Satellite navigation

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A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude/elevation) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites. The system can be used for providing position, navigation or for tracking the position of something fitted with a receiver (satellite tracking). The signals also allow the electronic receiver to calculate the current local time to high precision, which allows time synchronisation. Satnav systems operate independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the positioning information generated.

Satellite Human-made object put into an orbit around the earth or other planet

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon.

Electronics physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter

Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age.

Longitude A geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earths surface

Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east–west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Meridians connect points with the same longitude. By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, was allocated the position of 0° longitude. The longitude of other places is measured as the angle east or west from the Prime Meridian, ranging from 0° at the Prime Meridian to +180° eastward and −180° westward. Specifically, it is the angle between a plane through the Prime Meridian and a plane through both poles and the location in question.

Contents

A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). As of October 2018, the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) and Russia's GLONASS are fully operational GNSSs, with China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the European Union's Galileo scheduled to be fully operational by 2020. [1] [2] India, France and Japan are in the process of developing regional navigation and augmentation systems as well.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Global Positioning System American satellite navigation system

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS signals.

Russia transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia

Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is the largest metropolitan area in Europe proper and one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

Global coverage for each system is generally achieved by a satellite constellation of 18–30 medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites spread between several orbital planes. The actual systems vary, but use orbital inclinations of >50° and orbital periods of roughly twelve hours (at an altitude of about 20,000 kilometres or 12,000 miles).

Satellite constellation group of artificial satellites working in concert

A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working in concert. Such a constellation can be considered to be a number of satellites with coordinated ground coverage, operating together under shared control, synchronized so that they overlap well in coverage, the period in which a satellite or other spacecraft is visible above the local horizon.

Medium Earth orbit Earth-centered orbit above low Earth orbit and below geostationary orbit

Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around Earth above low Earth orbit and below geosynchronous orbit.

Orbital inclination angle between a reference plane and the plane of an orbit

Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object.

Classification

Satellite navigation systems that provide enhanced accuracy and integrity monitoring usable for civil navigation are classified as follows: [3]

Wide Area Augmentation System system that enhances the accuracy of GPS receivers

The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is an air navigation aid developed by the Federal Aviation Administration to augment the Global Positioning System (GPS), with the goal of improving its accuracy, integrity, and availability. Essentially, WAAS is intended to enable aircraft to rely on GPS for all phases of flight, including precision approaches to any airport within its coverage area. It may be further enhanced with the Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) also known by the preferred ICAO term Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) in critical areas.

European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service system that enhances the accuracy of GPS receivers

The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is a satellite based augmentation system (SBAS) developed by the European Space Agency and EUROCONTROL on behalf of the European Commission. It supplements the GPS, GLONASS and Galileo by reporting on the reliability and accuracy of their positioning data and sending out corrections.

History and theory

Accuracy of Navigation Systems.svg

Ground based radio navigation has long been practiced. The DECCA, LORAN, GEE and Omega systems used terrestrial longwave radio transmitters which broadcast a radio pulse from a known "master" location, followed by a pulse repeated from a number of "slave" stations. The delay between the reception of the master signal and the slave signals allowed the receiver to deduce the distance to each of the slaves, providing a fix.

Radio navigation

Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position of an object on the Earth. Like radiolocation, it is a type of radiodetermination.

Decca Navigator System

The Decca Navigator System was a hyperbolic radio navigation system which allowed ships and aircraft to determine their position by receiving radio signals from fixed navigational beacons. The system used phase comparison of two low frequency signals between 70 and 129 kHz, as opposed to pulse timing systems like Gee and LORAN. This made it much easier to implement the receivers using 1940s electronics, eliminating the need for a cathode ray tube.

LORAN long range navigation system

LORAN, stand for long range navigation, was a hyperbolic radio navigation system developed in the United States during World War II. It was similar to the UK's Gee system but operated at lower frequencies in order to provide an improved range up to 1,500 miles (2,400 km) with an accuracy of tens of miles. It was first used for ship convoys crossing the Atlantic Ocean, and then by long-range patrol aircraft, but found its main use on the ships and aircraft operating in the Pacific theatre.

