Outer Space Treaty

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Outer Space Treaty
French: Traité de l'espace
Russian: Договор о космосе
Spanish: Tratado sobre el espacio ultraterrestre
Chinese :外层空间条约
Outer Space Treaty parties.svg
  Parties
  Signatories
  Non-parties
Signed27 January 1967
Location London, Moscow and Washington, D.C.
Effective10 October 1967
Condition5 ratifications, including the depositary Governments
Parties110 [1] [2] [3] [4]
DepositaryGovernments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America
LanguagesEnglish, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese
Wikisource-logo.svg Outer Space Treaty of 1967 at Wikisource

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of June 2020, 110 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification. [1] In addition, Taiwan, which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. [5]

Contents

Among the Outer Space Treaty's main points are that it prohibits the placing of nuclear weapons in space, it limits the use of the Moon and all other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes only, and establishes that space shall be free for exploration and use by all nations, but that no nation may claim sovereignty of outer space or any celestial body. The Outer Space Treaty does not ban military activities within space, military space forces, or the weaponization of space, with the exception of the placement of weapons of mass destruction in space. [6] [7] It is mostly a non-armament treaty and offers limited and ambiguous regulations to newer space activities such as lunar and asteroid mining. [8] [9] [10]

Key points

The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law. Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in Earth orbit, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise stationing them in outer space. It specifically limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes, and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Article IV). However, the treaty does not prohibit the placement of conventional weapons in orbit, and thus some highly destructive attack tactics, such as kinetic bombardment, are still potentially allowable. [11] The treaty also states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and that space shall be free for exploration and use by all the states.

The treaty explicitly forbids any government from claiming a celestial body such as the Moon or a planet. [12] Article II of the treaty states that "...outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means." However, the state that launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object. [13] The state is also liable for damages caused by its space object. [14]

Being primarily an arms-control treaty for the peaceful use of outer space, it offers insufficient and ambiguous regulations to newer space activities such as lunar and asteroid mining. [8] [10] [15] It therefore remains under contention whether the extraction of resources falls within the prohibitive language of appropriation or whether the use encompasses the commercial use and exploitation. [16] Seeking clearer guidelines, private U.S. companies lobbied the U.S. government, and space mining was legalized in 2015 by introducing the US Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act of 2015. [17] Similar national legislation to legalize the appropriation of extraterrestrial resources are now being introduced by other countries, including Luxembourg, Japan, China, India, and Russia. [8] [15] [18] [19] This has created some controversy regarding legal claims over the mining of celestial bodies for profit. [15] [16]

Responsibility for activities in space

Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty deals with international responsibility, stating that "the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty" and that States Parties shall bear international responsibility for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities.

As a result of discussions arising from Project West Ford in 1963, a consultation clause was included in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty: "A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment." [20] [21]

Follow-ups

The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) coordinates [23] these treaties and other questions of space jurisdiction.

List of parties

The Outer Space Treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of June 2020, 110 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification. [1]

Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, which varied by location. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington, DC. Also indicated is whether the state became a party by way of signing the treaty and subsequent ratification, by accession to the treaty after it had closed for signature, or by succession of states after separation from some other party to the treaty.

