Passport

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Dutch ordinary, Nepalese diplomatic, Polish ordinary, and People's Republic of China service passports Passports-assorted.jpg
Dutch ordinary, Nepalese diplomatic, Polish ordinary, and People's Republic of China service passports

A passport is an official governmental document that contains your identity, it helps you travel under its protection to and from foreign countries. The document certifies the personal identity and nationality of its holder. [1] Standard passports contain the full name, photograph, place and date of birth, signature, and the expiration date of the passport.

Contents

Many countries issue (or plan to issue) biometric passports that contain an embedded microchip, making them machine-readable and difficult to counterfeit. [2] As of January 2019, there were over 150 jurisdictions issuing e-passports. [3] Previously issued non-biometric machine-readable passports usually remain valid until their respective expiration dates.

Passport control at Dubai International Airport Aeroport de dubai terminal 3 egate (echecking of passport).jpg
Passport control at Dubai International Airport

A passport holder is normally entitled to enter the country that issued the passport, though some people entitled to a passport may not be full citizens with right of abode (e.g. American nationals or British nationals). A passport does not of itself create any rights in the country being visited or obligate the issuing country in any way, such as providing consular assistance. Some passports attest to the bearer having a status as a diplomat or other official, entitled to rights and privileges such as immunity from arrest or prosecution. [2]

Many countries normally allow entry to holders of passports of other countries, sometimes requiring a visa also to be obtained, but this is not an automatic right. Many other additional conditions may apply, such as not being likely to become a public charge for financial or other reasons, and the holder not having been convicted of a crime. [4] Where a country does not recognise another, or is in dispute with it, it may prohibit the use of their passport for travel to that other country, or may prohibit entry to holders of that other country's passports, and sometimes to others who have, for example, visited the other country. Some individuals are subject to sanctions which deny them entry into particular countries.

Some countries and international organisations issue travel documents which are not standard passports, but enable the holder to travel internationally to countries that recognise the documents. For example, stateless persons are not normally issued a national passport, but may be able to obtain a refugee travel document or the earlier "Nansen passport" which enables them to travel to countries which recognise the document, and sometimes to return to the issuing country.

Passports may be requested in other circumstances to confirm identification such as checking into a hotel or when changing money to a local currency. Passports and other travel documents have an expiry date, after which it is no longer recognised, but it is recommended that a passport is valid for at least six months as many airlines deny boarding to passengers whose passport has a shorter expiry date, even if the destination country may not have such a requirement.

History

Arabic papyrus with an exit permit, dated January 24, 722 AD, pointing to the regulation of travel activities. From Hermopolis Magna, Egypt Arabic papyrus with an exit permit, dated January 24, 722 CE, pointing to the regulation of travel activities. From Hermopolis Magna, Egypt.jpg
Arabic papyrus with an exit permit, dated January 24, 722 AD, pointing to the regulation of travel activities. From Hermopolis Magna, Egypt
First Japanese passport, issued in 1866 First Japanese passport 1866.jpg
First Japanese passport, issued in 1866
Chinese passport from the Qing Dynasty, 24th Year of the Guangxu Reign, 1898 QingPassport.jpg
Chinese passport from the Qing Dynasty, 24th Year of the Guangxu Reign, 1898
An Ottoman passport (passavant) issued to Russian subject dated July 24, 1900 Ottoman-russian-empire-passport.jpg
An Ottoman passport (passavant) issued to Russian subject dated July 24, 1900

One of the earliest known references to paperwork that served in a role similar to that of a passport is found in the Hebrew Bible. Nehemiah 2:7–9, dating from approximately 450 BC, states that Nehemiah, an official serving King Artaxerxes I of Persia, asked permission to travel to Judea; the king granted leave and gave him a letter "to the governors beyond the river" requesting safe passage for him as he traveled through their lands.

