Adventure travel

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An outdoor travel and adventure outfitter in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Expedition shop.jpg
An outdoor travel and adventure outfitter in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Trekking in Quebrada de las Conchas, Cafayate, Salta Province, Argentina Tour to the Quebrada de las Conchas.jpg
Trekking in Quebrada de las Conchas, Cafayate, Salta Province, Argentina

Adventure travel is a type of niche tourism, involving exploration or travel with a certain degree of risk (real or perceived), and which may require special skills and physical exertion. In the United States, adventure tourism has grown in recent decades as tourists seek out-of-the-ordinary or "roads less traveled" vacations, but lack of a clear operational definition has hampered measurement of market size and growth. According to the U.S.-based Adventure Travel Trade Association, adventure travel may be any tourist activity that includes physical activity, a cultural exchange, and connection with nature. [1]


Adventure tourists may have the motivation to achieve mental states characterized as rush or flow, [2] resulting from stepping outside their comfort zone. This may be from experiencing culture shock or by performing acts requiring significant effort and involve some degree of risk, real or perceived, or physical danger. This may include activities such as mountaineering, trekking, bungee jumping, mountain biking, cycling, canoeing, scuba diving, rafting, kayaking, zip-lining, paragliding, hiking, exploring, canyoneering, sandboarding, caving and rock climbing. [3] Some obscure forms of adventure travel include disaster and ghetto tourism. [4] Other rising forms of adventure travel include social and jungle tourism.

Access to inexpensive consumer technology, with respect to Global Positioning Systems, flashpacking, social networking and photography, have increased the worldwide interest in adventure travel. [5] The interest in independent adventure travel has also increased as more specialist travel websites emerge offering previously niche locations and sports.


Since ancient times, humans have traveled in search for food and skills of survival, but have also engaged in adventurous travel, in explorations of sea lanes, a destination, or even a new country.

Adventurer travelers began to push to the limits, with the mountaineering of Matterhorn in 1865 and the river rafting on the Colorado River in 1869. Shortly after, two key institutions were formed, including the National Geographic Society and the Explorers Club, which continue to support adventure travel.

At the end of World War II, modern adventure began to take off, with 1950 French Annapurna expedition and the 1953 British Mount Everest expedition. Today, it remains a niche of travel and a fast-changing sector with new variants of activities for a travel experience.


Accessible tourism

There is a trend for developing tourism specifically for the disabled. Adventure travel for the disabled has become a US$13 billion a year industry in North America. [6] Some adventure travel destinations offer diverse programs and job opportunities developed specifically for the disabled. [7]

Extreme travel

Extreme tourism involves travel to dangerous (extreme) locations or participation in dangerous events or activities. This form of tourism can overlap with extreme sport.

Jungle tourism

Jungle tourism is a subcategory of adventure travel defined by active multifaceted physical means of travel in the jungle regions of the earth. According to the Glossary of Tourism Terms, jungle tours have become a major component of green tourism in tropical destinations and are a relatively recent phenomenon of Western international tourism.

Overland travel

Overland travel or overlanding refers to an overland journey – perhaps originating with Marco Polo's first overland expedition in the 13th century from Venice to the Mongolian court of Kublai Khan. Today overlanding is a form of extended adventure holiday, embarking on a long journey, often in a group. Overland companies provide a converted truck or a bus plus a tour leader, and the group travels together overland for a period of weeks or months.

Since the 1960s overlanding has been a popular means of travel between destinations across Africa, Europe, Asia (particularly India), the Americas and Australia. The "Hippie trail" of the 60s and 70s saw thousands of young westerners travelling through the Middle East to India and Nepal. Many of the older traditional routes are still active, along with newer routes like Iceland to South Africa overland and Central Asian post soviet states.

Scuba Diving

Scuba diving is a sport in which participants explore underwater places while inhaling compressed air from tanks. Scuba diving is most popular in locations with tropical coral reefs, but it may be found in almost any location with water.

