Central African Republic

Last updated

Coordinates: 7°N21°E / 7°N 21°E / 7; 21

Central African Republic

  • Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka  (Sango)
  • République centrafricaine  (French)
Motto: "Unité, Dignité, Travail" (French)
"Unity, Dignity, Work"
Anthem:  E Zingo   (Sango)
La Renaissance  (French)
"The Renaissance"
Location Central African Republic AU Africa.svg
Central African Republic - Location Map (2013) - CAF - UNOCHA.svg
Capital
and largest city
Bangui
4°22′N18°35′E / 4.367°N 18.583°E / 4.367; 18.583
Official languages French
Sango
Ethnic groups
Religion
Predominantly Christianity
Demonym(s) Central African
Government Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
  President
Faustin-Archange Touadéra
Firmin Ngrébada
Legislature National Assembly
Independence
 from France
13 August 1960
  Central African Empire established
4 December 1976
 Republic restored
21 September 1979
Area
 Total
622,984 km2 (240,535 sq mi)(44th)
 Water (%)
12
Population
 2016 estimate
4,594,621 [1] (119th)
 2003 census
4,987,640 [2]
 Density
7.1/km2 (18.4/sq mi)(221st)
GDP  (PPP)2017 estimate
 Total
$3.454 billion [3]
 Per capita
$693 [3]
GDP  (nominal)2017 estimate
 Total
$2.003 billion [3]
 Per capita
$401 [3]
Gini  (2008)56.3 [4]
high ·  28th
HDI  (2017)Increase2.svg 0.367 [5]
low ·  188th
Currency Central African CFA franc (XAF)
Time zone UTC+1 (WAT)
Driving side right [6]
Calling code +236
ISO 3166 code CF
Internet TLD .cf

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; French : République centrafricaine pronounced  [ʁepyblik sɑ̃tʁafʁikɛn] , or Centrafrique [sɑ̃tʁafʁik] ) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres (240,000 sq mi) and had an estimated population of around 4.6 million as of 2016.

Sango is a creole language in the Central African Republic and the primary language spoken in the country. It is an official language of the Central African Republic, making the Central African Republic one of the few African countries with an indigenous language as an official language. It is used as a lingua franca across the country and had 450,000 native speakers in 1988. It also has 1.6 million second language speakers.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Landlocked country country entirely enclosed by land areas, or whose only coastlines lie lakes or on closed seas

A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are currently 49 such countries, including five partially recognised states. Only two, Bolivia and Paraguay in South America, lie outside Afro-Eurasia.

Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country also includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin (which flows into the Congo), while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows into Lake Chad.

Savanna grassland ecosystem

A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses.

Sahel transition zone in Africa

The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south. Having a semi-arid climate, it stretches across the south-central latitudes of Northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea. The name is derived from the Arabic word sāḥil meaning "coast" or "shore" in a figurative sense, while the name in Swahili means "coastal [dweller]" in a literal sense.

Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic

The Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic is a forest and savanna ecoregion of central Africa, part of the belt of transitional forest-savanna mosaic that lie between Africa's equatorial forests and the tropical dry forests, savannas, and grasslands that lie to the north and south. The Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic lies between the equatorial Congolian forests to the south and the drier East Sudanian savanna to the north. It extends from the Cameroon Highlands in the west, across central Cameroon and the southern Central African Republic to southwestern South Sudan and northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it is bounded on the east by flooded grasslands of the Sudd, the eastern block of the East Sudanian savanna, and the Albertine Rift montane forests.

What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia; however, the country's current borders were established by France, which ruled the country as a colony starting in the late 19th century. After gaining independence from France in 1960, the Central African Republic was ruled by a series of autocratic leaders, including an abortive attempt at a monarchy; [7] by the 1990s, calls for democracy led to the first multi-party democratic elections in 1993. Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was later removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. The Central African Republic Bush War began in 2004 and, despite a peace treaty in 2007 and another in 2011, fighting broke out between various factions in December 2012, leading to ethnic and religious cleansing of the Muslim minority and massive population displacement in 2013 and 2014.