Arthashastra (c. 3rd century BCE) make mentions of passes issued at the rate of one masha per pass to enter and exit the country. Chapter 34 of the Second Book of Arthashastra concerns with the duties of the Mudrādhyakṣa (lit.'Superintendent of Seals') who must issue sealed passes before a person could enter or leave the countryside. [5]

Passports were an important part of the Chinese bureaucracy as early as the Western Han (202 BCE-220 CE), if not in the Qin Dynasty. They required such details as age, height, and bodily features. [6] These passports (zhuan) determined a person's ability to move throughout imperial counties and through points of control. Even children needed passports, but those of one year or less who were in their mother's care may not have needed them. [6]

In the medieval Islamic Caliphate, a form of passport was the bara'a, a receipt for taxes paid. Only people who paid their zakah (for Muslims) or jizya (for dhimmis) taxes were permitted to travel to different regions of the Caliphate; thus, the bara'a receipt was a "basic passport." [7]

Etymological sources show that the term "passport" is from a medieval document that was required in order to pass through the gate (or "porte") of a city wall or to pass through a territory. [8] [9] In medieval Europe, such documents were issued to foreign travellers by local authorities (as opposed to local citizens, as is the modern practice) and generally contained a list of towns and cities the document holder was permitted to enter or pass through. On the whole, documents were not required for travel to sea ports, which were considered open trading points, but documents were required to travel inland from sea ports. [10]

King Henry V of England is credited with having invented what some consider the first passport in the modern sense, as a means of helping his subjects prove who they were in foreign lands. The earliest reference to these documents is found in a 1414 Act of Parliament. [11] [12] In 1540, granting travel documents in England became a role of the Privy Council of England, and it was around this time that the term "passport" was used. In 1794, issuing British passports became the job of the Office of the Secretary of State. [11] The 1548 Imperial Diet of Augsburg required the public to hold imperial documents for travel, at the risk of permanent exile. [13]

A rapid expansion of railway infrastructure and wealth in Europe beginning in the mid-nineteenth century led to large increases in the volume of international travel and a consequent unique dilution of the passport system for approximately thirty years prior to World War I. The speed of trains, as well as the number of passengers that crossed multiple borders, made enforcement of passport laws difficult. The general reaction was the relaxation of passport requirements. [14] In the later part of the nineteenth century and up to World War I, passports were not required, on the whole, for travel within Europe, and crossing a border was a relatively straightforward procedure. Consequently, comparatively few people held passports.

During World War I, European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons, and to control the emigration of people with useful skills. These controls remained in place after the war, becoming a standard, though controversial, procedure. British tourists of the 1920s complained, especially about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which they considered led to a "nasty dehumanisation". [15] The British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act was passed in 1914, clearly defining the notions of citizenship and creating a booklet form of the passport.

In 1920, the League of Nations held a conference on passports, the Paris Conference on Passports & Customs Formalities and Through Tickets. [16] Passport guidelines and a general booklet design resulted from the conference, [17] which was followed up by conferences in 1926 and 1927. [18]

While the United Nations held a travel conference in 1963, no passport guidelines resulted from it. Passport standardization came about in 1980, under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). ICAO standards include those for machine-readable passports. [19] Such passports have an area where some of the information otherwise written in textual form is written as strings of alphanumeric characters, printed in a manner suitable for optical character recognition. This enables border controllers and other law enforcement agents to process these passports more quickly, without having to input the information manually into a computer. ICAO publishes Doc 9303 Machine Readable Travel Documents, the technical standard for machine-readable passports. [20] A more recent standard is for biometric passports. These contain biometrics to authenticate the identity of travellers. The passport's critical information is stored on a tiny RFID computer chip, much like information stored on smartcards. Like some smartcards, the passport booklet design calls for an embedded contactless chip that is able to hold digital signature data to ensure the integrity of the passport and the biometric data.