Popular destinations:

Notes and references

  1. "ATTA Values Statement" (PDF). Adventure Travel Trade Association. February 2013. p. 2. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  2. Buckley, Ralf (2012). "Rush as a key motivation in skilled adventure tourism: Resolving the risk recreation paradox". Tourism Management. 33 (4): 961–970. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.10.002. hdl: 10072/46933 .
  3. "Adventure Travel". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  4. "Citypaper online". Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-10.
  5. The Development of Social Network Analysis Vancouver: Empirical Press.
  6. Stan Hagen – Tourism Minister of British Columbia
  7. The Equity: "Esprit rafting to be featured in commercial", Wednesday, May 14th, 2008, print edition

Further reading

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adventure</span> Exciting or unusual experience

An adventure is an exciting experience or undertaking that is typically bold, sometimes risky. Adventures may be activities with danger such as traveling, exploring, skydiving, mountain climbing, scuba diving, river rafting, or other extreme sports. Adventures are often undertaken to create psychological arousal or in order to achieve a greater goal, such as the pursuit of knowledge that can only be obtained by such activities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Extreme sport</span> Class of sport

Action sports, adventure sports or extreme sports are activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion and highly specialized gear. Extreme tourism overlaps with extreme sport. The two share the same main attraction, "adrenaline rush" caused by an element of risk, and differ mostly in the degree of engagement and professionalism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mountaineering</span> Sport of mountain climbing

Mountaineering or alpinism, is a set of outdoor activities that involves ascending tall mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, skiing, and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing, and bouldering are also considered variants of mountaineering by some.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Recreation</span> Activity of leisure

Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Diving activities</span> Things people do while diving underwater

Diving activities are the things people do while diving underwater. People may dive for various reasons, both personal and professional. While a newly qualified recreational diver may dive purely for the experience of diving, most divers have some additional reason for being underwater. Recreational diving is purely for enjoyment and has several specialisations and technical disciplines to provide more scope for varied activities for which specialist training can be offered, such as cave diving, wreck diving, ice diving and deep diving. Several underwater sports are available for exercise and competition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Recreational diving</span> Diving for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment, usually when using scuba equipment

Recreational diving or sport diving is diving for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment, usually when using scuba equipment. The term "recreational diving" may also be used in contradistinction to "technical diving", a more demanding aspect of recreational diving which requires more training and experience to develop the competence to reliably manage more complex equipment in the more hazardous conditions associated with the disciplines. Breath-hold diving for recreation also fits into the broader scope of the term, but this article covers the commonly used meaning of scuba diving for recreational purposes, where the diver is not constrained from making a direct near-vertical ascent to the surface at any point during the dive, and risk is considered low.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snuba</span> Limited depth airline breathing apparatus towed by the diver

Snuba is form of surface-supplied diving that uses an underwater breathing system developed by Snuba International. The origin of the word "Snuba" may be a portmanteau of "snorkel" and "scuba", as it bridges the gap between the two. Alternatively, some have identified the term as an acronym for "Surface Nexus Underwater Breathing Apparatus", though this may have been ascribed retroactively to fit the portmanteau. The swimmer uses swimfins, a diving mask, weights, and diving regulator as in scuba diving. Instead of coming from tanks strapped to the diver's back, air is supplied from long hoses connected to compressed air cylinders contained in a specially designed flotation device at the surface. Snuba often serves as a form of introductory diving, in the presence of a professionally trained guide, but requires no scuba certification.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tourism geography</span>

Tourism geography is the study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity. Tourism geography covers a wide range of interests including the environmental impact of tourism, the geographies of tourism and leisure economies, answering tourism industry and management concerns and the sociology of tourism and locations of tourism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Extreme tourism</span> Class of tourism

Extreme tourism is a niche in the tourism industry involving travel to dangerous places or participation in dangerous events. Extreme tourism overlaps with extreme sport. The two share the main attraction, "adrenaline rush" caused by an element of risk, and differing mostly in the degree of engagement and professionalism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tourism in Nepal</span> The tourist industry in Nepal

