VMEbus

Last updated

VME64 crate with, from left, an ADC module, a scaler module and a processor module VMEbus.jpg
VME64 crate with, from left, an ADC module, a scaler module and a processor module

VMEbus (Versa Module Europa [1] or Versa Module Eurocard [2] bus) is a computer bus standard, originally developed for the Motorola 68000 line of CPUs, but later widely used for many applications and standardized by the IEC as ANSI/IEEE 1014-1987. It is physically based on Eurocard sizes, mechanicals and connectors (DIN 41612), but uses its own signalling system, which Eurocard does not define. It was first developed in 1981 and continues to see widespread use today. [3]

Motorola 68000 microprocessor

The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector. Introduced in 1979 with HMOS technology as the first member of the successful 32-bit Motorola 68000 series, it is generally software forward-compatible with the rest of the line despite being limited to a 16-bit wide external bus. After 39 years in production, the 68000 architecture is still in use.

Central processing unit electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions

A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry.

International Electrotechnical Commission organization

The International Electrotechnical Commission is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation, transmission and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, semiconductors, fibre optics, batteries, solar energy, nanotechnology and marine energy as well as many others. The IEC also manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards.

Contents

History

In 1979, during development of the Motorola 68000 CPU, one of their engineers, Jack Kister, decided to set about creating a standardized bus system for 68000-based systems. The Motorola team brainstormed for days to select the name VERSAbus. VERSAbus cards were large, 370 by 230 mm (14 12 by 9 14 in), and used edge connectors. [3] Only a few products adopted it, including the IBM System 9000 instrument controller and the Automatix robot and machine vision systems.

Jack Kister is an engineer who worked on the TTL model for the original 68000 microprocessor at Motorola. He later became manager of the group responsible for doing the development systems for the Motorola processors. In this capacity he wrote the original specification for the Versabus which was employed by the Exorcisor systems.

Edge connector

An edge connector is the portion of a printed circuit board (PCB) consisting of traces leading to the edge of the board that are intended to plug into a matching socket. The edge connector is a money-saving device because it only requires a single discrete female connector, and they also tend to be fairly robust and durable. They are commonly used in computers for expansion slots for peripheral cards, such as PCI, PCI Express, and AGP cards.

The System 9000 (S9000) is a family of microcomputers from IBM consisting of the System 9001, 9002, and 9003. The first member of the family, the System 9001 laboratory computer, was introduced in May 1982 as the IBM Instruments Computer System Model 9000. It was renamed to the System 9001 in 1984 when the System 9000 family name and the System 9002 multi-user general-purpose business computer was introduced. The last member of the family, the System 9003 industrial computer, was introduced in 1985. All members of the System 9000 family did not find much commercial success and the entire family was discontinued on 2 December 1986. The System 9000 was based around the Motorola 68000 microprocessor and the Motorola VERSAbus system bus. All members had the IBM CSOS real-time operating system (OS) stored on read-only memory; and the System 9002 could also run the multi-user Microsoft Xenix OS, which was suitable for business use and supported up to four users.

VERSAbus memory card VERSAbus memory card.agr.jpg
VERSAbus memory card

Kister was later joined by John Black, who refined the specifications and created the VERSAmodule product concept. A young engineer working for Black, Julie Keahey designed the first VERSAmodule card, the VERSAbus Adaptor Module, used to run existing cards on the new VERSAbus. Sven Rau and Max Loesel of Motorola-Europe added a mechanical specification to the system, basing it on the Eurocard standard that was then late in the standardization process. The result was first known as VERSAbus-E but was later renamed to VMEbus, for VERSAmodule Eurocard bus (although some refer to it as Versa Module Europa). [3]

Eurocard (printed circuit board)

Eurocard is a European standard format for printed circuit board (PCB) cards that can be plugged together into a standard chassis which, in turn, can be mounted in a 19-inch rack. The chassis consists of a series of slotted card guides on the top and bottom, into which the cards are slid so they stand on end, like books on a shelf. At the spine of each card is one or more connectors which plug into mating connectors on a backplane that closes the rear of the chassis.

