|Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation|
|Type||Aviation, international criminal law, anti-terrorism|
|Drafted||10 September 2010|
|Signed||10 September 2010|
|Effective||1 July 2018|
|Depositary||Secretary General of the International Civil Aviation Organization|
|Languages||English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish|
The Beijing Convention (formally, the Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation) is a 2010 treaty by which state parties agree to criminalise certain terrorist actions against civil aviation.
The Convention was concluded on 10 September 2010 at the Diplomatic Conference on Aviation Security in Beijing. (At the same conference, the Protocol Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft was adopted.) Parties that ratify the Convention agree to criminalise using civil aircraft as a weapon and using dangerous materials to attack aircraft or other targets on the ground. The illegal transport of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons is also criminalised under the Convention.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions. Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ). A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy.
The negotiation of a new aviation security treaty that would address emerging threats to aviation was in part prompted by the September 11 attacks. At the conclusion of the conference, the U.S. delegate stated that "[o]n the eve of the anniversary of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the United States can think of no more fitting and hopeful way to mark that occasion than with the adoption of these two new major counterterrorism instruments."
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.
The treaty entered into force on 1 July 2018 following Turkey's accession thereto. It has been signed by 35 states and ratified or acceded to by 26 (as of September 2018).
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
The International Civil Aviation Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters is located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.
The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, known informally as the Ottawa Treaty, the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, or often simply the Mine Ban Treaty, aims at eliminating anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines) around the world. To date, there are 164 state parties to the treaty. One state has signed but not ratified the treaty, while 32 UN states, including China, Russia, and the United States have not; making a total of 33 United Nations states not party.
The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the UN charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel. The Convention also exempts air fuels in transit from (double) taxation.
The African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba, establishes a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa. The treaty was signed in 1996 and came into effect with the 28th ratification on 15 July 2009.
Anti-terrorism legislation are laws with the purpose of fighting terrorism. They usually, if not always, follow specific bombings or assassinations. Anti-terrorism legislation usually includes specific amendments allowing the state to bypass its own legislation when fighting terrorism-related crimes, under the grounds of necessity.
The Cape Town Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment, or Cape Town Treaty is an international treaty intended to standardize transactions involving movable property. The treaty creates international standards for registration of contracts of sale, security interests (liens), leases and conditional sales contracts, and various legal remedies for default in financing agreements, including repossession and the effect of particular states' bankruptcy laws.
The Nuclear Terrorism Convention is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2018, the convention has 115 signatories and 114 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Most recently, Benin ratified the convention on 2 November 2017.
The Terrorist Financing Convention is a 1999 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of financing acts of terrorism. The convention also seeks to promote police and judicial co-operation to prevent, investigate and punish the financing of such acts. As of October 2018, the treaty has been ratified by 188 states; in terms of universality, it is therefore one of the most successful anti-terrorism treaties in history.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1450, adopted on 13 December 2002, after reaffirming the principles of the United Nations Charter and resolutions 1189 (1998), 1269 (1999), 1368 (2001) and 1373 (2001), the Council condemned the attacks on Israeli targets in Kikambala and Mombasa, Kenya on 28 November 2002.
The Agreement for the Suppression of the Circulation of Obscene Publications is a multilateral anti-pornography treaty that was initially negotiated and concluded in Paris in 1910. It was amended by a 1949 Protocol. As of 2013, the treaty has 57 state parties.
The Hague Hijacking Convention is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to prohibit and punish aircraft hijacking. The convention does not apply to customs, law enforcement or military aircraft, thus it applies exclusively to civilian aircraft. The convention only addresses situations in which an aircraft takes off or lands in a place different from its country of registration. The convention sets out the principle of aut dedere aut judicare—that a party to the treaty must prosecute an aircraft hijacker if no other state requests his or her extradition for prosecution of the same crime.
The Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel is a United Nations treaty that has the goal of protecting United Nations peacekeepers and other UN personnel.
The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to prohibit and punish behaviour which may threaten the safety of civil aviation.
The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA) or Sua Act is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to prohibit and punish behaviour which may threaten the safety of maritime navigation.
The Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to prohibit and punish behaviour which may threaten the safety of offshore fixed platforms, including oil platforms.
The Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse is a multilateral Council of Europe treaty whereby states agree to criminalise certain forms of sexual abuse against children. It is the first international treaty that addresses child sexual abuse that occurs within the home or family.
The Convention for the Suppression of the Circulation of and Traffic in Obscene Publications is a 1923 League of Nations anti-pornography treaty that was initially negotiated and concluded in Geneva. It was amended by a 1947 Protocol and as of 2013 has 56 state parties.
The International Convention for the Suppression of Counterfeiting Currency is a 1929 League of Nations treaty whereby states agree to criminalise acts of currency counterfeiting. It remains the principal international agreement on currency counterfeiting.