in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Xincheng District is one of 11 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China. It includes the northwestern part of Xi'an's walled city, as well as a number of neighborhoods to the east and northeast. Xi'an Railway Station is within Xincheng District. The district borders the districts of Weiyang to the north, Baqiao to the east, Yanta to the south, Beilin to the southwest, and Lianhu to the west.

Yanliang District District in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Yanliang District is one of nine districts of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi province, China. The northernmost and least-populous of Xi'an's county-level divisions, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Xianyang to the west and Weinan to the northeast and Lintong District to the south.

Gaoling District District in Shaanxi, Peoples Republic of China

Gaoling District is one of 11 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China. The most densely populated of the ten districts of Xi'an, the district borders the prefecture-level city of Xianyang to the northwest, Lintong District to the east, Baqiao District to the south, and Weiyang District to the southwest.

Guangxi Autonomous region of southern China

Guangxi, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in South China and bordering Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is Nanning.

References

  1. "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. 1 2 "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  3. GDP-2020 is a preliminary data "Home - Regional - Quarterly by Province" (Press release). China NBS. March 1, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  4. "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  5. "Shaanxi". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. n.d.
  6. 最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查). www.elivecity.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-03-03. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  7. "Xi'an - MSN Encarta". 2008-02-28. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  8. 1 2 3 4 "China Economy @ China Perspective". Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
  9. "陕州:黄河见证古城兴". Economic Information Daily [经济参考报]. 2017-12-06. Archived from the original on 2021-06-08.
  10. "The State Council of the People's Republic of China". Archived from the original on 2010-02-12. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  11. 1 2 3 Dictionary of the Ben cao gang mu, Volume 2: Geographical and Administrative Designations First Edition, Paul Unschuld, Series Editor Edition by Hua Linfu (Author), Paul D. Buell (Author), Paul U. Unschuld (Editor)
  12. "Silk Road, North China, C.Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham". Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  13. 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
  14. Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  15. Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6660-2.
  16. Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-7130-9.
  17. 1 2 3 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN   978-7-5037-6659-6.
  18. Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 123. Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
  19. "Shaanxi GDP in 1st Half of 2019: Up by 5.4% – Cilitech". cilitech.com. Archived from the original on 2019-07-31. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  20. "RightSite.asia | Baoji Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". Archived from the original on 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  21. "RightSite.asia | Shaanxi Xi'an Export Processing Zone". Archived from the original on 2010-01-25. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  22. "RightSite.asia | Xi'an Economic & Technological Development Zone". Archived from the original on 2010-01-28. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  23. "RightSite.asia | Xi'an High-tech Industrial Development Zone". Archived from the original on 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  24. "RightSite.asia | Xi'an Software Park". Archived from the original on 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  25. "RightSite.asia | Yangling Agriculture Hi-Tech Industrial Zone". Archived from the original on 2010-01-28. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
  26. 1912年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  27. 1928年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  28. 1936–37年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  29. 1947年全国人口. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  30. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.
  31. 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.
  32. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.
  33. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.
  34. 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.
  35. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.
  36. 1 2 3 China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
  37. Qian, Cai. General Yue Fei. Trans. Honorable Sir T.L. Yang. Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co., Ltd., 1995 ( ISBN   978-962-04-1279-0)