Aviation

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The Boeing 747 Pan Am Boeing 747-121 N732PA Bidini.jpg
The Boeing 747

Aviation is the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as hot air balloons and airships.

Contents

Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy. Some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896; then a large step in significance came with the construction of the first powered airplane by the Wright brothers in the early 1900s. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world.

Etymology

The word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. [1] He derived the term from the verb avier (an unsuccessful neologism for "to fly"), itself derived from the Latin word avis ("bird") and the suffix -ation. [2]

History

Early beginnings

There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth, Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth, [3] and the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum (428–347 BC). [4] Later, somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas (810–887), Eilmer of Malmesbury (11th century), and the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão (1685–1724).

Lighter than air

LZ 129 Hindenburg at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, 1936 Hindenburg at lakehurst.jpg
LZ 129 Hindenburg at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, 1936

The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers. [5] The practicality of balloons was limited because they could only travel downwind. It was immediately recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785.

Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances. The best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company.

The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin. It flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced. The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937, when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was initially blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was highly flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. [6] Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. [7]

Heavier than air

In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. [8] [9] Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion (Henri Giffard, 1852), rigid frames (David Schwarz, 1896) and improved speed and maneuverability (Alberto Santos-Dumont, 1901)

First powered and controlled flight by the Wright brothers, December 17, 1903 First flight2.jpg
First powered and controlled flight by the Wright brothers, December 17, 1903

There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight. The first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890, in his bat-winged, fully self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole. It was reportedly the first manned, powered, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance (50 m (160 ft)) but insignificant altitude from level ground. [10] [11] [12] Seven years later, on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry. The report on the trials was not publicized until 1910, as they had been a military secret. In November 1906, Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres (980 feet). Although widely believed at the time, these claims were later discredited. [13] [14]

The Wright brothers made the first successful powered, controlled and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade later, at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, and even attacks against ground positions.

Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger and more reliable. The Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908. [15] [16]

During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, and Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available. The war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets.

The Cessna 172 is the most produced aircraft in history Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP, Private JP6817606.jpg
The Cessna 172 is the most produced aircraft in history

After World War II, especially in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna, Piper, and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.

By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland Comet, though the first widely used passenger jet was the Boeing 707, because it was much more economical than other aircraft at that time. At the same time, turboprop propulsion began to appear for smaller commuter planes, making it possible to serve small-volume routes in a much wider range of weather conditions.

Since the 1960s composite material airframes and quieter, more efficient engines have become available, and Concorde provided supersonic passenger service for more than two decades, but the most important lasting innovations have taken place in instrumentation and control. The arrival of solid-state electronics, the Global Positioning System, satellite communications, and increasingly small and powerful computers and LED displays, have dramatically changed the cockpits of airliners and, increasingly, of smaller aircraft as well. Pilots can navigate much more accurately and view terrain, obstructions, and other nearby aircraft on a map or through synthetic vision, even at night or in low visibility.

NASA's Helios researches solar powered flight. Helios cthomas.jpg
NASA's Helios researches solar powered flight.

On June 21, 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first privately funded aircraft to make a spaceflight, opening the possibility of an aviation market capable of leaving the Earth's atmosphere. Meanwhile, flying prototypes of aircraft powered by alternative fuels, such as ethanol, electricity, and even solar energy, are becoming more common.

Operations of aircraft

Civil aviation

Civil aviation includes all non-military flying, both general aviation and scheduled air transport.