At this point, a number of other companies involved in the 68000's ecosystem agreed to use the standard, including Signetics, Philips, Thomson, and Mostek. Soon it was officially standardized by the IEC as the IEC 821 VMEbus and by ANSI and IEEE as ANSI/IEEE 1014-1987.

The original standard was a 16-bit bus, designed to fit within the existing Eurocard DIN connectors. However, there have been several updates to the system to allow wider bus widths. The current VME64 includes a full 64-bit bus in 6U-sized cards and 32-bit in 3U cards. The VME64 protocol has a typical performance of 40 MB/s. [3] Other associated standards have added hot-swapping (plug-and-play) in VME64x, smaller 'IP' cards that plug into a single VMEbus card, and various interconnect standards for linking VME systems together.

In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits wide. Also, 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

In computer architecture, 32-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 32 bits wide. Also, 32-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB. The unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 (106) in the International System of Units (SI). Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information. This definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities.

In the late 1990s, synchronous protocols proved to be favourable. The research project was called VME320. The VITA Standards Organization called for a new standard for unmodified VME32/64 backplanes. [3] The new 2eSST protocol was approved in ANSI/VITA 1.5 in 1999.

Over the years, many extensions have been added to the VME interface, providing 'sideband' channels of communication in parallel to VME itself. Some examples are IP Module, RACEway Interlink, SCSA, Gigabit Ethernet on VME64x Backplanes, PCI Express, RapidIO, StarFabric and InfiniBand.

VMEbus was also used to develop closely related standards, VXIbus and VPX. The VMEbus had a strong influence on many later computer buses such as STEbus.


VME Early Years (from ANSI/IEEE Std 1014-1987 and ANSI/VITA 1-1994)

The architectural concepts of the VMEbus are based on VERSAbus, [3] developed in the late 1970s by Motorola. Motorola's European Microsystems group in Munich, West Germany, proposed the development of a VERSAbus-like product line based on the Eurocard mechanical standard. To demonstrate the concept, Max Loesel and Sven Rau developed three prototype boards: (1) a 68000 CPU board; (2) a dynamic memory board; (3) a static memory board. They named the new bus VERSAbus-E. This was later renamed "VME", short for Versa Module European, by Lyman (Lym) Hevle, then a VP with the Motorola Microsystems Operation. (He was later the founder of the VME Marketing Group, itself subsequently renamed to VME International Trade Association, or VITA). In early 1981, Motorola, Mostek and Signetics agreed to jointly develop and support the new bus architecture. These companies were all early supporters of the 68000 microprocessor family.

John Black of Motorola, Craig MacKenna of Mostek and Cecil Kaplinsky of Signetics developed the first draft of the VMEbus specification. In October 1981, at the System '81 trade show in Munich, West Germany, Motorola, Mostek, Signetics/Philips, and Thomson CSF announced their joint support of the VMEbus. They also placed Revision A of the specification in the public domain. In August 1982, Revision B of the VMEbus specification was published by the newly formed VMEbus Manufacturers' Group (VITA). This new revision refined the electrical specifications for the signal line drivers and receivers and brought the mechanical specification further in line with the developing IEC 297 standard (the formal specification for Eurocard mechanical formats). In latter 1982, the French delegation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) proposed Revision B of the VMEbus as an international standard. The IEC SC47B subcommittee nominated Mira Pauker of Philips, France, the chairperson of an editorial committee, thus formally starting international standardization of the VMEbus.

