Commercial aviation

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Route map of the world's scheduled commercial airline traffic, 2009 World-airline-routemap-2009.png
Route map of the world's scheduled commercial airline traffic, 2009

Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or multiple loads of cargo.

Contents

History

Origins

Areas covered by commercial air routes in 1925 The World areas covered by Commercial Air Routes.jpg
Areas covered by commercial air routes in 1925

Harry Bruno and Juan Trippe were early promoters of commercial aviation.

The Air Commerce Act of 1926 began to regularize commercial aviation by establishing standards, facilitation, and promotion. An Aeronautical Branch was established in the Department of Commerce with William P. MacCracken Jr. as director. To promote commercial aviation, he told town fathers that "Communities without airports would be communities without airmail."

Writing for Collier's in 1929, he noted "Commercial aviation is the first industry inspired by hero-worship and built upon heros". He cited the promotion in South America by Herbert Dargue in early 1927. After his 1927 trans-Atlantic flight, Charles Lindbergh made a tour of the 48 States paid for by the Guggenheim Foundation for the Promotion of Aeronautics. From that point commercial aviation took off:

Roads were choked on Sundays, for weeks afterward, by motorists trying to get to Lambert Field, Lindbergh's home port in Saint Louis, to buy their first air hop. Hundreds of thousands of you went aloft for the first time that summer. [1]

Variety of commercial airliners at Tokyo Narita Airport 011 Aircraft of various airlines together at Narita Airport, Japan. Swiss Air Lines, United Airlines, Thai Airways.JPG
Variety of commercial airliners at Tokyo Narita Airport

The Aeronautical Branch was charged with issuing commercial pilot licenses, airworthiness certificates, and with investigating air accidents. [2]

Post-war aviation

A commercial aviation scene at Palma, the airport of Majorca, Spain. Passengers board an EasyJet Airbus A320 (2010) Boarding easyjet a319 g-ezav at palma majorca arp.jpg
A commercial aviation scene at Palma, the airport of Majorca, Spain. Passengers board an EasyJet Airbus A320 (2010)

After World War II, commercial aviation grew rapidly, using mostly ex-military aircraft to transport people and cargo. The experience used in designing heavy bombers such as the B-29 and Avro Lancaster could be used for designing heavy commercial aircraft. The DC-3 also made for easier and longer commercial flights. The first commercial jet airliner to fly was the British de Havilland Comet. By 1952, the British state airline BOAC had introduced the Comet into scheduled service. While a technical achievement, the plane suffered a series of highly public failures, as the shape of the windows[ citation needed ] led to cracks due to metal fatigue. The fatigue was caused by cycles of pressurization and depressurization of the cabin, and eventually led to catastrophic failure of the plane's fuselage.[ citation needed ] By the time the problems were overcome, other jet airliner designs had already taken to the skies.

Latin America

Until 1950s

Inspired by the major players such as the United States, the Soviet Union, Russia, France and Britain in the aviation industry. In 1910s, Brazil and Argentina were among the first Latin American countries to possess the instruments of aircraft that were not all locally made, yet the aircraft was locally congregated. [3] At that time, many individuals were interested to be pilots in Latin American countries, yet there were not sufficient resources and funding to support and promote the best interests of the aviation industry. [3] Amidst these obstacles, Argentina and Dominican Republic made efforts in creating jet aviation rather than creating and using propeller planes. [4] In 1944, the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation attended by all Latin American countries except Argentina drafted the clauses of aviation law. [5] The introduction of the jet fighter F-80 by the U.S. in 1945 pushed the Latin American countries even further away from development of aviation industry because it was simply expensive to recreate the sophisticated technology of F-80. [3]

1970s

The Latin American Civil Aviation Commission (LACAC) was formed in December 1973 "intended to provide civil aviation authorities in the region with an adequate framework for cooperation and coordination of activities related to civil aviation". [6] In 1976, about seven percent of the world logged in the Latin American and Caribbean region. [5] This contributed to the increase of average annual rate of air traffic. [5] Subsequently, higher passenger load factor decided the profitability of these airlines.