WW2 Spanish official passport issued in late 1944 and used during the last 6 months of the war by an official being sent to Berlin WW2 Spanish official passport.jpg
WW2 Spanish official passport issued in late 1944 and used during the last 6 months of the war by an official being sent to Berlin

Issuances

Historically, legal authority to issue passports is founded on the exercise of each country's executive discretion (or Crown prerogative). Certain legal tenets follow, namely: first, passports are issued in the name of the state; second, no person has a legal right to be issued a passport; third, each country's government, in exercising its executive discretion, has complete and unfettered discretion to refuse to issue or to revoke a passport; and fourth, that the latter discretion is not subject to judicial review. However, legal scholars including A.J. Arkelian have argued that evolutions in both the constitutional law of democratic countries and the international law applicable to all countries now render those historical tenets both obsolete and unlawful. [21] [22]

Under some circumstances some countries allow people to hold more than one passport document. This may apply, for example, to people who travel a lot on business, and may need to have, say, a passport to travel on while another is awaiting a visa for another country. The UK for example may issue a second passport if the applicant can show a need and supporting documentation, such as a letter from an employer.

National conditions

Today, most countries issue individual passports to applying citizens, including children, with only a few still issuing family passports (see below under "Types") or including children on a parent's passport (most countries having switched to individual passports in the early to mid-20th century). When passport holders apply for a new passport (commonly, due to expiration of the previous passport, insufficient validity for entry to some countries or lack of blank pages), they may be required to surrender the old passport for invalidation. In some circumstances an expired passport is not required to be surrendered or invalidated (for example, if it contains an unexpired visa).

Under the law of most countries, passports are government property, and may be limited or revoked at any time, usually on specified grounds, and possibly subject to judicial review. [23] In many countries, surrender of one's passport is a condition of granting bail in lieu of imprisonment for a pending criminal trial due to flight risk. [24]

Each country sets its own conditions for the issue of passports. [25] For example, Pakistan requires applicants to be interviewed before a Pakistani passport will be granted. [26] When applying for a passport or a national ID card, all Pakistanis are required to sign an oath declaring Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to be an impostor prophet and all Ahmadis to be non-Muslims. [27]

Some countries limit the issuance of passports, where incoming and outgoing international travels are highly regulated, such as North Korea, where ordinary passports are the privilege of a very small number of people trusted by the government.[ citation needed ] Other countries put requirements on some citizens in order to be granted passports, such as Finland, where male citizens aged 18–30 years must prove that they have completed, or are exempt from, their obligatory military service to be granted an unrestricted passport; otherwise a passport is issued valid only until the end of their 28th year, to ensure that they return to carry out military service. [28] Other countries with obligatory military service, such as South Korea and Syria, have similar requirements, e.g. South Korean passport and Syrian passport. [29]

National status

Passports contain a statement of the nationality of the holder. In most countries, only one class of nationality exists, and only one type of ordinary passport is issued. However, several types of exceptions exist:

Multiple classes of nationality in a single country

The United Kingdom has a number of classes of United Kingdom nationality due to its colonial history. As a result, the UK issues various passports which are similar in appearance but representative of different nationality statuses which, in turn, has caused foreign governments to subject holders of different UK passports to different entry requirements.

Multiple types of passports, one nationality

The People's Republic of China (PRC) authorizes its Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau to issue passports to their permanent residents with Chinese nationality under the "one country, two systems" arrangement. Visa policies imposed by foreign authorities on Hong Kong and Macau permanent residents holding such passports are different from those holding ordinary passports of the People's Republic of China. A Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport (HKSAR passport) permits visa-free access to many more countries than ordinary PRC passports.

The three constituent countries of the Danish Realm have a common nationality. Denmark proper is a member of the European Union, but Greenland and Faroe Islands are not. Danish citizens residing in Greenland or Faroe Islands can choose between holding a Danish EU passport and a Greenlandic or Faroese non-EU Danish passport.

Special nationality class through investment

In rare instances a nationality is available through investment. Some investors have been described in Tongan passports as 'a Tongan protected person', a status which does not necessarily carry with it the right of abode in Tonga. [30]

Passports without sovereign territory

Several entities without a sovereign territory issue documents described as passports, most notably Iroquois League, [31] [32] the Aboriginal Provisional Government in Australia and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. [33] Such documents are not necessarily accepted for entry into a country.

Validity

Passports have a limited validity, usually between 5 and 10 years.

