|Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection|
|Signed||1 March 1991|
|Effective||21 June 1998|
|Depositary||Secretary-General of the International Civil Aviation Organization|
|Languages||English, French, Russian, Spanish, and Arabic|
The Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection is a multilateral anti-terrorism treaty that aims to prohibit and prevent the manufacture or storage of unmarked plastic explosives.
A multilateral treaty is a treaty to which three or more sovereign states are parties. Each party owes the same obligations to all other parties, except to the extent that they have stated reservations. Examples of multilateral treaties include the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Geneva Conventions, and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
Anti-terrorism legislation are laws with the purpose of fighting terrorism. They usually, if not always, follow specific bombings or assassinations. Anti-terrorism legislation usually includes specific amendments allowing the state to bypass its own legislation when fighting terrorism-related crimes, under the grounds of necessity.
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A state that ratifies the Convention agrees to prohibit the manufacture, storage, transport, or entry of unmarked plastic explosives in its territory. Plastic explosives are not prohibited by the treaty, but it mandates that when they are produced they are marked with a chemical taggant (specified in the treaty's Technical Annex) which can facilitate future identification purposes.
A taggant can mean a radio frequency microchip used in automated identification and data capture. In such cases, electronic devices use radio waves to track and identify items, such as pharmaceutical products, by assigning individual serial numbers to the containers holding each product. This technology may prevent the diversion or counterfeiting of drugs by allowing wholesalers and pharmacists to determine the identity and dosage of individual products.
The Convention also establishes an International Explosives Technical Commission, which is composed of experts in the field explosives manufacturing and detection. The Commission can propose amendments to the Technical Annex of the treaty.
The Convention was concluded at the ICAO International Conference on Air Law in Montreal on 1 March 1991. It entered into force on 21 June 1998 after it had been ratified by 35 signatory states.
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As of October 2018, the Convention has been ratified by 155 states, made up of 154 United Nations member states plus Niue.
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