Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Last updated
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE logo.svg
FoundedJanuary 1, 1963;56 years ago (1963-01-01)
Type Professional association
13-1656633 [1]
Legal status 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization
FocusElectrical, Electronics, Communications, Computer Engineering, Computer Science and Information Technology [2]
Location
OriginsMerger of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers
MethodIndustry standards, Conferences, Publications
Members
420,000+
Key people
Stephen Welby (Executive director & COO)
José M.F. Moura (President & CEO)
Revenue
US$413 million
Website www.ieee.org

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City [3] and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. It was formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers. [4]

A professional association seeks to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest. In the United States, such an association is typically a nonprofit organization for tax purposes.

Electronic engineering electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components to design electronic circuits, devices, and their systems

Electronic engineering is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems. The discipline typically also designs passive electrical components, usually based on printed circuit boards.

Electrical engineering Field of engineering that deals with electricity

Electrical engineering is a technical discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identified activity in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electrical power generation, distribution and use.

Contents

Due to its expansion of scope into so many related fields, it is simply referred to by the letters I-E-E-E (pronounced Eye-triple-E), except on legal business documents. As of 2018, it is the world's largest association of technical professionals [5] with more than 423,000 members in over 160 countries around the world. [6] Its objectives are the educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunications, computer engineering and allied disciplines. [3] [7]

Telecommunication Transmission of information between locations using electromagnetics

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted through a transmission media, such as over physical media, for example, over electrical cable, or via electromagnetic radiation through space such as radio or light. Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies.

Computer engineering discipline integrating computer science and electrical engineering to develop computer hardware and software

Computer engineering is a branch of engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering, software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microcontrollers, microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering not only focuses on how computer systems themselves work but also how they integrate into the larger picture.

History

Origins

The IEEE traces its founding to 1884 and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. In 1912, the rival Institute of Radio Engineers was formed. Although the AIEE was initially larger, the IRE attracted more students and was larger by the mid 1950s.

The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) was a United States-based organization of electrical engineers that existed from 1884 through 1962. On January 1, 1963 it merged with the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was a professional organization which existed from 1912 until December 31, 1962. On January 1, 1963 it merged with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

Growth

The AIEE and the IRE merged to create the IEEE on 1 January 1963. At that time, the combined group had 150,000 members, 93% in the United States. By 1984 there were 250,000 members, 20% of whom were outside the U.S. Today, IEEE has over 420,000 members in 160 countries, with 44.5 percent outside of the U.S This international growth continues today. [8] The IEEE headquarters is in New York City at 3 Park Ave, but most business is done at the IEEE Operations Center [9] in Piscataway, NJ, first occupied in 1975.

Controversies

Huawei Ban

In May 2019, IEEE banned Huawei employees from peer-reviewing papers or handling papers as editors. As members of its standard-setting body, Huawei employees can also continue to exercise their voting rights, attend standards development meetings, submit proposals and comment in public discussions on new standards. [10] [11] [12]

Huawei Chinese multinational telecommunications equipment and consumer electronics manufacturer

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. is a Chinese multinational technology company that provides telecommunications equipment and sells consumer electronics, including smartphones and is headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong province.

The IEEE ban has sparked outrage among Chinese scientists on social media. Some professors in China decided to quit from IEEE. [13] [14]

On June 3, 2019, IEEE released a statement, in which it proactively lifted restrictions on Huawei's editorial and peer review activities. [15] [16] [17]

Publications

IEEE produces over 30% of the world's literature in the electrical and electronics engineering and computer science fields, publishing well over 100 peer-reviewed journals [18] [19] and magazines; it also sponsors over 1800 conferences and events.

The published content in these journals as well as the content from several hundred annual conferences sponsored by the IEEE are available in the IEEE online digital library and research database, IEEE Xplore [20] , for subscription-based access and individual publication purchases. [21]

In addition to journals and conference proceedings, the IEEE also publishes tutorials and standards that are produced by its standardization committees. Organization also has its own IEEE format paper. In writing IEEE papers, it is not just a matter of mentioning the author's name or the page number or the date an article was published. The most important aspect is referring to the source by indicating its number in a square bracket and ensure it corresponds with the full citation as mentioned in the reference list. [22]

Educational activities

The IEEE provides learning opportunities within the engineering sciences, research, and technology.