Maximum adult passport validity across the world Adult Passport Validity Map.png
Maximum adult passport validity across the world

Many countries require passports to be valid for a minimum of six months beyond the planned date of departure, as well as having at least two to four blank pages. [34] It is recommended that a passport be valid for at least six months from the departure date as many airlines deny boarding to passengers whose passport has a shorter expiry date, even if the destination country does not have such a requirement for incoming visitors.

Value

One method to measure the 'value' of a passport is to calculate its 'visa-free score' (VFS), which is the number of countries that allow the holder of that passport entry for general tourism without requiring a visa. [35] As of 1 July 2019, the strongest and weakest passports are as follows:

Strongest passports Weakest passports
RankVFSCountry / countriesRankVFSCountry / countries
1189 Japan, Singapore 10041 Kosovo
2187 Finland, Germany, South Korea 10139 Bangladesh, Eritrea, Iran, Lebanon, North Korea
3186 Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg 10238 Nepal
4185 France, Spain, Sweden 10337 Libya, Palestine, Sudan
5184 Austria, Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland 10433 Yemen
6183 Belgium, Canada, Greece, Republic of Ireland, Norway, United Kingdom, United States 10531 Somalia
7182 Malta 10630 Pakistan
8181 Czech Republic 10729 Syria
9180 Australia, Iceland, Lithuania, New Zealand 10827 Iraq
10179 Latvia, Slovakia, Slovenia 10925 Afghanistan

Types

A rough standardization exists in types of passports throughout the world, although passport types, number of pages, and definitions can vary by country.

Full passports

Indian Official Passports Front.svg Indian Passport.jpg
Left to right: diplomatic, official, and regular passport from India.
Each passport type has a different cover colour.

Non-citizen passports

Latvia and Estonia

Non-citizens in Latvia and Estonia are individuals, primarily of Russian or Ukrainian ethnicity, who are not citizens of Latvia or Estonia but whose families have resided in the area since the Soviet era, and thus have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights. Approximately two thirds of them are ethnic Russians, followed by ethnic Belarusians, ethnic Ukrainians, ethnic Poles and ethnic Lithuanians. [40] [41]

Non-citizens in the two countries are issued special non-citizen passports [42] [43] as opposed to regular passports issued by the Estonian and Latvian authorities to citizens.

American Samoa

Although all U.S. citizens are also U.S. nationals, the reverse is not true. As specified in 8 U.S.C.   § 1408, a person whose only connection to the U.S. is through birth in an outlying possession (which is defined in 8 U.S.C.   § 1101 as American Samoa and Swains Island, the latter of which is administered as part of American Samoa), or through descent from a person so born, acquires U.S. nationality but not U.S. citizenship. This was formerly the case in a few other current or former U.S. overseas possessions, i.e. the Panama Canal Zone and Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. [44]

The U.S. passport issued to non-citizen nationals contains the endorsement code 9 which states: "THE BEARER IS A UNITED STATES NATIONAL AND NOT A UNITED STATES CITIZEN." on the annotations page. [45]

Non-citizen U.S. nationals may reside and work in the United States without restrictions, and may apply for citizenship under the same rules as resident aliens. Like resident aliens, they are not presently allowed by any U.S. state to vote in federal or state elections.

United Kingdom

Due to the complexity of British nationality law, the United Kingdom has six variants of British nationality. Out of these variants, however, only the status known as British citizen grants the right of abode in a particular country or territory (the United Kingdom) while others do not. Hence, the UK issues British passports to those who are British nationals but not British citizens, which include British Overseas Territories citizens, British Overseas citizens, British subjects, British Nationals (Overseas) and British Protected Persons. [46]

Andorra

Children born in Andorra to foreign residents who have not yet resided in the country for a minimum of 10 years are provided a provisional passport. Once the child reaches 18 years old he or she must confirm their nationality to the Government.

Other types of travel documents

Nansen passport for refugees (now defunct) No-nb bldsa 6e001.jpg
Nansen passport for refugees (now defunct)

Intra-sovereign territory travel that requires passports

Document In Lieu of Internal Travel Document (IMM.114) given to West Malaysian citizens entering the state of Sabah using Malaysian identity card for social and business visits. The form must be returned to the immigration officer upon departure from Sabah. Sabah Visitor Pass.jpg
Document In Lieu of Internal Travel Document (IMM.114) given to West Malaysian citizens entering the state of Sabah using Malaysian identity card for social and business visits. The form must be returned to the immigration officer upon departure from Sabah.

