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|Paradigms and models|
|Methodologies and frameworks|
|Standards and Bodies of Knowledge|
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is an organization within IEEE that develops global standards in a broad range of industries, including: power and energy, biomedical and health care, information technology and robotics, telecommunication and home automation, transportation, nanotechnology, information assurance, and many more.
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes, and practices. In contrast, a custom, convention, company product, corporate standard, and so forth that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources. These activities include production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy, and for the recovery and reuse of energy that would otherwise be wasted. Energy conservation and efficiency measures reduce the demand for energy development, and can have benefits to society with improvements to environmental issues.
Biomedical research encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research", – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a preclinical understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials. Within this spectrum is applied research, or translational research, conducted to expand knowledge in the field of medicine.
IEEE-SA has developed standards for over a century, through a program that offers balance, openness, fair procedures, and consensus. Technical experts from all over the world participate in the development of IEEE standards.
Fair procedure is a common law doctrine that arises from a line of groundbreaking decisions of the Supreme Court of California dating back to the 1880s. Certain types of private actors, due to their overwhelming economic power within certain fields, cannot arbitrarily expel members or employees or deny persons admission for no logical reason; they are obligated to provide a rudimentary form of procedural due process. It is contrasted against due process in that it applies to private actors, while due process normally applies only to state actors.
IEEE-SA is not a body formally authorized by any government, but rather a community. ISO, IEC and ITU are recognized international standards organizations. ISO members are national standards bodies such as American ANSI, German DIN or Japanese JISC. IEC members are so called National Committees, some of which are hosted by national standards bodies. These are not identical to ISO members. Both IEC and ISO develop International Standards that are consensus-based and follow the "one country one vote principle", representing broad industry needs. Their standards cannot be sponsored by individual companies or organizations.
The 2017-2018 Standards Association President is Mr. Don Wright. He is the President of Standards Strategies, LLC and is the retired Director of Worldwide Standards for Lexmark International.
Each year, the IEEE-SA conducts over 200 standards ballots, a process by which proposed standards are voted upon for technical reliability and soundness. In 2017, IEEE had over 1100 active standards, with over 600 standards under development.
One of the more notable are the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN group of standards, with the widely used computer networking standards for both wired (ethernet, aka IEEE 802.3) and wireless (IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.16) networks.
IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks.
A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). The term MAN is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network. The term is also used to describe the interconnection of several local area networks in a metropolitan area through the use of point-to-point connections between them. It has a range of 5 to 50 kilometres.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, and has since retained a good deal of backward compatibility and been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET.
The IEEE standards development process can be broken down into seven basic steps:
Because the IEEE's standards often incorporate technologies that are covered by one or more patent claims, the IEEE-SA has developed and added to its governing bylaws a patent policy to ensure both that the implementers using the standard-essential patented technology in their standard-compliant products have access to that technology and that the patent holders that voluntarily contribute those technologies to the standard receive adequate compensation for the implementers' use.An important part of the IEEE patent policy is the FRAND commitment, which is a voluntary contractual commitment signifying that a patent holder with patented technology that has been adopted into one of the IEEE's standards will accept as adequate compensation a fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory royalty for third-party use of that technology. Most standard-setting organizations have developed similar patent policies with similar commitments.
Reasonable and non-discriminatory (RAND) terms, also known as fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory (FRAND) terms, denote a voluntary licensing commitment that standards organizations often request from the owner of an intellectual property right that is, or may become, essential to practice a technical standard. Put differently, a F/RAND commitment is a voluntary agreement between the standard-setting organization and the holder of standard-essential patents. U.S. courts, as well as courts in other jurisdictions, have found that, in appropriate circumstances, the implementer of a standard—that is, a firm or entity that uses a standard to render a service or manufacture a product—is an intended third-party beneficiary of the FRAND agreement, and, as such, is entitled to certain rights conferred by that agreement.
In 2014, the IEEE-SA became the center of a large academic debate among economic and legal scholars when it appointed an ad hoc committee to recommend and subsequently draft amendments to the IEEE patent policy, to which the IEEE Board of Governors gave final approval in February 2015 and which went into effect in March 2015.The IEEE said that the reason for the amendments was to increase the clarity of the patent policy and the obligations that the patent policy's FRAND commitment imposes on patent holders seeking to enforce their standard-essential patents. One particularly controversial amendment was a provision that prohibited patent holders from seeking injunctions and exclusion orders (from the ITC) against infringers of standard-essential patents.