According to C. Bogolasky, Airline pooling agreements between Latin American airlines contributed to better financial performance of the airlines. The economic problems related to the "airline capacity regulation, regulation of non-scheduled operations, tariff enforcement, high operating costs, passenger and cargo rates." [5]

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate Social responsibility (CSR) comprises an umbrella of responsibilities of an organization towards its community, stakeholders and shareholders. [7] Organizations who are socially responsible fulfill their Triple Bottom Line obligations and dedicate efforts to minimize negative impact on stakeholders and shareholders. [7] According to "The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility" by Archie B. Carroll, there are four steps of social responsibility. First, economic responsibility of an organization is to produce profit and maximize the growth of an organization. Second, legal responsibility of an organization is to be compliant with all the laws and regulations. Third, ethical responsibility of an organization to create and follow standards of right decision making considering how it affects all the stakeholders. Fourth, philanthropic responsibility of an organization to help the community and stakeholders by "giving back". [7] The extent of fulfilling the four responsibilities define the corporate citizenship of an organization. [7]

Delta and LATAM Airlines were the only two airlines listed on the Dow Jones Sustainability Index. [8] [9] LATAM being the only airline company in the world to achieve 100% scores for efficiency, reliability and climate strategy in their corporate sustainability assessment. [8] LATAM promotes their corporate citizenship in their 2016 Sustainability report. [10] LATAM is affiliated with 6 countries which are Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Chile, and Peru. [10] LATAM accounts for 95% of South America's air traffic.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Airliner Aircraft designed for commercial transportation of passengers and cargo

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Aviation Design, development, production, operation and use of aircraft

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Aircraft pilot Person controlling an aircraft in flight

An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls. Some other aircrew members, such as navigators or flight engineers, are also considered aviators, because they are involved in operating the aircraft's navigation and engine systems. Other aircrew members, such as drone operators, flight attendants, mechanics and ground crew, are not classified as aviators.

Aviation accidents and incidents Aviation occurrence involving serious injury, death, or destruction of aircraft

An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which takes place from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, and in which a) a person is fatally or seriously injured, b) the aircraft sustains significant damage or structural failure, or c) the aircraft goes missing or becomes completely inaccessible. Annex 13 defines an aviation incident as an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety of operation.

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British Aerospace 146 Regional airliner family by British Aerospace, later BAE Systems

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LATAM Airlines Perú is an airline based in Lima, Perú. It is a subsidiary of LATAM Airlines Group, which owns 49% of the airline. It operates scheduled domestic and international services. Its main hub is Jorge Chávez International Airport. LATAM Perú is the dominant airline in Peru, controlling 73.4% of the domestic market.

LATAM Cargo Chile is a cargo airline based in Santiago, Chile and the freight subsidiary of the LATAM Airlines Group. It is operating cargo flights within South America, to Europe and North America from its hubs at Miami International Airport and Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport.

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General aviation in Europe

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LATAM Airlines Group S.A. is an airline holding company headquartered in Santiago, Chile. It is considered the largest airline in Latin America with subsidiaries in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru. The company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the United States on May 26, 2020 due to economic problems attributed to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on aviation. Although LATAM Airlines' headquarters are located in Chile, the carrier is an American depositary receipt and traded on both the Santiago Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange at the time of bankruptcy. The company's stock ticker (LTMAQ) was unlisted from the NYSE, and was later moved to the unregulated OTC Markets Pink on June 12, 2020.

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References

  1. McCracken, William P., Jr.; Courtney, W. B. (1929-12-21). "It's Hard to Get You Up: Selling aviation in America". Collier's . pp. 10–11. Archived from the original on 2021-09-10. Retrieved 2021-09-10.
  2. The First Federal Regulator for Aviation Archived 2017-10-03 at the Wayback Machine from Federal Aviation Administration
  3. 1 2 3 De La Pedraja, Rene (2013). The Influence of Airpower upon History. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 145–176.
  4. "Post WWII Highlights in Latin America Aviation History". smithsonianeducation.org. Archived from the original on 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Bogolasky, Jose C. "Air Transport in Latin America: The Expanding Role of the Latin American Civil Aviation Commission". Journal of Air Law and Commerce. 44: 75–107. Archived from the original on 2021-01-18. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  6. "Latin American Civil Aviation Commission (LACAC)". IBAS. Archived from the original on 2020-11-23. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Ferell; Fraedrich; Ferell (2018). "Chapter 2, Section 2". Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases, 12th Edition. Cengage. ISBN   978-1337614436.
  8. 1 2 "LATAM Airlines Group is the leading airline in the Americas on the Dow Jones Sustainability 'World' Index as responsible investment reaches new heights". www.latam.com. Archived from the original on 2020-04-08. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
  9. "Delta named to 2016 Dow Jones Sustainability North America Index". Delta News Hub. Archived from the original on 2020-04-08. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
  10. 1 2 "Corporate citizenship". www.latam.com. Archived from the original on 2020-04-08. Retrieved 2020-04-02.