For some countries, passports are required for some types of travel between their sovereign territories. Three examples of this are:

Internal passports

Internal passports are issued by some countries as an identity document. An example is the internal passport of Russia or certain other post-Soviet countries dating back to imperial times. Some countries use internal passports for controlling migration within a country. In some countries, the international passport or passport for travel abroad is a second passport, in addition to the internal passport, required for a citizen to travel abroad within the country of residence. Separate passports for travel abroad existed or exist in the following countries:

Designs and format

International Civil Aviation Organization standards

Colours across the world for modern passport booklet covers Passport design world map mexico corrected.png
Colours across the world for modern passport booklet covers
U.S. CBP Office of Field Operations agent checking the authenticity of a travel document at an international airport using a stereo microscope CBP checking authenticity of a travel document.jpg
U.S. CBP Office of Field Operations agent checking the authenticity of a travel document at an international airport using a stereo microscope

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) issues passport standards which are treated as recommendations to national governments. The size of passport booklets normally complies with the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-3 standard, which specifies a size of 125 × 88 mm (4.921 × 3.465 in). This size is the B7 format. Passport cards are issued to the ID-1 (credit card sized) standard. [51] [52] [53] [54] [55]

More than 5 million passports of the United Kingdom (also called the "red book" prior to 30 March 2019) are printed each year--one every 2.5 seconds--at this secret location in the North of England Manufacturing passports of the United Kingdom.jpg
More than 5 million passports of the United Kingdom (also called the "red book" prior to 30 March 2019) are printed each yearone every 2.5 secondsat this secret location in the North of England

Common designs

An Argentine passport with the name of Mercosur at the top Pasaporte Republica Argentina.png
An Argentine passport with the name of Mercosur at the top

Passport booklets from almost all countries around the world display the national coat of arms of the issuing country on the front cover. The United Nations keeps a record of national coats of arms, but displaying a coat of arms is not an internationally recognized requirement for a passport.

There are several groups of countries that have, by mutual agreement, adopted common designs for their passports:

Request page

Passport message found inside the United States passport PassportmessageUSA.jpg
Passport message found inside the United States passport

Passports sometimes contain a message, usually near the front, requesting that the passport's bearer be allowed to pass freely, and further requesting that, in the event of need, the bearer be granted assistance. The message is sometimes made in the name of the government or the head of state, and may be written in more than one language, depending on the language policies of the issuing authority.

Languages

In 1920, an international conference on passports and through tickets held by the League of Nations recommended that passports be issued in the French language, historically the language of diplomacy, and one other language. [65] Currently, the ICAO recommends that passports be issued in English and French, or in the national language of the issuing country and in either English or French. Many European countries use their national language, along with English and French.

Some unusual language combinations are:

Immigration stamps

For immigration control, officials of many countries use entry and exit stamps. Depending on the country, a stamp can serve different purposes. For example, in the United Kingdom, an immigration stamp in a passport includes the formal leave to enter granted to a person subject to entry control. In other countries, a stamp activates or acknowledges the continuing leave conferred in the passport bearer's entry clearance.

Under the Schengen system, a foreign passport is stamped with a date stamp which does not indicate any duration of stay. This means that the person is deemed to have permission to remain either for three months or for the period shown on his visa if specified otherwise.

Visas often take the form of an inked stamp, although some countries use adhesive stickers that incorporate security features to discourage forgery.

Member states of the European Union are not permitted to place a stamp in the passport of a person who is not subject to immigration control. Stamping is prohibited because it is an imposition of a control that the person is not subject to.

Countries usually have different styles of stamps for entries and exits, to make it easier to identify the movements of people. Ink colour might be used to designate mode of transportation (air, land or sea), such as in Hong Kong prior to 1997; while border styles did the same thing in Macau. Other variations include changing the size of the stamp to indicate length of stay, as in Singapore.