In March 1983, the IEEE Microprocessor Standards Committee (MSC) requested authorization to establish a working group that could standardize the VMEbus in the US. This request was approved by the IEEE Standards Board and the P1014 Working Group was established. Wayne Fischer was appointed first chairman of the working group. John Black served as chairman of the P1014 Technical Subcommittee. The IEC, IEEE and VMEbus Manufacturers Group (now VITA) distributed copies of Revision B for comment and received the resulting requests for changes to the document. These comments made it clear that it was time to go past Revision B. In December 1983, a meeting was held that included John Black, Mira Pauker, Wayne Fischer and Craig MacKenna. It was agreed that a Revision C should be created and that it should take into consideration all the comments received by the three organizations. John Black and Shlomo Pri-Tal of Motorola incorporated the changes from all sources into a common document. The VMEbus Manufacturers Group labelled the document Revision C.1 and placed it in the public domain. The IEEE labelled it P1014 Draft 1.2 and the IEC labelled it IEC 821 Bus. Subsequent ballots in the IEEE P1014 Working Group and the MSC resulted in more comments and required that the IEEE P1014 draft be updated. This resulted in the ANSI/IEEE 1014-1987 specification.

In 1985, Aitech developed under contract for US TACOM, the first conduction-cooled 6U VMEbus board. Although electrically providing a compliant VMEbus protocol interface, mechanically, this board was not interchangeable for use in air-cooled lab VMEbus development chassis.

In late 1987, a technical committee was formed under VITA under the direction of IEEE to create the first military, conduction-cooled 6U x 160mm, fully electrically and mechanically compatible, VMEbus board co-chaired by Dale Young (DY4 Systems) and Doug Patterson (Plessey Microsystems, then Radstone Technology). ANSI/IEEE-1101.2-1992 was later ratified and released in 1992 and remains in place as the conduction-cooled, international standard for all 6U VMEbus products.

In 1989, John Peters of Performance Technologies Inc. developed the initial concept of VME64: multiplexing address and data lines (A64/D64) on the VMEbus. The concept was demonstrated the same year and placed in the VITA Technical Committee in 1990 as a performance enhancement to the VMEbus specification. In 1991, the PAR (Project Authorization Request) for P1014R (revisions to the VMEbus specification) was granted by the IEEE. Ray Alderman, Technical Director of VITA, co-chaired the activity with Kim Clohessy of DY-4 Systems.

At the end of 1992, the additional enhancements to VMEbus (A40/D32, Locked Cycles, Rescinding DTACK*, Autoslot-ID, Auto System Controller, and enhanced DIN connector mechanicals) required more work to complete this document. The VITA Technical Committee suspended work with the IEEE and sought accreditation as a standards developer organization (SDO) with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The original IEEE Par P1014R was subsequently withdrawn by the IEEE. The VITA Technical Committee returned to using the public domain VMEbus C.1 specification as their base-level document, to which they added new enhancements. This enhancement work was undertaken entirely by the VITA Technical Committee and resulted in ANSI/VITA 1-1994. The tremendous undertaking of the document editing was accomplished by Kim Clohessy of DY-4 Systems, the technical co-chair of the activity, with great help from Frank Hom who created the mechanical drawings and exceptional contributions by each chapter editor.

Additional enhancements proposed to the VME64 Subcommittee were placed in the VME64 Extensions Document. Two other activities began in late 1992: BLLI (VMEbus Board-level Live Insertion Specifications) and VSLI (VMEbus System-level Live Insertion with Fault Tolerance). [3]

In 1993, new activities began on the base-VME architecture, involving the implementation of high-speed serial and parallel sub-buses for use as I/O interconnections and data mover subsystems. These architectures can be used as message switches, routers and small multiprocessor parallel architectures.

VITA's application for recognition as an accredited standards developer organization of ANSI was granted in June 1993. Numerous other documents ( including mezzanine, P2 and serial bus standards) have been placed with VITA as the Public Domain Administrator of these technologies.

Evolution of VME
TopologyYearBus CycleMaximum Speed (Mbyte / Sec)
VMEbus32 Parallel Bus Rev A1981 BLT 40
VMEbus IEEE-10141987 BLT 40
VME64 1994 MBLT 80
VME64x 1997 2eVME 160
VME320 1997 2eSST 320

A more detailed timeline of VMEbus history can be found at the VITA website

Description

In many ways the VMEbus is equivalent or analogous to the pins of the 68000 run out onto a backplane.