The first satellite navigation system was Transit, a system deployed by the US military in the 1960s. Transit's operation was based on the Doppler effect: the satellites travelled on well-known paths and broadcast their signals on a well-known radio frequency. The received frequency will differ slightly from the broadcast frequency because of the movement of the satellite with respect to the receiver. By monitoring this frequency shift over a short time interval, the receiver can determine its location to one side or the other of the satellite, and several such measurements combined with a precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit can fix a particular position. Satellite orbital position errors are induced by variations in the gravity field and radar refraction, among others. These were resolved by a team led by Harold L Jury of Pan Am Aerospace Division in Florida from 1970-1973. Using real-time data assimilation and recursive estimation, the systematic and residual errors were narrowed down to a manageable level to permit accurate navigation. [6]

Part of an orbiting satellite's broadcast included its precise orbital data. In order to ensure accuracy, the US Naval Observatory (USNO) continuously observed the precise orbits of these satellites. As a satellite's orbit deviated, the USNO would send the updated information to the satellite. Subsequent broadcasts from an updated satellite would contain its most recent ephemeris.

Modern systems are more direct. The satellite broadcasts a signal that contains orbital data (from which the position of the satellite can be calculated) and the precise time the signal was transmitted. The orbital ephemeris is transmitted in a data message that is superimposed on a code that serves as a timing reference. The satellite uses an atomic clock to maintain synchronization of all the satellites in the constellation. The receiver compares the time of broadcast encoded in the transmission of three (at sea level) or four different satellites, thereby measuring the time-of-flight to each satellite. Several such measurements can be made at the same time to different satellites, allowing a continual fix to be generated in real time using an adapted version of trilateration: see GNSS positioning calculation for details.

Each distance measurement, regardless of the system being used, places the receiver on a spherical shell at the measured distance from the broadcaster. By taking several such measurements and then looking for a point where they meet, a fix is generated. However, in the case of fast-moving receivers, the position of the signal moves as signals are received from several satellites. In addition, the radio signals slow slightly as they pass through the ionosphere, and this slowing varies with the receiver's angle to the satellite, because that changes the distance through the ionosphere. The basic computation thus attempts to find the shortest directed line tangent to four oblate spherical shells centred on four satellites. Satellite navigation receivers reduce errors by using combinations of signals from multiple satellites and multiple correlators, and then using techniques such as Kalman filtering to combine the noisy, partial, and constantly changing data into a single estimate for position, time, and velocity.

Applications

Automotive navigation system Garmin Nuvi 200.jpg
Automotive navigation system

The original motivation for satellite navigation was for military applications. Satellite navigation allows precision in the delivery of weapons to targets, greatly increasing their lethality whilst reducing inadvertent casualties from mis-directed weapons. (See Guided bomb). Satellite navigation also allows forces to be directed and to locate themselves more easily, reducing the fog of war.

The ability to supply satellite navigation signals is also the ability to deny their availability. The operator of a satellite navigation system potentially has the ability to degrade or eliminate satellite navigation services over any territory it desires.

Comparison of geostationary, GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass (MEO), International Space Station, Hubble Space Telescope, Iridium constellation and graveyard orbits, with the Van Allen radiation belts and the Earth to scale. The Moon's orbit is around 9 times larger than geostationary orbit. (In the SVG file, hover over an orbit or its label to highlight it; click to load its article.) Comparison satellite navigation orbits.svg
Comparison of geostationary, GPS , GLONASS , Galileo , Compass (MEO) , International Space Station, Hubble Space Telescope, Iridium constellation and graveyard orbits, with the Van Allen radiation belts and the Earth to scale. The Moon's orbit is around 9 times larger than geostationary orbit. (In the SVG file, hover over an orbit or its label to highlight it; click to load its article.)
Launched GNSS satellites 1978 to 2014 Launched GNSS 2014.jpg
Launched GNSS satellites 1978 to 2014

GPS

The United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) consists of up to 32 medium Earth orbit satellites in six different orbital planes, with the exact number of satellites varying as older satellites are retired and replaced. Operational since 1978 and globally available since 1994, GPS is the world's most utilized satellite navigation system.

GLONASS

The formerly Soviet, and now Russian, Global'naya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema, (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System or GLONASS), is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides a civilian radionavigation-satellite service and is also used by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. GLONASS has full global coverage with 24 satellites.

Galileo

The European Union and European Space Agency agreed in March 2002 to introduce their own alternative to GPS, called the Galileo positioning system. Galileo became operational on 15 December 2016 (global Early Operational Capability (EOC)) [7] At an estimated cost of €3 billion, [8] the system of 30 MEO satellites was originally scheduled to be operational in 2010. The original year to become operational was 2014. [9] The first experimental satellite was launched on 28 December 2005. [10] Galileo is expected to be compatible with the modernized GPS system. The receivers will be able to combine the signals from both Galileo and GPS satellites to greatly increase the accuracy. Galileo is expected to be in full service in 2020 and at a substantially higher cost. [2] The main modulation used in Galileo Open Service signal is the Composite Binary Offset Carrier (CBOC) modulation.