Immigration stamps are a useful reminder of travels. Some travellers "collect" immigration stamps in passports, and will choose to enter or exit countries via different means (for example, land, sea or air) in order to have different stamps in their passports. Some countries, such as Liechtenstein, [67] that do not stamp passports may provide a passport stamp on request for such "memory" purposes. Monaco (at its tourist office) and Andorra (at its border) do this as well. These are official stamps issued by government offices. However, some private enterprises may for a price stamp passports at historic sites and these have no legal standing. It is possible that such memorial stamps can preclude the passport bearer from travelling to certain countries. For example, Finland consistently rejects what they call 'falsified passports', where passport bearers have been refused visas or entry due to memorial stamps and are required to renew their passports.

Limitations on use

A passport is merely an identity document that is widely recognised for international travel purposes, and the possession of a passport does not in itself entitle a traveller to enter any country other than the country that issued it, and sometimes not even then. Many countries normally require visitors to obtain a visa. Each country has different requirements or conditions for the grant of visas, such as for the visitor not being likely to become a public charge for financial, health, family, or other reasons, and the holder not having been convicted of a crime or considered likely to commit one. [4] [68]

Where a country does not recognise another, or is in dispute with it, entry may be prohibited to holders of passports of the other party to the dispute, and sometimes to others who have, for example, visited the other country; examples are listed below. A country that issues a passport may also restrict its validity or use in specified circumstances, such as use for travel to certain countries for political, security, or health reasons.

Asia

Europe

Oceania

South America

International travel without passports

International travel is possible without passports in some circumstances. [83] Nonetheless, a document stating citizenship, such as a national identity card or an Enhanced Drivers License, is usually required. [83]

Africa

Asia

Europe

North America

The United States Passport Card Passport card.jpg
The United States Passport Card
A NEXUS Card NEXUSCard.png
A NEXUS Card
  1. The U.S. Passport card is an alternative to an ordinary U.S. passport booklet for land and sea travel within North America (Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Bermuda). Like the passport book, the passport card is issued only to U.S. citizens and non-citizen nationals. [85]
  2. The NEXUS card allows border crossing between the U.S. and Canada for U.S. nationals and Canadian citizens. It can also be used for air travel as the only means of identification for U.S. nationals and Canadian citizens. The card can also be used for entering the U.S. from Mexico but not vice versa. [85]
  3. The SENTRI card allows passport-free entry into the U.S. from Mexico and Canada (but not vice versa) for U.S. citizens and nationals as well as Canadian citizens. [85]
  4. The FAST card can be used for crossing between the U.S. and Canada, as well as entering the U.S. from Mexico for U.S. and Canadian citizens. [85]
  5. U.S. nationals may further enter the U.S. and Canada using an enhanced driver license issued by the States of Vermont, Washington, Michigan and New York (which qualify as WHTI compliant). Other documents that can be used to enter the U.S. include: enhanced tribal cards; U.S. military ID cards plus military travel orders; U.S. merchant mariner ID cards, when travelling on maritime business; Native American tribal ID cards; Form I-872 American Indian card. [85]
  6. Canadian citizens may enter the U.S. and Canada via land or sea using an enhanced WHTI-compliant driver's license. These are currently issued by British Columbia and Manitoba, while valid Ontario ones are accepted until expiry. If Canadians wish to enter the U.S. via air, they must use a passport book or a NEXUS card. [85]
  7. Canadian citizens may return to Canada using any proof of citizenship and identity, however those without an acceptable document will be questioned by a Border Services officer until their identity is established. [86]
  8. For travel to the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon directly from Canada, Canadians and foreign nationals holding Canadian identification documents are exempted from passport and visa requirements for stays of maximum duration of 3 months within a period of 6 months. Accepted documents include a driver's licence, citizenship card, permanent resident card and others. Those without Canadian identifications are not exempt and must carry a passport.