The Antitrust Division stated its support for the 2015 patent policy revisions in a business review letter that it issued in January 2015, upon request from the IEEE-SA. In the letter, the Antitrust Division said that the provisions would unambiguously produce net benefits for consumers with insignificant anticompetitive implications.At least one commentator has criticized the Antitrust Division's legal and economic analysis put forth in its business review letter of the revisions, claiming that the Antitrust Division exaggerated the patent policy's procompetitive benefits and wrongly dismissed as unlikely some of its potential anticompetitive costs.
The IEEE Get Program makes some standards publicly available for download: This program grants public access to view and download current individual standards at zero charges. On July 11, 2017, the IEEE Get Program moved to the IEEE Xplore digital library website and standards eligible for the program past that date will only be made available there. On September 1, 2017, the original website was decommissioned and remains, without further updates, to redirect visitors.
|IEEE 260||Standard Letter Symbols for Units of Measurement, IEEE-260-1978 (now 260.1-2004)|
|IEEE 488||Standard Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation, IEEE-488-1978 (now 488.1)|
|IEEE 610||Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology|
|IEEE 754||Floating point arithmetic specifications|
|IEEE 802.1||Standards for LAN/MAN bridging and management and remote media access control (MAC) bridging|
|IEEE 802.2||Standards for Logical Link Control (LCL) standards for connectivity|
|IEEE 802.3||Ethernet Standards for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)|
|IEEE 802.4||Standards for token passing bus access|
|IEEE 802.5||Standards for token ring access and for communications between LANs and MANs|
|IEEE 802.6||Standards for information exchange between systems|
|IEEE 802.7||Standards for broadband LAN cabling|
|IEEE 802.8||Fiber-optic connection|
|IEEE 802.9||Standards for integrated services, like voice and data|
|IEEE 802.10||Standards for LAN/MAN security implementations|
|IEEE 802.11||Wireless Networking – "WiFi"|
|IEEE 802.12||Standards for demand priority access method|
|IEEE 802.14||Standards for cable television broadband communications|
|IEEE 802.15.2||Bluetooth and Wi-Fi coexistence mechanism|
|IEEE 802.15.4||Wireless Sensor/Control Networks – "ZigBee"|
|IEEE 802.15.6||Wireless Body Area Network (BAN) – (e.g. Bluetooth low energy)|
|IEEE 802.16||Wireless Networking – "WiMAX"|
|IEEE 802.24||Standards for Logical Link Control (LLC) standards for connectivity|
|IEEE 828||Configuration Management in Systems and Software Engineering|
|IEEE 829||Software Test Documentation|
|IEEE 830||Software Requirements Specifications|
|IEEE 1003||Unix compatibility programming standard – POSIX|
|IEEE 1016||Software Design Description|
|IEEE 1028||Standard for Software Reviews and Audits|
|IEEE 1044.1||Standard Classification for Software Anomalies|
|IEEE 1059||Software Verification And Validation Plan|
|IEEE 1073||Point of Care Medical Device Communication Standards|
|IEEE 1074||Software Development Life Cycle|
|IEEE 1076||VHDL – VHSIC Hardware Description Language|
|IEEE 1180||Discrete cosine transform accuracy|
|IEEE 1233||System Requirements Specification|
|IEEE 1275||Open Firmware|
|IEEE 1284||Parallel port|
|IEEE P1363||Public key cryptography|
|IEEE 1394||Serial bus – "FireWire", "i.Link"|
|IEEE 1471||software architecture / system architecture|
|IEEE 1541||Prefixes for Binary Multiples|
|IEEE 1584||Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations|
|IEEE 1588||Precision Time Protocol|
|IEEE P1619||Security in Storage Working Group (SISWG)|
|IEEE 1666||IEEE Standard for Standard SystemC Language Reference Manual|
|IEEE 1667||Standard Protocol for Authentication in Host Attachments of Transient Storage Devices|
|IEEE 1801||Unified Power Format|
|IEEE 1849||IEEE Standard for eXtensible Event Stream (XES) for Achieving Interoperability in Event Logs and Event Streams|
|IEEE 1855||IEEE Standard for Fuzzy Markup Language|
|IEEE 1901||Broadband over Power Line Networks|
|IEEE 1906.1||Recommended Practice for Nanoscale and Molecular Communication Framework|
|IEEE 1914||Next Generation Fronthaul Interface Working Group|
|IEEE 1914.1||Standard for Packet-based Fronthaul Transport Networks|
|IEEE 1914.3||Standard for Radio Over Ethernet Encapsulations and Mappings|
|IEEE 2050||RTOS for embedded systems standard|
|IEEE 2600||Hardcopy Device and System Security (and related ISO/IEC 15408 Protection Profiles)|
|IEEE P2791||Standard for Bioinformatics Computations and Analyses Generated by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) to Facilitate Communication|
|IEEE 12207||Information Technology – Software life-cycle processes|
|IEEE Switchgear Committee||C37 series of standards for Low and High voltage equipment|
The IEEE-SA recognizes outstanding standards development participation through various award categories.