Central African Empire former country

The Central African Empire was a short-lived one-party absolute monarchy, that replaced the Central African Republic and was, in turn, replaced by the restoration of the Republic. The empire was formed by and under the command of Jean-Bédel Bokassa, military dictator and President of the Republic, who declared himself Bokassa I, Emperor of the Empire, on 4 December 1976.

Ange-Félix Patassé former President of the Central African Republic

Ange-Félix Patassé was a Central African politician who was President of the Central African Republic from 1993 until 2003, when he was deposed by the rebel leader François Bozizé. Patassé was the first president in the CAR's history to be chosen in what was generally regarded as a fairly democratic election (1993) in that it was brought about by donor pressure on the André Kolingba and assisted by the United Nations Electoral Assistance Unit. He was chosen a second time in a fair election (1999) as well. However, during his first term in office (1993–1999), three military mutinies in 1996–1997 led to increasing conflict between so-called "northerners" and "southerners". Expatriate mediators and peacekeeping troops were brought in to negotiate peace accords between Patassé and the mutineers and to maintain law and order. During his second term as president, Patassé increasingly lost the support of many of his long-time allies as well as the French, who had intervened to support him during his first term in office. Patassé was ousted in March 2003 and went into exile in Togo.

François Bozizé Central African politician

François Bozizé Yangouvonda is a Central African politician who was the President of the Central African Republic from 2003 to 2013.

Despite its significant mineral deposits and other resources, such as uranium reserves, crude oil, gold, diamonds, cobalt, lumber, and hydropower, [8] as well as significant quantities of arable land, the Central African Republic is among the ten poorest countries in the world, with the lowest GDP per capita at purchasing power parity in the world as of 2017. [9] As of 2015, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), the country had the lowest level of human development, ranking 188th out of 188 countries. [5] It is also estimated to be the unhealthiest country [10] as well as the worst country in which to be young. [11] The Central African Republic is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Mineral Element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline and that has been formed as a result of geological processes

A mineral is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound that occurs naturally in pure form. A rock may consist of a single mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases. Compounds that occur only in living beings are usually excluded, but some minerals are often biogenic and/or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry. Moreover, living beings often syntesize inorganic minerals that also occur in rocks.

Uranium Chemical element with atomic number 92

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years. The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-238 and uranium-235. Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.

Gold Chemical element with atomic number 79

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium.

History

The Bouar Megaliths, pictured here on a 1967 Central African stamp, date back to the very late Neolithic Era (c. 3500-2700 BC). Bouar Megaliths stamp.jpg
The Bouar Megaliths, pictured here on a 1967 Central African stamp, date back to the very late Neolithic Era (c. 3500–2700 BC).

Early history

Approximately 10,000 years ago, desertification forced hunter-gatherer societies south into the Sahel regions of northern Central Africa, where some groups settled. [12] Farming began as part of the Neolithic Revolution. [13] Initial farming of white yam progressed into millet and sorghum, and before 3000 BC [14] the domestication of African oil palm improved the groups' nutrition and allowed for expansion of the local populations. [15] This Agricultural Revolution, combined with a "Fish-stew Revolution", in which fishing began to take place, and the use of boats, allowed for the transportation of goods. Products were often moved in ceramic pots, which are the first known examples of artistic expression from the region's inhabitants. [12]

Desertification

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes a desert, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife. It is caused by a variety of factors, such as through climate change and through the overexploitation of soil through human activity. When deserts appear automatically over the natural course of a planet's life cycle, then it can be called a natural phenomenon; however, when deserts emerge due to the rampant and unchecked depletion of nutrients in soil that are essential for it to remain arable, then a virtual "soil death" can be spoken of, which traces its cause back to human overexploitation. Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem with far reaching consequences on socio-economic and political conditions.

Neolithic Revolution transition from hunter gatherer to settled peoples

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants to learn how they grew and developed. This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants.

Millet food grain

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

The Bouar Megaliths in the western region of the country indicate an advanced level of habitation dating back to the very late Neolithic Era (c. 3500–2700 BC). [16] [17] Ironworking arrived in the region around 1000 BC from both Bantu cultures in what is today Nigeria and from the Nile city of Meroë, the capital of the Kingdom of Kush. [18]

Bouar Place in Nana-Mambéré, Central African Republic

Bouar is a market town in the western Central African Republic, lying on the main road from Bangui (437 km) to the frontier with Cameroon (210 km). The city is the capital of Nana-Mambéré prefecture, has a population of 40,353, while the whole sous-préfecture has a population of 96,595. Bouar lies on a plateau almost 1000m above sea level and is known as the site of Camp Leclerc, a French military base.