Oceania

The Torres Strait separating Australia and Papua New Guinea TorresStraitIslandsMap.png
The Torres Strait separating Australia and Papua New Guinea

South America

Mercosur citizens can travel visa-free and only with their ID cards between the member and associated countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina). [88]

See also

Notes

  1. All nations issuing EU passports make an effort to ensure that their passports feature nationally distinctive designs. Finnish passports make a flip-book of a moose walking. The UK passport launched on 3 November 2015 features Shakespeare's Globe Theater on pages 26–27, with architectural plans as well as performers on stage. Each UK passport page is completely different from all the other pages and from all the other pages of other EU passports.

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Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport

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Machine-readable passport

A machine-readable passport (MRP) is a machine-readable travel document (MRTD) with the data on the identity page encoded in optical character recognition format. Many countries began to issue machine-readable travel documents in the 1980s.

Malaysian passport Passport of Malaysia issued to Malaysian citizens

The Malaysian passport is the passport issued to citizens of Malaysia by the Immigration Department of Malaysia.

Singapore passport

The Singapore passport is a travel document and passport issued to citizens and nationals of the Republic of Singapore. It enables the bearer to exit and re-enter Singapore freely; travel to and from other countries in accordance with visa requirements; facilitates the process of securing assistance from Singaporean consular officials abroad, if necessary; and requests protection for the bearer while abroad.

United States Passport Card U.S. identification card

The United States passport card is a limited travel document issued by the United States federal government in the size of a credit card. Like a U.S. passport book, the passport card is only issued to U.S. nationals exclusively by the U.S. Department of State, compliant to the standards for identity documents set by the REAL ID Act, and can be used as proof of U.S. citizenship and identity. The passport card allows its holders to travel by domestic air flights within the United States, and to travel by land and sea within North America. However, the passport card cannot be used for international air travel.

Thai passport Passport of the Kingdom of Thailand issued to Thai citizens

The Thai passport is the passport issued to citizens and nationals of Thailand by the Passport Division of the Department of Consular Affairs within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Thai biometric passports have been issued since August 2005.

German passport Passport of the Federal Republic of Germany issued to German citizens

German passports are issued to nationals of Germany for the purpose of international travel. A German passport is, besides the German ID card and the German Emergency Travel Document, the only other officially recognised document that German authorities will routinely accept as proof of identity from German citizens. Besides serving as proof of identity and presumption of German nationality, they facilitate the process of securing assistance from German consular officials abroad. German passports are valid for ten years or six years and share the standardised layout and burgundy red design with other EU passports. Every German citizen is also a citizen of the European Union. The passport, along with the national identity card, allows for free rights of movement and residence in any of the states of the European Union, European Economic Area and Switzerland.

Egyptian passport passport of the Arab Republic of Egypt issued to Egyptian citizens

Egyptian passports are issued to nationals of Egypt for the purpose of international travel. Besides serving as a proof of Egyptian citizenship, they facilitate the process of securing assistance from Egyptian consular officials abroad if needed. Egyptian passports are valid for seven years for adults, and is issued for lesser periods for school or college students, or those who have not finalized their status of the military conscription. Starting in 2008, The Egyptian government introduced newer machine-readable passport (MRP), in order to comply with international passport standards and requirements with 96.7% conformance to ICAO Document 9303. The newer passports offer better security and state-of-the-art anti forging parameters and have a soft cover.

Dutch passport Passport issued from the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Dutch passports are issued to citizens of the Kingdom of the Netherlands for the purpose of international travel. As the Netherlands only distinguish one category of citizen, for all countries in the Kingdom, passports are the same for all four countries. The passport also serves as a means of identification as required by the Dutch law since 1 January 2005 for all persons over the age of fourteen. Dutch passports are valid for a period of ten years from issuing date. The passport complies with the rules for European Union passports. Since 26 August 2006 all passports are issued as a biometric passport with an embedded contactless smartcard RFID chip for storing biometric data. Every Dutch citizen is also a citizen of the European Union. The nationality allows for free rights of movement and residence in any of the states of the European Union, European Economic Area, and Switzerland.

North Macedonian passport Passport of the Republic of North Macedonia issued to North Macedonian citizens

Passports are issued to citizens of North Macedonia for the purpose of international travel. Responsibility for their issuance lies with the Ministry of the Interior. The validity of the passport is 5 years for persons 4 to 27 years of age, and 10 years for those 27 years of age and older. For children ages four and under the validity of the passport is limited to two years. The passports conform to the recommended standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and are biometric passports.