IEEE offers educational opportunities such as IEEE e Learning Library, [23] the Education Partners Program, [24] Standards in Education [25] and Continuing Education Units (CEUs). [26]

IEEE eLearning Library is a collection of online educational courses designed for self-paced learning. Education Partners, exclusive for IEEE members, offers on-line degree programs, certifications and courses at a 10% discount. The Standards in Education website explains what standards are and the importance of developing and using them. The site includes tutorial modules and case illustrations to introduce the history of standards, the basic terminology, their applications and impact on products, as well as news related to standards, book reviews and links to other sites that contain information on standards. Currently, twenty-nine states in the United States require Professional Development Hours (PDH) to maintain a Professional Engineering license, [27] [28] encouraging engineers to seek Continuing Education Units (CEUs) for their participation in continuing education programs. CEUs readily translate into Professional Development Hours (PDHs), with 1 CEU being equivalent to 10 PDHs. Countries outside the United States, such as South Africa, similarly require continuing professional development (CPD) credits, and it is anticipated that IEEE Expert Now courses will feature in the CPD listing for South Africa.

IEEE also sponsors a website designed to help young people better understand engineering, and how an engineering career can be made part of their future. Students of age 8–18, parents, and teachers can explore the site to prepare for an engineering career, ask experts engineering-related questions, play interactive games, explore curriculum links, and review lesson plans. This website also allows students to search for accredited engineering degree programs in Canada and the United States; visitors are able to search by state/province/territory, country, degree field, tuition ranges, room and board ranges, size of student body, and location (rural, suburban, or urban).

Through the Student Activities Committee, IEEE facilitates partnership between student activities and all other IEEE entities. [29]

Membership grades

Most IEEE members are electrical and electronics engineers, but the organization's wide scope of interests has attracted people in other disciplines as well (e.g., computer science, software engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, biology, physics, and mathematics).

An individual can join the IEEE as a student member, professional member, or associate member. In order to qualify for membership, the individual must fulfill certain academic or professional criteria and abide to the code of ethics and bylaws of the organization. There are several categories and levels of IEEE membership and affiliation:

Medals and awards

Technical societies under the IEEE

Various technical areas are addressed by IEEE's 39 societies, each one focused on a certain knowledge area. They provide specialized publications, conferences, business networking and sometimes other services. [32]

Technical councils

IEEE technical councils are collaborations of several IEEE societies on a broader knowledge area. There are currently seven technical councils: [33]

Technical committees

To allow a quick response to new innovations, IEEE can also organize technical committees on top of their technical societies and technical councils. There are currently over twenty such technical committees [35] .

IEEE Foundation

The IEEE Foundation [36] is a charitable foundation established in 1973 [37] to support and promote technology education, innovation and excellence. [38] It is incorporated separately from the IEEE, although it has a close relationship to it. Members of the Board of Directors of the foundation are required to be active members of IEEE, and one third of them must be current or former members of the IEEE Board of Directors.

Initially, the role of the IEEE Foundation was to accept and administer donations for the IEEE Awards program, but donations increased beyond what was necessary for this purpose, and the scope was broadened. In addition to soliciting and administering unrestricted funds, the foundation also administers donor-designated funds supporting particular educational, humanitarian, historical preservation, and peer recognition programs of the IEEE. [38] As of the end of 2014, the foundation's total assets were nearly $45 million, split equally between unrestricted and donor-designated funds. [39]

In May 2018, Intellitech Corp., an EDA software company from Dover, New Hampshire, filed a suit against IEEE to the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire, claiming that the IEEE had copied, used and modified technical documents which contained Intellitech’s watermark, and moved for summary judgment, requesting to establish IEEE’s liability for copyright infringement. The court denied Intellitech’s request for summary judgment and concluded that the doctrine of implied license put forth by the IEEE is highly fact-specific, thus precluding summary judgment. [40] The court also denied the IEEE’s motion for summary judgment, which sought to preclude Intellitech from recovering statutory damages, attorney fees, and injunction, based on Title 17 of the United States Code § 412(1). [40]

See also

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