Ferrous metallurgy heavy industry that deals with the production of steel

Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys. It began far back in prehistory. The earliest surviving iron artifacts, from the 4th millennium BC in Egypt, were made from meteoritic iron-nickel. It is not known when or where the smelting of iron from ores began, but by the end of the 2nd millennium BC iron was being produced from iron ores from Sub-Saharan Africa to China. The use of wrought iron was known by the 1st millennium BC, and its spread marked the Iron Age. During the medieval period, means were found in Europe of producing wrought iron from cast iron using finery forges. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja is located. Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country.

During the Bantu Migrations from about 1000 BC to AD 1000, Ubangian-speaking people spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan, Bantu-speaking people settled in the southwestern regions of the CAR, and Central Sudanic-speaking people settled along the Ubangi River in what is today Central and East CAR.[ citation needed ]

Bananas arrived in the region[ when? ] and added an important source of carbohydrates to the diet; they were also used in the production of alcoholic beverages. Production of copper, salt, dried fish, and textiles dominated the economic trade in the Central African region. [19]

16th–19th century

The Sultan of Bangassou and his wives, 1906 Sultan and his wives at Bangassou, 1906.png
The Sultan of Bangassou and his wives, 1906

During the 16th and 17th centuries slave traders began to raid the region as part of the expansion of the Saharan and Nile River slave routes. Their captives were enslaved and shipped to the Mediterranean coast, Europe, Arabia, the Western Hemisphere, or to the slave ports and factories along the West and North Africa or South the Ubanqui and Congo rivers. [20] [21] In the mid 19th century, the Bobangi people became major slave traders and sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast. [22] During the 18th century Bandia-Nzakara peoples established the Bangassou Kingdom along the Ubangi River. [21] In 1875, the Sudanese sultan Rabih az-Zubayr governed Upper-Oubangui, which included present-day CAR.

French colonial period

The European penetration of Central African territory began in the late 19th century during the Scramble for Africa. [23] Europeans, primarily the French, Germans, and Belgians, arrived in the area in 1885. France created Ubangi-Shari territory in 1894. In 1911 at the Treaty of Fez, France ceded a nearly 300,000 km² portion of the Sangha and Lobaye basins to the German Empire which ceded a smaller area (in present-day Chad) to France. After World War I France again annexed the territory. Modeled on King Leopold's Congo Free State, concessions were doled out to private companies that endeavored to strip the region's assets as quickly and cheaply as possible before depositing a percentage of their profits into the French treasury. The concessionary companies forced local people to harvest rubber, coffee, and other commodities without pay and held their families hostage until they met their quotas. Between 1890, a year after the French first arrived, and 1940, the population declined by half due to diseases, famine and exploitation by private companies. [24]

Charles de Gaulle in Bangui, 1940. De Gaulle Bangui 1940.jpg
Charles de Gaulle in Bangui, 1940.

In 1920 French Equatorial Africa was established and Ubangi-Shari was administered from Brazzaville. [25] During the 1920s and 1930s the French introduced a policy of mandatory cotton cultivation, [25] a network of roads was built, attempts were made to combat sleeping sickness, and Protestant missions were established to spread Christianity[ citation needed ]. New forms of forced labor were also introduced and a large number of Ubangians were sent to work on the Congo-Ocean Railway. Through the period of construction until 1934 there was a continual heavy cost in human lives, with total deaths among all workers along the railway estimated in excess of 17,000 of the construction workers, from a combination of both industrial accidents and diseases including malaria. [26] In 1928, a major insurrection, the Kongo-Wara rebellion or 'war of the hoe handle', broke out in Western Ubangi-Shari and continued for several years. The extent of this insurrection, which was perhaps the largest anti-colonial rebellion in Africa during the interwar years, was carefully hidden from the French public because it provided evidence of strong opposition to French colonial rule and forced labor.