State [1] [2] [3] [4] SignedDepositedMethod
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Mar 17, 1988 (L, M)
Mar 21, 1988 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Jan 27, 1992 (W)Accession
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda Nov 16, 1988 (W)
Dec 26, 1988 (M)
Jan 26, 1989 (L)
Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Apr 18, 1967 (M)
Mar 26, 1969 (M, W)Ratification
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia Mar 28, 2018 (M)Accession
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Jan 27, 1967 (W)Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Feb 20, 1967 (L, M, W)Feb 26, 1968 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan Sep 9, 2015 (L)Accession
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas Aug 11, 1976 (L)
Aug 13, 1976 (W)
Aug 30, 1976 (M)
Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Bahrain.svg  Bahrain Aug 7, 2019 (M)Accession
Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh Jan 14, 1986 (L)
Jan 17, 1986 (W)
Jan 24, 1986 (M)
Accession
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados Sep 12, 1968 (W)Accession
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Feb 10, 1967 (M)Oct 31, 1967 (M)Ratification
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Jan 27, 1967 (L, M)
Feb 2, 1967 (W)
Mar 30, 1973 (W)
Mar 31, 1973 (L, M)
Ratification
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin Jun 19, 1986 (M)
Jul 2, 1986 (L)
Jul 7, 1986 (W)
Accession
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Feb 2, 1967 (L, W)
Mar 5, 1969 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Mar 28, 1967 (M)
Apr 11, 1967 (W)
Apr 19, 1967 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso Mar 3, 1967 (W)Jun 18, 1968 (W)Ratification
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Feb 3, 1967 (L)
Feb 20, 1967 (M)
Oct 8, 1981 (W)Ratification
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Dec 30, 1983 (W)
Jan 6, 1984 (M)
Jan 12, 1984 (L)
Accession
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Jun 3, 1977 (M)Accession
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Feb 15, 1967 (M)
Feb 16, 1967 (L)
Jul 5, 1972 (L, W)
Sep 20, 1972 (M)
Ratification
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Jan 1, 1993 (M, W)
Sep 29, 1993 (L)
Succession from Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic Jan 27, 1967 (W)Nov 21, 1968 (W)Ratification
Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador Jan 27, 1967 (W)
May 16, 1967 (L)
Jun 7, 1967 (M)
Mar 7, 1969 (W)Ratification
Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt Jan 27, 1967 (M, W)Oct 10, 1967 (W)
Jan 23, 1968 (M)
Ratification
Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador Jan 27, 1967 (W)Jan 15, 1969 (W)Ratification
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea Jan 16, 1989 (M)Accession
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia Apr 19, 2010 (M)Accession
Flag of Fiji.svg  Fiji Jul 18, 1972 (W)
Aug 14, 1972 (L)
Aug 29, 1972 (M)
Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Jul 12, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of France.svg  France Sep 25, 1967 (L, M, W)Aug 5, 1970 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Feb 10, 1971 (L, W)Ratification
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Jan 27, 1967 (W)Jan 19, 1971 (L)Ratification
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau Aug 20, 1976 (M)Accession
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Jun 26, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Feb 5, 1968 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of India.svg  India Mar 3, 1967 (L, M, W)Jan 18, 1982 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Feb 14, 1967 (L)
Jun 25, 2002 (L)Ratification
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Feb 27, 1967 (L, W)
Mar 9, 1967 (M)
Dec 4, 1968 (M)
Sep 23, 1969 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)Jul 17, 1968 (W)
Jul 19, 1968 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Feb 18, 1977 (W)
Mar 1, 1977 (L)
Apr 4, 1977 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)May 4, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica Jun 29, 1967 (L, M, W)Aug 6, 1970 (W)
Aug 10, 1970 (L)
Aug 21, 1970 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan Jun 11, 1998 (M)Accession
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Jan 19, 1984 (L)Accession
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea Mar 5, 2009 (M)Accession
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Jan 27, 1967 (W)Oct 13, 1967 (W)Ratification
Flag of Kuwait.svg  Kuwait Jun 7, 1972 (W)
Jun 20, 1972 (L)
Jul 4, 1972 (M)
Accession
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Jan 30, 1967 (L)
Feb 2, 1967 (M)
Nov 27, 1972 (M)
Nov 29, 1972 (W)
Jan 15, 1973 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Feb 23, 1967 (L, M, W)Mar 31, 1969 (L, M)
Jun 30, 1969 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya Jul 3, 1968 (W)Accession
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania Mar 25, 2013 (W)Accession
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Jan 27, 1967 (M, W)
Jan 31, 1967 (L)
Jan 17, 2006 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar Aug 22, 1968 (W)Accession
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Jun 11, 1968 (M)Accession
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta May 22, 2017 (L)Accession
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Apr 7, 1969 (W)
Apr 21, 1969 (L)
May 13, 1969 (M)
Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Jan 31, 1968 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Jan 27, 1967 (M)Oct 10, 1967 (M)Ratification
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Dec 21, 1967 (L, M)
Dec 22, 1967 (W)
Accession
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar May 22, 1967 (L, M, W)Mar 18, 1970 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Feb 3, 1967 (M, W)
Feb 6, 1967 (L)
Oct 10, 1967 (L)
Oct 16, 1967 (M)
Nov 22, 1967 (W)
Ratification
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Feb 10, 1967 (L, M, W)Oct 10, 1969 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)May 31, 1968 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Feb 13, 1967 (L)
Jun 30, 2017 (W)
Aug 10, 2017 (M)
Aug 14, 2017 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger Feb 1, 1967 (W)Apr 17, 1967 (L)
May 3, 1967 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria Nov 14, 1967 (L)Accession
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Feb 3, 1967 (L, M, W)Jul 1, 1969 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Sep 12, 1967 (L, M, W)Apr 8, 1968 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg  Papua New Guinea Oct 27, 1980 (L)
Nov 13, 1980 (M)
Mar 16, 1981 (W)
Succession from Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Dec 22, 2016 (L)Accession
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru Jun 30, 1967 (W)Feb 28, 1979 (M)
Mar 1, 1979 (L)
Mar 21, 1979 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Jan 30, 1968 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal May 29, 1996 (L)Accession
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar Mar 13, 2012 (W)Accession
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Apr 9, 1968 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification as the Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines May 13, 1999 (L)Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of San Marino.svg  San Marino Apr 21, 1967 (W)
Apr 24, 1967 (L)
Jun 6, 1967 (M)
Oct 29, 1968 (W)
Nov 21, 1968 (M)
Feb 3, 1969 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia Dec 17, 1976 (W)Accession
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles Jan 5, 1978 (L)Accession
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone Jan 27, 1967 (L, M)
May 16, 1967 (W)
Jul 13, 1967 (M)
Jul 14, 1967 (W)
Oct 25, 1967 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Sep 10, 1976 (L, M, W)Accession
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Jan 1, 1993 (M, W)
May 17, 1993 (L)
Succession from Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Feb 8, 2019 (L)Accession
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Mar 1, 1967 (W)Sep 30, 1968 (W)
Oct 8, 1968 (L)
Nov 14, 1968 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Nov 27, 1968 (L)
Dec 7, 1968 (W)
Accession
Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka Mar 10, 1967 (L)Nov 18, 1986 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Oct 11, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)
Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Dec 18, 1969 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria Nov 19, 1968 (M)Accession
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Sep 5, 1968 (L)
Sep 9, 1968 (M)
Sep 10, 1968 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Jan 27, 1967 (W)Jun 26, 1989 (W)Ratification
Flag of Tonga.svg  Tonga Jun 22, 1971 (M)
Jul 7, 1971 (L, W)
Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)
Feb 15, 1967 (M)
Mar 28, 1968 (L)
Apr 4, 1968 (M)
Apr 17, 1968 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Mar 27, 1968 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Apr 24, 1968 (W)Accession
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Feb 10, 1967 (M)Oct 31, 1967 (M)Ratification
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates Oct 4, 2000 (W)Accession
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of the United States.svg  United States Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W)Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Aug 31, 1970 (W)Ratification
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela Jan 27, 1967 (W)Mar 3, 1970 (W)Ratification
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam Jun 20, 1980 (M)Accession
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen Jun 1, 1979 (M)Accession
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia Aug 20, 1973 (W)
Aug 21, 1973 (M)
Aug 28, 1973 (L)
Accession