The American National Standards Institute is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide.
The International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission. It was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda and Leonardo Chiariglione, group Chair since its inception. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada. As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions. MPEG's official designation is ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – Coding of moving pictures and audio.
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed. There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage.
IEEE 802.20 or Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) was a specification by the standard association of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for mobile wireless Internet access networks. The main standard was published in 2008. MBWA is no longer being actively developed.
A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.
The Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument, is a ZIP-compressed XML-based file format for spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. It was developed with the aim of providing an open, XML-based file format specification for office applications.
An essential patent or standard-essential patent (SEP) is a patent that claims an invention that must be used to comply with a technical standard. Standards organizations, therefore, often require members disclose and grant licenses to their patents and pending patent applications that cover a standard that the organization is developing.
WLAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure (WAPI) is a Chinese National Standard for Wireless LANs . Although it was allegedly designed to operate on top of WiFi, compatibility with the security protocol used by the 802.11 wireless networking standard developed by the IEEE is in dispute. Due to the limited access of the standard, it was the focus of a U.S.-China trade dispute. Following this it was submitted to, and rejected by the ISO. It was resubmitted to ISO in 2010, but was cancelled as a project on 21 November 2011 after being withdrawn by China.
The InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS),, is an ANSI-accredited standards development organization composed of Information technology developers. It was formerly known as the X3 and NCITS.
IEEE 802.11n-2009, commonly shortened to 802.11n, is a wireless-networking standard that uses multiple antennas to increase data rates. Wi-Fi Alliance have also labelled the technology for the standard as Wi-Fi 4. It standardized support for multiple-input multiple-output, frame aggregation, and security improvements, among other features, and can be used in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency bands.
Office Open XML is a zipped, XML-based file format developed by Microsoft for representing spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. The format was initially standardized by Ecma, and by the ISO and IEC in later versions.
Cybersecurity standards are techniques generally set forth in published materials that attempt to protect the cyber environment of a user or organization. This environment includes users themselves, networks, devices, all software, processes, information in storage or transit, applications, services, and systems that can be connected directly or indirectly to networks. The principal objective is to reduce the risks, including prevention or mitigation of cyber-attacks. These published materials consist of collections of tools, policies, security concepts, security safeguards, guidelines, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance and technologies.
The Open Document Format for Office Applications, commonly known as OpenDocument, was based on OpenOffice.org XML, as used in OpenOffice.org 1, and was standardised by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium.
IEEE 802.11y-2008 is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11-2007 standard that enables high powered data transfer equipment to operate using the 802.11a protocol on a co-primary basis in the 3650 to 3700 MHz band in the United States, except when near a grandfathered satellite earth station. It was approved for publication by the IEEE on September 26, 2008.
IEEE 1471 is a superseded IEEE Standard for describing the architecture of a "software-intensive system", also known as software architecture.
The WiMedia Alliance was a non-profit industry trade group that promoted the adoption, regulation, standardization and multi-vendor interoperability of ultra-wideband (UWB) technologies. It existed from about 2002 through 2009.
The Office Open XML file formats were standardised between December 2006 and November 2008, first by the Ecma International consortium, and subsequently, after a contentious standardization process, by the ISO/IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1.
IEEE 754-2008 was published in August 2008 and is a significant revision to, and replaces, the IEEE 754-1985 floating point standard. The revision extended the previous standard where it was necessary, added decimal arithmetic and formats, tightened up certain areas of the original standard which were left undefined, and merged in IEEE 854.