Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives

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Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives
Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection
TypeAnti-terrorism, aviation
Signed1 March 1991
Location Montreal, Canada
Effective21 June 1998
Condition35 ratifications
Parties155
DepositarySecretary-General of the International Civil Aviation Organization
LanguagesEnglish, French, Russian, Spanish, and Arabic

The Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection is a multilateral anti-terrorism treaty that aims to prohibit and prevent the manufacture or storage of unmarked plastic explosives.

A multilateral treaty is a treaty to which three or more sovereign states are parties. Each party owes the same obligations to all other parties, except to the extent that they have stated reservations. Examples of multilateral treaties include the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Geneva Conventions, and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

Anti-terrorism legislation are laws with the purpose of fighting terrorism. They usually, if not always, follow specific bombings or assassinations. Anti-terrorism legislation usually includes specific amendments allowing the state to bypass its own legislation when fighting terrorism-related crimes, under the grounds of necessity.

Treaty express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law

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Contents

Content

A state that ratifies the Convention agrees to prohibit the manufacture, storage, transport, or entry of unmarked plastic explosives in its territory. Plastic explosives are not prohibited by the treaty, but it mandates that when they are produced they are marked with a chemical taggant (specified in the treaty's Technical Annex) which can facilitate future identification purposes.

A taggant can mean a radio frequency microchip used in automated identification and data capture. In such cases, electronic devices use radio waves to track and identify items, such as pharmaceutical products, by assigning individual serial numbers to the containers holding each product. This technology may prevent the diversion or counterfeiting of drugs by allowing wholesalers and pharmacists to determine the identity and dosage of individual products.

The Convention also establishes an International Explosives Technical Commission, which is composed of experts in the field explosives manufacturing and detection. The Commission can propose amendments to the Technical Annex of the treaty.

Conclusion and ratifications

The Convention was concluded at the ICAO International Conference on Air Law in Montreal on 1 March 1991. It entered into force on 21 June 1998 after it had been ratified by 35 signatory states.

International Civil Aviation Organization Specialised agency of the United Nations

The International Civil Aviation Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters is located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Montreal City in Quebec, Canada

Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold, snowy winters.

As of October 2018, the Convention has been ratified by 155 states, made up of 154 United Nations member states plus Niue.

Niue island country in the South Pacific Ocean

Niue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres (101 sq mi) and its population, predominantly Polynesian, was about 1,600 in 2016. The island is commonly referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia". Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain of the island has two noticeable levels. The higher level is made up of a limestone cliff running along the coast, with a plateau in the centre of the island reaching approximately 60 metres high above sea level. The lower level is a coastal terrace approximately 0.5 km wide and about 25–27 metres high, which slopes down and meets the sea in small cliffs. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to the capital, Alofi. A notable feature are the many limestone caves near the coast.

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