Partially recognized state abiding by treaty

The Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the Republic of China's (ROC) ratification as "illegal". The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that it still considers the ROC to be "bound by its obligations". [5]

StateSignedDepositedMethod
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China 27 Jan 196724 Jul 1970Ratification

States that have signed but not ratified

Twenty-three states have signed but not ratified the treaty.

StateSigned
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Apr 29, 1967 (M)
May 4, 1967 (L)
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)
Feb 10, 1967 (M)
Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia Jun 2, 1967 (L)
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Feb 15, 1967 (M)
Mar 3, 1967 (L)
Flag of Guyana.svg  Guyana Feb 3, 1967 (W)
Flag of Haiti.svg  Haiti Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of the Vatican City.svg   Holy See Apr 5, 1967 (L)
Flag of Honduras (darker variant).svg  Honduras Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Jan 27, 1967 (L)
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Feb 2, 1967 (W)
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Feb 20, 1967 (W)
Feb 21, 1967 (L)
May 3, 1967 (M)
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)
Apr 29, 1967 (M)
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Feb 2, 1967 (W)
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Trinidad and Tobago Jul 24, 1967 (L)
Aug 17, 1967 (M)
Sep 28, 1967 (W)

See also

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  8. 1 2 3 If space is ‘the province of mankind’, who owns its resources? Senjuti Mallick and Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan. The Observer Research Foundation. 24 January 2019. Quote 1: "The Outer Space Treaty (OST) of 1967, considered the global foundation of the outer space legal regime, […] has been insufficient and ambiguous in providing clear regulations to newer space activities such as asteroid mining." *Quote2: "Although the OST does not explicitly mention "mining" activities, under Article II, outer space including the Moon and other celestial bodies are "not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty" through use, occupation or any other means."
  9. Space Law: Is asteroid mining legal?. Wired. 1 May 2012.
  10. 1 2 Who Owns Space? US Asteroid-Mining Act Is Dangerous And Potentially Illegal. IFL. Accessed on 9 November 2019. Quote 1: "The act represents a full-frontal attack on settled principles of space law which are based on two basic principles: the right of states to scientific exploration of outer space and its celestial bodies and the prevention of unilateral and unbriddled commercial exploitation of outer-space resources. These principles are found in agreements including the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the Moon Agreement of 1979." *Quote 2: "Understanding the legality of asteroid mining starts with the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. Some might argue the treaty bans all space property rights, citing Article II."
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  14. Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article VII
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  17. "U.S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act". Act No. H.R.2262 of 5 December 2015. 114th Congress (2015-2016) Sponsor: Rep. McCarthy, Kevin.
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  19. "Law Provides New Regulatory Framework for Space Commerce | RegBlog". www.regblog.org. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  20. Terrill Jr., Delbert R. (May 1999), Project West Ford, "The Air Force Role in Developing International Outer Space Law" (PDF), Air Force History and Museums:63–67
  21. Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article IX
  22. Status of international agreements relating to activities in outer space as at 1 January 2008 United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, 2008
  23. Beyond UNISPACE: It's time for the Moon Treaty. Dennis C. O'Brien. Pace Review. 21 January 2019.


Further reading