In September 1940, during the Second World War, pro-Gaullist French officers took control of Ubangi-Shari and General Leclerc established his headquarters for the Free French Forces in Bangui. [27] In 1946 Barthélémy Boganda was elected with 9,000 votes to the French National Assembly, becoming the first representative of the CAR in the French government. Boganda maintained a political stance against racism and the colonial regime but gradually became disheartened with the French political system and returned to CAR to establish the Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa (Mouvement pour l'évolution sociale de l'Afrique noire, MESAN) in 1950.

Since independence (1960–present)

In the Ubangi-Shari Territorial Assembly election in 1957, MESAN captured 347,000 out of the total 356,000 votes, [28] and won every legislative seat, [29] which led to Boganda being elected president of the Grand Council of French Equatorial Africa and vice-president of the Ubangi-Shari Government Council. [30] Within a year, he declared the establishment of the Central African Republic and served as the country's first prime minister. MESAN continued to exist, but its role was limited. [31] After Boganda's death in a plane crash on 29 March 1959, his cousin, David Dacko, took control of MESAN and became the country's first president after the CAR had formally received independence from France. Dacko threw out his political rivals, including former Prime Minister and Mouvement d'évolution démocratique de l'Afrique centrale (MEDAC), leader Abel Goumba, whom he forced into exile in France. With all opposition parties suppressed by November 1962, Dacko declared MESAN as the official party of the state. [32]

Bokassa and the Central African Empire (1965–1979)

Jean-Bedel Bokassa, self-crowned Emperor of Central Africa. Bokassa colored.png
Jean-Bédel Bokassa, self-crowned Emperor of Central Africa.

On 31 December 1965, Dacko was overthrown in the Saint-Sylvestre coup d'état by Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa, who suspended the constitution and dissolved the National Assembly. President Bokassa declared himself President for Life in 1972, and named himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire (as the country was renamed) on 4 December 1976. A year later, Emperor Bokassa crowned himself in a lavish and expensive ceremony that was ridiculed by much of the world. [7]

In April 1979, young students protested against Bokassa's decree that all school attendees would need to buy uniforms from a company owned by one of his wives. The government violently suppressed the protests, killing 100 children and teenagers. Bokassa himself may have been personally involved in some of the killings. [33] In September 1979, France overthrew Bokassa and restored Dacko to power (subsequently restoring the name of the country to the Central African Republic). Dacko, in turn, was again overthrown in a coup by General André Kolingba on 1 September 1981.

Central African Republic under Kolingba

Kolingba suspended the constitution and ruled with a military junta until 1985. He introduced a new constitution in 1986 which was adopted by a nationwide referendum. Membership in his new party, the Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (RDC), was voluntary. In 1987 and 1988, semi-free elections to parliament were held but Kolingba's two major political opponents, Abel Goumba and Ange-Félix Patassé were not allowed to participate. [34]

By 1990, inspired by the fall of the Berlin Wall, a pro-democracy movement arose. Pressure from the United States, France, and from a group of locally represented countries and agencies called GIBAFOR (France, the US, Germany, Japan, the EU, the World Bank, and the UN) finally led Kolingba to agree, in principle, to hold free elections in October 1992 with help from the UN Office of Electoral Affairs. After using the excuse of alleged irregularities to suspend the results of the elections as a pretext for holding on to power, President Kolingba came under intense pressure from GIBAFOR to establish a "Conseil National Politique Provisoire de la République" (Provisional National Political Council, CNPPR) and to set up a "Mixed Electoral Commission", which included representatives from all political parties. [34]

When a second round of elections were finally held in 1993, again with the help of the international community coordinated by GIBAFOR, Ange-Félix Patassé won in the second round of voting with 53% of the vote while Goumba won 45.6%. Patassé's party, the Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (MLPC) or Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People, gained a simple but not an absolute majority of seats in parliament, which meant Patassé's party required coalition partners. [34]

Patassé Government (1993–2003)