BeiDou-2

China has indicated their plan to complete the entire second generation Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS or BeiDou-2, formerly known as COMPASS), by expanding current regional (Asia-Pacific) service into global coverage by 2020. [1] The BeiDou-2 system is proposed to consist of 30 MEO satellites and five geostationary satellites. A 16-satellite regional version (covering Asia and Pacific area) was completed by December 2012.

Regional navigation satellite systems

BeiDou-1

Chinese regional (Asia-Pacific, 16 satellites) network to be expanded into the whole BeiDou-2 global system which consists of all 35 satellites by 2020.

The NAVIC or NAVigation with Indian Constellation is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system developed by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) which would be under the total control of Indian government. The government approved the project in May 2006, with the intention of the system completed and implemented on 28 April 2016. It will consist of a constellation of 7 navigational satellites. [11] 3 of the satellites will be placed in the Geostationary orbit (GEO) and the remaining 4 in the Geosynchronous orbit(GSO) to have a larger signal footprint and lower number of satellites to map the region. It is intended to provide an all-weather absolute position accuracy of better than 7.6 meters throughout India and within a region extending approximately 1,500 km around it. [12] A goal of complete Indian control has been stated, with the space segment, ground segment and user receivers all being built in India. [13] All seven satellites, IRNSS-1A, IRNSS-1B, IRNSS-1C, IRNSS-1D, IRNSS-1E, IRNSS-1F, and IRNSS-1G, of the proposed constellation were precisely launched on 1 July 2013, 4 April 2014, 16 October 2014, 28 March 2015, 20 January 2016, 10 March 2016 and 28 April 2016 respectively from Satish Dhawan Space Centre. [14] [15] The system is expected to be fully operational by August 2016. [16]

QZSS

The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) is a proposed four-satellite regional time transfer system and enhancement for GPS covering Japan and the Asia-Oceania regions. QZSS services are available on a trial basis as of January 12, 2018, and are scheduled to be launched in November 2018. The first satellite was launched in September 2010. [17]

Comparison of systems

System BeiDou Galileo GLONASS GPS NAVIC QZSS
Owner China European Union Russia United States India Japan
CoverageRegional
(Global by 2020)
Global by 2020GlobalGlobalRegionalRegional
Coding CDMA CDMA FDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA
Altitude21,150 km (13,140 mi)23,222 km (14,429 mi)19,130 km (11,890 mi)20,180 km (12,540 mi)36,000 km (22,000 mi)32,600 km (20,300 mi)
39,000 km (24,000 mi) [18]
Period12.63 h (12 h 38 min)14.08 h (14 h  5 min)11.26 h (11 h 16 min)11.97 h (11 h 58 min)23.93 h (23 h 56 min)23.93 h (23 h 56 min)
Rev./S. day 17/9 (1.888...)17/10 (1.7)17/8 (2.125)211
Satellites23 in orbit (Oct 2018)
35 by 2020 [19]
26 in orbit
6 to be launched [20]
24 by design
24 operational
1 commissioning
1 in flight tests [21]
31, [22]
24 by design
3 GEO,
5 GSO MEO
4 in orbit (Oct 2017)
7 final goal
Frequency1.561098 GHz (B1)
1.589742 GHz (B1-2)
1.20714 GHz (B2)
1.26852 GHz (B3)
1.559–1.592 GHz (E1)

1.164–1.215 GHz (E5a/b)
1.260–1.300 GHz (E6)

1.593–1.610 GHz (G1)
1.237–1.254 GHz (G2)

1.189–1.214 GHz (G3)

1.563–1.587 GHz (L1)
1.215–1.2396 GHz (L2)

1.164–1.189 GHz (L5)

1176.45 MHz(L5)
2492.028 MHz (S)
?
StatusBasic nav. service by 2018 end
to be completed by H1 2020 [20]
Operating since 2016
2020 completion [20]
OperationalOperational7 operationalOperational since November 2018
Precision10m (Public)
0.1m (Encrypted)
1m (Public)
0.01m (Encrypted)
4.5m – 7.4m15m (no DGPS or WAAS)10m (Public)
0.1m (Encrypted)
1m (Public)
0.1m (Encrypted)
System BeiDou Galileo GLONASS GPS NAVIC QZSS

Sources: [5]

Augmentation

GNSS augmentation is a method of improving a navigation system's attributes, such as accuracy, reliability, and availability, through the integration of external information into the calculation process, for example, the Wide Area Augmentation System, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service, the Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System, Differential GPS, GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) and inertial navigation systems.