Tourism is the largest industry in Nepal and its largest source of foreign exchange and revenue. Possessing eight of the ten highest mountains in the world, Nepal is a hot spot destination for mountaineers, rock climbers and people seeking adventure. The Hindu and Buddhist heritage of Nepal and its cool weather are also strong attractions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ajeet Bajaj</span>

Ajeet Bajaj is the first Indian to ski to the North Pole and complete the polar trilogy which entails skiing to the North Pole, South Pole and across the Greenland icecap. Bajaj and his daughter Deeya Bajaj were the first Indian father daughter team to climb Mt. Everest. He completed the Explorer's Grand Slam on 05 June 2022 while completing the Seven Summits with his daughter Deeya.

High adventure is a type of outdoor experience. It typically is meant to include activities like backpacking, hiking, kayaking or canoeing. It may also include mountaineering, rock climbing, mountain biking, orienteering, hang gliding, paragliding and hot air ballooning.

Jungle tourism is a subcategory of adventure travel defined by active multifaceted physical means of travel in the jungle regions of the earth. Although similar in many respects to adventure travel, jungle tourism pertains specifically to the context of region, culture and activity. According to the Glossary of Tourism Terms, jungle tours have become a major component of green tourism in tropical destinations and are a relatively recent phenomenon of Western international tourism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tourism in Peru</span> Archaeological site in Peru

Since the 2000s, Tourism in Peru makes up the nation's third largest industry, behind fishing and mining. Tourism is directed towards archaeological monuments, ecotourism in the Peruvian Amazon, cultural tourism in colonial cities, gastronomic tourism, adventure tourism, and beach tourism. According to a Peruvian government study, the satisfaction rate for tourists after visiting Peru is 94%. Tourism is the most rapidly growing industry in Peru, growing annually at a rate of 25% over the past five years. Tourism is growing in Peru faster than any other country in South America. Iperú is the Peruvian national tourist office.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outdoor recreation</span> Recreation engaged in out of doors

Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity refers to recreation done outside, most commonly in natural settings. The activities that encompass outdoor recreation vary depending on the physical environment they are being carried out in. These activities can include fishing, hunting, backpacking, and horseback riding — and can be completed individually or collectively. Outdoor recreation is a broad concept that encompasses a varying range of activities and landscapes.

Outward Bound Costa Rica (OBCR) is a non-profit experiential learning and outdoor education organization based in San José, Costa Rica. It is a charter of Outward Bound International (OBI).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khandoli Dam</span> Dam in Giridih, Jharkhand

Khandoli Dam is a dam located 10 km North-East of Giridih town towards Bengabad in Jharkhand, India. Khandoli is also an important tourist spot at the foot of the Khandoli hill. The reservoir of the Khandoli dam provides water supply to more than one lakh residents of the Giridih city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Recreational dive sites</span> Places that divers go to enjoy the underwater environment

Recreational dive sites are specific places that recreational scuba divers go to enjoy the underwater environment or for training purposes. They include technical diving sites beyond the range generally accepted for recreational diving. In this context all diving done for recreational purposes is included. Professional diving tends to be done where the job is, and with the exception of diver training and leading groups of recreational divers, does not generally occur at specific sites chosen for their easy access, pleasant conditions or interesting features.

Scuba diving tourism is the industry based on servicing the requirements of recreational divers at destinations other than where they live. It includes aspects of training, equipment sales, rental and service, guided experiences and environmental tourism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Slow tourism</span> Form of alternative tourism

Slow tourism is an alternative tourism choice in contrast to mass tourism. Slow tourism is a part of the sustainable tourism family, different from mainstream tourism and emphasizing the tourist’s greater personal awareness. It is characterized by reducing mobility and by taking time to explore local history and culture, while supporting the environment. The concept emerged from the Italian Slow Food movement and the Cittaslow movement.