Patassé purged many of the Kolingba elements from the government and Kolingba supporters accused Patassé's government of conducting a "witch hunt" against the Yakoma. A new constitution was approved on 28 December 1994 but had little impact on the country's politics. In 1996–1997, reflecting steadily decreasing public confidence in the government's erratic behaviour, three mutinies against Patassé's administration were accompanied by widespread destruction of property and heightened ethnic tension. During this time (1996) the Peace Corps evacuated all its volunteers to neighboring Cameroon. To date, the Peace Corps has not returned to the Central African Republic. The Bangui Agreements, signed in January 1997, provided for the deployment of an inter-African military mission, to Central African Republic and re-entry of ex-mutineers into the government on 7 April 1997. The inter-African military mission was later replaced by a U.N. peacekeeping force (MINURCA). Since 1997, the country has hosted almost a dozen peacekeeping interventions, earning it the title of "world champion of peacekeeping". [24]

In 1998, parliamentary elections resulted in Kolingba's RDC winning 20 out of 109 seats but in 1999, in spite of widespread public anger in urban centers over his corrupt rule, Patassé won a second term in the presidential election.

On 28 May 2001, rebels stormed strategic buildings in Bangui in an unsuccessful coup attempt. The army chief of staff, Abel Abrou, and General François N'Djadder Bedaya were killed, but Patassé regained the upper hand by bringing in at least 300 troops of the Congolese rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba and Libyan soldiers. [35]

In the aftermath of the failed coup, militias loyal to Patassé sought revenge against rebels in many neighborhoods of Bangui and incited unrest including the murder of many political opponents. Eventually, Patassé came to suspect that General François Bozizé was involved in another coup attempt against him, which led Bozizé to flee with loyal troops to Chad. In March 2003, Bozizé launched a surprise attack against Patassé, who was out of the country. Libyan troops and some 1,000 soldiers of Bemba's Congolese rebel organization failed to stop the rebels and Bozizé's forces succeeded in overthrowing Patassé. [36]

Civil wars

Rebel militia in the northern countryside, 2007. Rebel in northern CAR 01.jpg
Rebel militia in the northern countryside, 2007.

François Bozizé suspended the constitution and named a new cabinet, which included most opposition parties. Abel Goumba was named vice-president, which gave Bozizé's new government a positive image.[ why? ] Bozizé established a broad-based National Transition Council to draft a new constitution, and announced that he would step down and run for office once the new constitution was approved.

In 2004 the Central African Republic Bush War began, as forces opposed to Bozizé took up arms against his government. In May 2005, Bozizé won the presidential election, which excluded Patassé, and in 2006 fighting continued between the government and the rebels. [ clarification needed ] In November 2006, Bozizé's government requested French military support to help them repel rebels who had taken control of towns in the country's northern regions. [37] Though the initially public details of the agreement pertained to logistics and intelligence, the French assistance eventually [ when? ] included strikes by Dassault Mirage 2000 fighters against rebel positions. [38]

The Syrte Agreement in February and the Birao Peace Agreement in April 2007 called for a cessation of hostilities, the billeting of FDPC fighters and their integration with FACA, the liberation of political prisoners, integration of FDPC into government, an amnesty for the UFDR, its recognition as a political party, and the integration of its fighters into the national army. Several groups continued to fight but other groups signed on to the agreement, or similar agreements with the government (e.g. UFR on 15 December 2008). The only major group not to sign an agreement at the time was the CPJP, which continued its activities and signed a peace agreement with the government on 25 August 2012.

In 2011 Bozizé was reelected in an election which was widely considered fraudulent. [8]

In November 2012, Séléka, a coalition of rebel groups, took over towns in the northern and central regions of the country. These groups eventually reached a peace deal with the Bozizé's government in January 2013 involving a power sharing government [8] but this deal broke down and the rebels seized the capital in March 2013 and Bozizé fled the country. [39] [40]

Michel Djotodia took over as president. Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye requested a UN peacekeeping force from the UN Security Council and on 31 May former President Bozizé was indicted for crimes against humanity and incitement of genocide. [41] By the end of the year there were international warnings of a "genocide" [42] [43] and fighting was largely from reprisal attacks on civilians from Seleka's predominantly Muslim fighters and Christian militias called "anti-balaka." [44] By August 2013, there were reports of over 200,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) [45] [46]

Refugees of the fighting in the Central African Republic, January 2014 Refugees of the fighting in the Central African Republic observe Rwandan soldiers being dropped off at Bangui M'Poko International Airport in the Central African Republic Jan. 19, 2014 140119-F-RN211-760.jpg
Refugees of the fighting in the Central African Republic, January 2014