Air transport

Northwest Airlines Airbus A330-323 Northwest Airlines A330-323 (N805NW) landing at London Gatwick Airport.jpg
Northwest Airlines Airbus A330-323

There are five major manufacturers of civil transport aircraft (in alphabetical order):

Boeing, Airbus, Ilyushin and Tupolev concentrate on wide-body and narrow-body jet airliners, while Bombardier, Embraer and Sukhoi concentrate on regional airliners. Large networks of specialized parts suppliers from around the world support these manufacturers, who sometimes provide only the initial design and final assembly in their own plants. The Chinese ACAC consortium will also soon enter the civil transport market with its Comac ARJ21 regional jet. [18]

Until the 1970s, most major airlines were flag carriers, sponsored by their governments and heavily protected from competition. Since then, open skies agreements have resulted in increased competition and choice for consumers, coupled with falling prices for airlines. The combination of high fuel prices, low fares, high salaries, and crises such as the September 11 attacks and the SARS epidemic have driven many older airlines to government-bailouts, bankruptcy or mergers. At the same time, low-cost carriers such as Ryanair, Southwest and WestJet have flourished.

General aviation

1940 Piper Cub Piper J.3C-65 Cub 'G-BVAF' (32714647720).jpg
1940 Piper Cub

General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and commercial. General aviation may include business flights, air charter, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, paragliding, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest fire fighting.

Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation usually falls under different regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved.

Many small aircraft manufacturers serve the general aviation market, with a focus on private aviation and flight training.

The most important recent developments for small aircraft (which form the bulk of the GA fleet) have been the introduction of advanced avionics (including GPS) that were formerly found only in large airliners, and the introduction of composite materials to make small aircraft lighter and faster. Ultralight and homebuilt aircraft have also become increasingly popular for recreational use, since in most countries that allow private aviation, they are much less expensive and less heavily regulated than certified aircraft.

Military aviation

Simple balloons were used as surveillance aircraft as early as the 18th century. Over the years, military aircraft have been built to meet ever increasing capability requirements. Manufacturers of military aircraft compete for contracts to supply their government's arsenal. Aircraft are selected based on factors like cost, performance, and the speed of production.

The Lockheed SR-71 remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird.jpg
The Lockheed SR-71 remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance.

Types of military aviation

Air safety

Aviation safety means the state of an aviation system or organization in which risks associated with aviation activities, related to, or in direct support of the operation of aircraft, are reduced and controlled to an acceptable level. It encompasses the theory, practice, investigation, and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through regulation, education, and training. It can also be applied in the context of campaigns that inform the public as to the safety of air travel. The worst aviation accident in history was the Tenerife airport disaster on March 27, 1977, when 583 people died when two Boeing 747 jumbo jets, operated by Pan Am and KLM collided on a runway in Los Rodeos airport, now known as Tenerife North.

Aviation accidents and incidents

A USAF Thunderbird pilot ejecting from his F-16 aircraft at an air show in 2003 Crash.arp.600pix.jpg
A USAF Thunderbird pilot ejecting from his F-16 aircraft at an air show in 2003

An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which a person is fatally or seriously injured, the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. [20]

The first fatal aviation accident occurred in a Wright Model A aircraft at Fort Myer, Virginia, USA, on September 17, 1908, resulting in injury to the pilot, Orville Wright, and death of the passenger, Signal Corps Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge. [21]

An aviation incident is defined as an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety of operations. [22]

An accident in which the damage to the aircraft is such that it must be written off, or in which the plane is destroyed, is called a hull loss accident. [22]

Air traffic control

Air traffic control towers at Amsterdam Airport Towers Schiphol small.jpg
Air traffic control towers at Amsterdam Airport

Air traffic control (ATC) involves communication with aircraft to help maintain separation – that is, they ensure that aircraft are sufficiently far enough apart horizontally or vertically for no risk of collision. Controllers may co-ordinate position reports provided by pilots, or in high traffic areas (such as the United States) they may use radar to see aircraft positions.

There are generally four different types of ATC:

ATC is especially important for aircraft flying under instrument flight rules (IFR), when they may be in weather conditions that do not allow the pilots to see other aircraft. However, in very high-traffic areas, especially near major airports, aircraft flying under visual flight rules (VFR) are also required to follow instructions from ATC.

In addition to separation from other aircraft, ATC may provide weather advisories, terrain separation, navigation assistance, and other services to pilots, depending on their workload.