DORIS

Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) is a French precision navigation system. Unlike other GNSS systems, it is based on static emitting stations around the world, the receivers being on satellites, in order to precisely determine their orbital position. The system may be used also for mobile receivers on land with more limited usage and coverage. Used with traditional GNSS systems, it pushes the accuracy of positions to centimetric precision (and to millimetric precision for altimetric application and also allows monitoring very tiny seasonal changes of Earth rotation and deformations), in order to build a much more precise geodesic reference system. [23]

Low Earth orbit satellite phone networks

The two current operational low Earth orbit satellite phone networks are able to track transceiver units with accuracy of a few kilometers using doppler shift calculations from the satellite. The coordinates are sent back to the transceiver unit where they can be read using AT commands or a graphical user interface. [24] [25] This can also be used by the gateway to enforce restrictions on geographically bound calling plans.

Positioning calculation

See also

Notes

  1. Orbital periods and speeds are calculated using the relations 4π²R³ = T²GM and V²R = GM, where R = radius of orbit in metres, T = orbital period in seconds, V = orbital speed in m/s, G = gravitational constant 6.673×1011 Nm²/kg², M = mass of Earth 5.98×1024 kg.
  2. Approximately 8.6 times (in radius and length) when the moon is nearest (363104 km ÷ 42164 km) to 9.6 times when the moon is farthest (405696 km ÷ 42164 km).

Related Research Articles

Galileo (satellite navigation) global navigation satellite system

Galileo is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that went live in 2016, created by the European Union (EU) through the European GNSS Agency (GSA), headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy. The €10 billion project is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei. One of the aims of Galileo is to provide an independent high-precision positioning system so European nations do not have to rely on the U.S. GPS, or the Russian GLONASS systems, which could be disabled or degraded by their operators at any time. The use of basic (lower-precision) Galileo services will be free and open to everyone. The higher-precision capabilities will be available for paying commercial users. Galileo is intended to provide horizontal and vertical position measurements within 1-metre precision, and better positioning services at higher latitudes than other positioning systems. Galileo is also to provide a new global search and rescue (SAR) function as part of the MEOSAR system.

GLONASS Russian satellite navigation system

GLONASS, or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service. It provides an alternative to GPS and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision.

Global air-traffic management (GATM) is a concept for satellite-based Communication, navigation and surveillance and air traffic management. The Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization, a special agency of the United Nations, established GATM standards to keep air travel safe and effective in increasingly crowded worldwide air space. Efforts are being made worldwide to test and implement new technologies that will allow GATM to efficiently support air traffic control.

BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Beidou Navigation Satellite System

The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is a Chinese satellite navigation system. It consists of two separate satellite constellations. The first BeiDou system, officially called the BeiDou Satellite Navigation Experimental System and also known as BeiDou-1, consists of three satellites which since 2000 has offered limited coverage and navigation services, mainly for users in China and neighboring regions. Beidou-1 was decommissioned at the end of 2012.

Real-time kinematic Satellite navigation technique used to enhance the precision of position data

Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is a satellite navigation technique used to enhance the precision of position data derived from satellite-based positioning systems such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou. It uses measurements of the phase of the signal's carrier wave in addition to the information content of the signal and relies on a single reference station or interpolated virtual station to provide real-time corrections, providing up to centimetre-level accuracy. With reference to GPS in particular, the system is commonly referred to as carrier-phase enhancement, or CPGPS. It has applications in land survey, hydrographic survey, and in unmanned aerial vehicle navigation.

Local-area augmentation system

The local-area augmentation system (LAAS) is an all-weather aircraft landing system based on real-time differential correction of the GPS signal. Local reference receivers located around the airport send data to a central location at the airport. This data is used to formulate a correction message, which is then transmitted to users via a VHF Data Link. A receiver on an aircraft uses this information to correct GPS signals, which then provides a standard ILS-style display to use while flying a precision approach. The FAA has stopped using the term LAAS and has transitioned to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) terminology of Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS). While the FAA has indefinitely delayed plans for federal GBAS acquisition, the system can be purchased by airports and installed as a Non-Federal navigation aid.