However, one of the key features of the 68000 is a flat 32-bit memory model, free of memory segmentation and other "anti-features". The result is that, while VME is very 68000-like, the 68000 is generic enough to make this not an issue in most cases.

Like the 68000, VME uses separate 32-bit data and address buses. The 68000 address bus is actually 24-bit and the data bus 16-bit (although it is 32/32 internally) but the designers were already looking towards a full 32-bit implementation.

In order to allow both bus widths, VME uses two different Eurocard connectors - P1 and P2. P1 contains three rows of 32 pins each, implementing the first 24 address bits, 16 data bits and all of the control signals. P2 contains one more row, which includes the remaining 8 address bits and 16 data bits.

The bus is controlled by a set of nine lines, known as the arbitration bus. All communications are controlled by the card in slot one of the Eurocard chassis, known as the arbiter module. Two arbitration modes are supported - Round Robin and Prioritized.

Regardless of the arbitration mode, a card can attempt to become the bus master by holding one of the four Bus Request lines low. With round robin arbitration, the arbiter cycles amongst Bus Request lines BR0-BR3 to determine which of the potentially simultaneous requesters will be granted the bus. With priority arbitration, BR0-BR3 use a fixed priority scheme (BR0 lowest, up to BR3 highest) and the arbiter will grant the bus to the highest priority requestor.

When the arbiter has determined which of the bus requests to grant, it asserts the corresponding Bus Grant line (BG0 - BG3) for the level that won bus mastership. If two masters simultaneously request the bus using the same BR line, a bus grant daisy-chain effectively breaks the tie by granting the bus to the module closest to the arbiter. The master granted the bus will then indicate that the bus is in use by asserting Bus Busy (BBSY*).

At this point, the master has gained access to the bus. To write data, the card drives an address, an address modifier and data onto the bus. It then drives the address strobe line and the two data strobe lines low, to indicate the data is ready, and drives the write pin to indicate the transfer direction. There are two data strobes and an *LWORD line, so the cards can indicate if the data width is 8, 16, or 32 bits (or 64 in VME64). The card at the bus address reads the data and pulls the data transfer acknowledge low line when the transfer can complete. If the transfer cannot complete, it can pull the bus error line low. Reading data is essentially the same but the controlling card drives the address bus, leaves the data bus tri-stated and drives the read pin. The slave card drives read data onto the data bus and drives the data strobe pins low when the data is ready. The signalling scheme is asynchronous, meaning that the transfer is not tied to the timing of a bus clock pin (unlike synchronous buses such as PCI).

A block transfer protocol allows several bus transfers to occur with a single address cycle. In block transfer mode, the first transfer includes an address cycle and subsequent transfers require only data cycles. The slave is responsible for ensuring that these transfers use successive addresses.

Bus masters can release the bus in two ways. With Release When Done (RWD), the master releases the bus when it completes a transfer and must re-arbitrate for the bus before every subsequent transfer. With Release On Request (ROR), the master retains the bus by continuing to assert BBSY* between transfers. ROR allows the master to retain control over the bus until a Bus Clear (BCLR*) is asserted by another master that wishes to arbitrate for the bus. Thus a master which generates bursts of traffic can optimize its performance by arbitrating for the bus on only the first transfer of each burst. This decrease in transfer latency comes at the cost of somewhat higher transfer latency for other masters.

Address modifiers are used to divide the VME bus address space into several distinct sub-spaces. The address modifier is a 6 bit wide set of signals on the backplane. Address modifiers specify the number of significant address bits, the privilege mode (to allow processors to distinguish between bus accesses by user level or system level software), and whether or not the transfer is a block transfer. Below is an incomplete table of address modifiers:

Hex CodeFunctionExplanation
3fStandard Supervisory block transferBlock transfer A24, privileged
3eStandard Supervisory Program accessA24 instruction access, privileged
3dStandard Supervisor Data AccessA24 data access, privileged
3bStandard Non-privileged block transferA24 block transfer for normal programs
3aStandard Non-privileged Program accessA24 instruction access, non-privileged
39Standard non-privileged Data AccessA24 data access, non-privileged
2dShort supervisory AccessA16 privileged access.
29Short non-privileged AccessA16 non-privileged access.
0fExtended supervisory Block transferA32 privileged block transfer.
0eExtended supervisory Program accessA32 privileged instruction access.
0dExtended supervisory Data Access.A32 privileged data access.
0bExtended Non-privileged Block transferA32 non-privileged block transfer.
0aExtended Non-privileged Program accessA32 non-privileged instruction access.
09Extended non-privileged data access.A32 non-privileged data access.
NoteAn as in A16, A24, A32 refers to the width of the address

VME also decodes all seven of the 68000's interrupt levels onto a 7-pin interrupt bus. The interrupt scheme is one of prioritized vectored interrupts. The interrupt request lines (IRQ1 - IRQ7) prioritize interrupts. An interrupting module asserts one of the interrupt request lines. Any module on the bus may potentially handle any interrupt. When an interrupt handling module recognizes an interrupt request at a priority it handles, it arbitrates for the bus in the usual fashion described above. It then performs a read of the interrupt vector by driving the binary version of the IRQ line it handles (e.g. if IRQ5 is being handled, then binary 101) onto the address bus. It also asserts the IACK line, along with the appropriate data transfer strobes for the width of the status/ID being read. Again, LWORD*, DS0* and DS1* allow status/ID read cycles to be 8, 16, or 32 bit wide transfers but most existing hardware interrupters use 8 bit status/IDs. The interrupter responds by transferring a status/ID on the data bus to describe the interrupt. The interrupt handling module (usually a CPU) will usually use this status/ID number to identify and run the appropriate software interrupt service routine.

On the VME bus, all transfers are DMA and every card is a master or slave. In most bus standards, there is a considerable amount of complexity added in order to support various transfer types and master/slave selection. For instance, with the ISA bus, both of these features had to be added alongside the existing "channels" model, whereby all communications was handled by the host CPU. This makes VME considerably simpler at a conceptual level while being more powerful, though it requires more complex controllers on each card.

Development tools

When developing and/or troubleshooting the VME bus, examination of hardware signals can be very important. Logic analyzers and bus analyzers are tools which collect, analyze, decode, store signals so people can view the high-speed waveforms at their leisure.

VITA offers a comprehensive FAQ to assist with the front end design and development of VME systems.

Computers using a VMEbus

Computers using VMEbus include

See also

Related Research Articles

Futurebus is a computer bus standard, intended to replace all local bus connections in a computer, including the CPU, memory, plug-in cards and even, to some extent, LAN links between machines. The effort started in 1979 and didn't complete until 1987, and then immediately went into a redesign that lasted until 1994. By this point, implementation of a chip-set based on the standards lacked industry leadership. Although custom implementations continue to be designed and used throughout industry.

IEEE-488 communications protocol

IEEE 488 is a short-range digital communications 8-bit parallel multi-master interface bus specification. IEEE 488 was created as HP-IB and is commonly called GPIB. It has been the subject of several standards.

A PCI Mezzanine Card or PMC is a printed circuit board assembly manufactured to the IEEE P1386.1 standard. This standard combines the electrical characteristics of the PCI bus with the mechanical dimensions of the Common Mezzanine Card or CMC format.

CompactPCI

CompactPCI is a computer bus interconnect for industrial computers, combining a Eurocard-type connector and PCI signaling and protocols. Boards are standardized to 3U or 6U sizes, and are typically interconnected via a passive backplane. The connector pin assignments are standardized by the PICMG US and PICMG Europe organizations. The connectors and the electrical rules allow for eight boards in a PCI segment. Multiple bus segments are allowed with bridges.

The VXI bus architecture is an open standard platform for automated test based upon VMEbus. VXI stands for VME eXtensions for Instrumentation, defining additional bus lines for timing and triggering as well as mechanical requirements and standard protocols for configuration, message-based communication, multi-chassis extension, and other features. In 2004, the 2eVME extension was added to the VXI bus specification, giving it a maximum data rate of 160 MB/s.