ATC do not control all flights. The majority of VFR (Visual Flight Rules) flights in North America are not required to contact ATC (unless they are passing through a busy terminal area or using a major airport), and in many areas, such as northern Canada and low altitude in northern Scotland, Air traffic control services are not available even for IFR flights at lower altitudes.

Environmental impact

Like all activities involving combustion, operating powered aircraft (from airliners to hot air balloons) releases soot and other pollutants into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) are also produced. In addition, there are environmental impacts specific to aviation: for instance,

Water vapor contrails left by high-altitude jet airliners. These may contribute to cirrus cloud formation. Contrails.jpg
Water vapor contrails left by high-altitude jet airliners. These may contribute to cirrus cloud formation.

Another environmental impact of aviation is noise pollution, mainly caused by aircraft taking off and landing. Sonic booms were a problem with supersonic aircraft such as the Concorde.

See also

Notes

  1. "Aviation ou Navigation aerienne par G. de La Landelle". E. Dentu. 6 June 1863 via Internet Archive.
  2. Cassard 2008, p. 77.
  3. The Sháhnáma of Firdausí. Vol. II. (1906), pp. 103-104, verse 111. Translated by Arthur George Warner and Edmond Warner. London. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. Ltd
  4. Berliner 1996, p. 28.
  5. "Balloon flight | aviation". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  6. De Angelis 1997, pp. 87–101.
  7. Torenbeek, Egbert; La Rocca, Gianfranco (15 December 2010), Blockley, Richard; Shyy, Wei (eds.), "Civil Transport Aircraft", Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. eae379, doi:10.1002/9780470686652.eae379, ISBN   978-0-470-75440-5 , retrieved 6 June 2021
  8. "Aviation History". Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  9. "Sir George Carley (British Inventor and Scientist)". Britannica. Archived from the original on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009. English pioneer of aerial navigation and aeronautical engineering and designer of the first successful glider to carry a human being aloft.
  10. "Clement Ader – French inventor". Archived from the original on 8 March 2012.
  11. "FLYING MACHINES - Clement Ader". Archived from the original on 4 February 2012.
  12. "EADS N.V. – Eole/Clément Ader". 20 October 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007.
  13. Gibbs-Smith, C. H., Aviation. London, NMSO 2003, p. 75.
  14. L'homme, l'air et l'espace, p. 96
  15. Tom D. Crouch (29 August 2008). "1908: The Year the Airplane Went Public". Air & Space/Smithsonian . Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  16. "This Month in Exploration: May". NASA. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  17. Martin, Swayne. "The 20 Most Produced Aircraft Of All Time" . Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  18. Kingsbury, Kathleen (11 October 2007). "Eyes on the Skies". Time. Archived from the original on 31 October 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  19. , "In Homeland Security" on the strategic advantage of the SR-71 blackbird. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  20. The Investigation Process Research Resource Site. "International Investigation Standards". Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  21. About.com Inventors. "Wright Brothers – First Fatal Airplane Crash in 1908" . Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  22. 1 2 AirSafe.com. "Definitions of Key Terms Used by AirSafe.com". Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  23. "Aviation and the Global Atmosphere". Archived from the original on 29 June 2007.
  24. Le Page, Michael. "It turns out planes are even worse for the climate than we thought". www.newscientist.com. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  25. Lin, X.; Trainer, M. & Liu, S.C. (1988). "On the nonlinearity of the tropospheric ozone production". Journal of Geophysical Research. 93 (D12): 15879–88. Bibcode:1988JGR....9315879L. doi:10.1029/JD093iD12p15879.
  26. Grewe, V.; D. Brunner; M. Dameris; J. L. Grenfell; R. Hein; D. Shindell; J. Staehelin (July 2001). "Origin and variability of upper tropospheric nitrogen oxides and ozone at northern mid-latitudes". Atmospheric Environment. 35 (20): 3421–33. Bibcode:2001AtmEn..35.3421G. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00134-0. hdl: 2060/20000060827 .

Bibliography

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1909 in aviation

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