Quasi-Zenith Satellite System communications satellite

The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) is a project of the Japanese government for the development of a four-satellite regional time transfer system and a satellite-based augmentation system for the United States operated Global Positioning System (GPS) to be receivable in the Asia-Oceania regions, with a focus on Japan. The goal of QZSS is to provide highly precise and stable positioning services in the Asia-Oceania region, compatible with GPS. Four-satellite QZSS services (QZS-4) are available on a trial basis as of January 12, 2018, and officially started on November 1, 2018.

A positioning system is a mechanism for determining the location of an object in space. Technologies for this task exist ranging from worldwide coverage with meter accuracy to workspace coverage with sub-millimetre accuracy.

The GPS-aided GEO augmented navigation (GAGAN) is an implementation of a regional satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) by the Indian government. It is a system to improve the accuracy of a GNSS receiver by providing reference signals. The AAI's efforts towards implementation of operational SBAS can be viewed as the first step towards introduction of modern Communication, navigation and surveillance/Air Traffic Management system over Indian airspace.

Augmentation of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is a method of improving the navigation system's attributes, such as accuracy, reliability, and availability, through the integration of external information into the calculation process. There are many such systems in place and they are generally named or described based on how the GNSS sensor receives the external information. Some systems transmit additional information about sources of error, others provide direct measurements of how much the signal was off in the past, while a third group provide additional vehicle information to be integrated in the calculation process.

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System satellite navigation system

The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), with an operational name of NAVIC, is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services. It covers India and a region extending 1,500 km (930 mi) around it, with plans for further extension. An Extended Service Area lies between the primary service area and a rectangle area enclosed by the 30th parallel south to the 50th parallel north and the 30th meridian east to the 130th meridian east, 1,500–6,000 km beyond borders. The system at present consists of a constellation of seven satellites, with two additional satellites on ground as stand-by.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, using the GPS, GLONASS, Galileo or BeiDou system, are used in many applications. The first systems were developed in the 20th century, mainly to help military personnel find their way, but location awareness soon found many civilian applications.

In the field of geodesy, Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX) is a data interchange format for raw satellite navigation system data. This allows the user to post-process the received data to produce a more accurate result — usually with other data unknown to the original receiver, such as better models of the atmospheric conditions at time of measurement.

GPS Block IIF

GPS Block IIF, or GPS IIF is an interim class of GPS (satellite), which are used to keep the Navstar Global Positioning System operational until the GPS Block IIIA satellites become operational. They are being built by Boeing, and will be operated by the United States Air Force following their launch by United Launch Alliance, using Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles. They are the final component of the Block II GPS constellation to be launched. On February 5, 2016, the final satellite in the IIF-block was successfully launched, completing the block.

A software GNSS receiver is a GNSS receiver that has been designed and implemented following the philosophy of Software-defined radio.

IRNSS-1B is the second out of seven in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) series of satellites after IRNSS-1A. The IRNSS constellation of satellites is slated to be launched to provide navigational services to the region. It was placed in geosynchronous orbit on 4 April 2014.

Inside GNSS is an international controlled circulation trade magazine owned by Gibbons Media and Research LLC. It covers space-based positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) technology for engineers, designers and policy-makers of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In the United States GNSS is identified mainly with the government-operated Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS). Insidegnss.com is a site of online news, events, digital newsletters and webinars, and archived magazine articles.

U-blox

u-blox is a Swiss company that creates wireless semiconductors and modules for consumer, automotive and industrial markets. They operate as a fabless IC and design house. Their wireless solutions connect machines, vehicles and people to locate their exact positions and communicate via short range or cellular networks. Using their portfolio of chips, modules or software solutions it’s possible to create subsystems and products to fulfill needs for the Internet of Things (IoT), M2M or Car2Car solutions quick and cost-effectively.

James Spilker US engineer, one of the originators of GPS

James Julius Spilker Jr. is an American engineer and a Consulting Professor in the Aeronautics and Astronautics Department at Stanford University. He was one of the principle architects of the Global Positioning System (GPS), and a co-founder of the space communications company Stanford Telecommunications and is currently executive chairman of AOSense Inc., Sunnyvale, CA.

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  22. "GPS Space Segment" . Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  23. "DORIS information page". Jason.oceanobs.com. Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  24. "Globalstar GSP-1700 manual" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-30.
  25. Archived November 9, 2005, at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

Information on specific GNSS systems

Supportive or illustrative sites