Kenyan passport passport of the Republic of Kenya issued to Kenyan citizens

The Kenyan passport is issued to Kenyan citizens in accordance with the Constitution of Kenya, 2010 and as provided for in the Kenya Citizens and Immigration Act that commenced on 30 August 2011. In addition issuance process is regulated by Legal Notice No. 64 . If eligible, an individual can apply for a New Passport, Renewal Passport and Replacement Passport. Passports are issued by the Department of Immigration. The department is under the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government. Kenyan passports are usually used as a form of ID as well and would be rated as second to The Kenyan national ID card. Before Kenya get independence from Britain, British passports were used.

Lebanese passport passport of the Republic of Lebanon issued to Lebanese citizens

The passport of the Republic of Lebanon is a passport issued to the citizens of the Republic of Lebanon to enable them to travel outside the Republic of Lebanon and entitles the bearer to the protection from the diplomatic missions and consulates of the Republic of Lebanon if necessary. It is issued exclusively by the Lebanese Directorate General of General Security (DGGS), and can also be issued at various Lebanese diplomatic missions and/or consulates outside the Republic of Lebanon. It allows the bearer a freedom of living in the Republic of Lebanon without any immigration requirements, participate in the Lebanese political system, entry to and exit from the Republic of Lebanon through any port, travel to and from other countries in accordance with visa requirements, facilitates the process of securing consular assistance abroad from the diplomatic missions and consulates of the Republic of Lebanon if necessary, and requests protection for the bearer while abroad.

Mainland Travel Permit for Taiwan Residents

The Mainland Travel Permit for Taiwan Residents, also known as Taiwan Compatriot Permit, is a type of travel document issued by Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the Republic of China nationals (ROC) who hold household registration in Taiwan. The document is issued by the Ministry of Public Security (MPS). Since the identity documents issued by the government of the Republic of China are not recognized in the PRC, the permit serves as both the main travel document and identity document for Taiwanese people in the PRC territory and is used in all occasions in lieu of the Taiwan passport.

Serbian identity card

Serbian identity card is the national identification card used in Serbia. Though the ID card is a primary photo ID, Serbian passport and national Drivers license are used as valid photo IDs for various purposes. It is issued to all Serbian citizens residing in the country above 10 years of age, while it's compulsory for those over the age of 16.

Visa policy of Mexico Policy on permits required to enter Mexico

Mexican visas are documents issued by the National Migration Institute, dependent on the Secretariat of the Interior, with the stated goal of regulating and facilitating migratory flows.

APEC Business Travel Card

The APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) is a travel document issued to business travellers who are citizens of APEC participating economies. Valid for five years, the card eliminates the need for its holder to possess a visa when visiting other APEC participating economies as long as pre-clearance has been obtained during the application process.

National identity cards in the European Economic Area

National identity cards are issued to their citizens by the governments of all European Economic Area (EEA) member states except Denmark, Iceland and Ireland. Ireland however issues a passport card which is valid as a national identity card in the EEA and Switzerland. Denmark and Iceland issue simpler identity cards that are not valid as travel documents. The various identity card styles currently in use in the EEA are intended to be harmonised and replaced by a new common model from 2 August 2021.

The visa policy of Lebanon deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter the Republic of Lebanon must meet to be permitted to travel to, enter and remain in the country.

Norwegian identity card

The Norwegian identity card, commonly referred to as the national identity card in Norway, is a non-compulsory biometric identity document issued since 30 November 2020. It is one of two official identity documents issued by the Norwegian Police Service, the other being the Norwegian passport. It is only issued to Norwegian citizens, and may indicate citizenship so that it can be used as a travel document facilitating freedom of movement in EFTA and the European Economic Area. For travel within the Nordic countries no identity documentation is legally required for Nordic citizens due to the Nordic Passport Union.

Passports of the EFTA member states

Passports of the EFTA member states are passports issued by the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) member states Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. EFTA is in this article used as a common name for these countries.

References

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Further reading