Multibus computer bus standard

Multibus is a computer bus standard used in industrial systems. It was developed by Intel Corporation and was adopted as the IEEE 796 bus.

STEbus

The STEbus is a non-proprietary, processor-independent, computer bus with 8 data lines and 20 address lines. It was popular for industrial control systems in the late 1980s and early 1990s before the ubiquitous IBM PC dominated this market.

Computer Automated Measurement and Control

Computer-Aided Measurement And Control (CAMAC) is a standard bus and modular-crate electronics standard for data acquisition and control used in particle detectors for nuclear and particle physics and in industry. The bus allows data exchange between plug-in modules and a crate controller, which then interfaces to a PC or to a VME-CAMAC interface.

System on module

A system on a module (SOM) is a board-level circuit that integrates a system function in a single module. It may integrate digital and analog functions on a single board. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems. Unlike a single-board computer, a SOM serves a special function like a system on a chip (SoC). The device integrated in the SOM typically requires a high level of interconnection for reasons such as speed, timing, bus-width etc., in a highly integrated module. There are benefits in building a SOM, as for SoC; one notable result is to reduce the cost of the base board or the main PCB. Two other major advantages of SOMs are design-reuse and that they can be integrated into many embedded computer applications.

VPX technology was presented at Bus&Board (VITA) in 2004. VPX, formally known as VITA 46, is an ANSI standard that provides VMEbus-based systems with support for switched fabrics over a new high speed connector. Defined by the VITA working group, it has been designed specifically with defense applications in mind, with an enhanced module standard that enables applications and platforms with superior performance. VPX retains VME's existing 6U and 3U Eurocard form factors, supporting existing PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC) and XMC mezzanines, and maintaining the maximum possible compatibility with VMEbus.

DIN 41612

DIN 41612 is a DIN standard for electrical connectors that are widely used in rack based electrical systems. Standardisation of the connectors is a pre-requisite for open systems, where users expect components from different suppliers to operate together. The most widely known use of DIN 41612 connectors is in the VMEbus system. They were also used by NuBus. The standard has subsequently been upgraded to international standards IEC 60603-2 and EN 60603-2.

M-Modules are a mezzanine standard mainly used in industrial computers. Being mezzanines, they are always plugged on a carrier PCB that supports this format. The modules communicate with their carrier over a dedicated bus, and can have all kinds of special functions.

The front panel data port (FPDP) is a bus that provides high speed data transfer between two or more VMEbus boards at up to 160 Mbit/s with low latency. The FPDP bus uses a 32-bit parallel synchronous bus wired with an 80-conductor ribbon cable.

GreenSpring Computers was started in 1984 as VME Specialists. The original product focus was VMEbus cards for industrial automation. The company was founded by Leonard Lehmann and his father Henry Lehmann in Redwood City, California, United States.

FPGA Mezzanine Card ANSI/VITA input/output standard

FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) is an ANSI/VITA 57.1 standard that defines I/O mezzanine modules with connection to an FPGA or other device with re-configurable I/O capability. It specifies a low profile connector and compact board size for compatibility with several industry standard slot card, blade, low profile motherboard, and mezzanine form factors.

The Europe Card Bus is a computer bus developed in 1977 by the company Kontron, mainly for the 8-bit Zilog Z80, Intel 8080 and Intel 8085 microprocessor families.

VXS ANSI standard

VMEBus Switched Serial, commonly known as VXS, is an ANSI standard that improves the performance of standard parallel VMEbus by enhancing it to support newer switched serial fabrics. The base specification defines all common elements of the standard, while "dot"-specifications define extensions which use specific serial fabrics or additional functionality. VXS is backward compatible with VMEBus. It is defined by the VITA working group.

References

  1. "Versa Module Europa bus" . Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  2. "Long live VME!" . Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "VME Technology FAQ". Vita.com. 1999-01-03. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  4. "HP VME Products - Alimar Technology Corp". Alimartech.com. Retrieved 2013-08-01.