French President François Hollande called on the UN Security Council and African Union to increase their efforts to stabilize the country. On 18 February 2014, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on the UN Security Council to immediately deploy 3,000 troops to the country, bolstering the 6,000 African Union soldiers and 2,000 French troops already in the country, to combat civilians being murdered in large numbers. The Séléka government was said to be divided. [47] and in September 2013, Djotodia officially disbanded Seleka, but many rebels refused to disarm, becoming known as ex-Seleka, and veered further out of government control. [44] It is argued that the focus of the initial disarmament efforts exclusively on the Seleka inadvertently handed the anti-Balaka the upper hand, leading to the forced displacement of Muslim civilians by anti-Balaka in Bangui and western CAR. [24]

On 11 January 2014, Michael Djotodia and Nicolas Tiengaye resigned as part of a deal negotiated at a regional summit in neighboring Chad. [48] Catherine Samba-Panza was elected as interim president by the National Transitional Council, [49] becoming the first ever female Central African president. On 23 July 2014, following Congolese mediation efforts, Séléka and anti-balaka representatives signed a ceasefire agreement in Brazzaville. [50] By the end of 2014, the country was de facto partitioned with the anti-Balaka in the southwest and ex-Seleka in the northeast. [24] On 14 December 2015, Séléka rebel leaders declared an independent Republic of Logone. [51]

Geography

Falls of Boali on the Mbali River Republique Centrafricaine - Boali - Chutes de Boali.jpg
Falls of Boali on the Mbali River
A village in the Central African Republic CARvillagefromthesky.jpg
A village in the Central African Republic

The Central African Republic is a landlocked nation within the interior of the African continent. It is bordered by Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Republic of the Congo. The country lies between latitudes and 11°N, and longitudes 14° and 28°E.

Much of the country consists of flat or rolling plateau savanna approximately 500 metres (1,640 ft) above sea level. Most of the northern half lies within the World Wildlife Fund's East Sudanian savanna ecoregion. In addition to the Fertit Hills in the northeast of the CAR, there are scattered hills in the southwest regions. In the northwest is the Yade Massif, a granite plateau with an altitude of 348 metres (1,143 ft).

At 622,941 square kilometres (240,519 sq mi), the Central African Republic is the world's 45th-largest country. It is comparable in size to Ukraine.

Much of the southern border is formed by tributaries of the Congo River; the Mbomou River in the east merges with the Uele River to form the Ubangi River, which also comprises portions of the southern border. The Sangha River flows through some of the western regions of the country, while the eastern border lies along the edge of the Nile River watershed.

It has been estimated that up to 8% of the country is covered by forest, with the densest parts generally located in the southern regions. The forests are highly diverse and include commercially important species of Ayous, Sapelli and Sipo. [52] The deforestation rate is about 0.4% per annum, and lumber poaching is commonplace. [53]

In 2008, Central African Republic was the world's least light pollution affected country. [54]

The Central African Republic is the focal point of the Bangui Magnetic Anomaly, one of the largest magnetic anomalies on Earth. [55]

Wildlife

In the southwest, the Dzanga-Sangha National Park is located in a rain forest area. The country is noted for its population of forest elephants and western lowland gorillas. In the north, the Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park is well-populated with wildlife, including leopards, lions, cheetahs and rhinos, and the Bamingui-Bangoran National Park is located in the northeast of CAR. The parks have been seriously affected by the activities of poachers, particularly those from Sudan, over the past two decades. [56]

Climate

Central African Republic map of Koppen climate classification. Central African Republic map of Koppen climate classification.svg
Central African Republic map of Köppen climate classification.

The climate of the Central African Republic is generally tropical, with a wet season that lasts from June to September in the northern regions of the country, and from May to October in the south. During the wet season, rainstorms are an almost daily occurrence, and early morning fog is commonplace. Maximum annual precipitation is approximately 1,800 millimetres (71 in) in the upper Ubangi region. [57]

The northern areas are hot and humid from February to May, [58] but can be subject to the hot, dry, and dusty trade wind known as the Harmattan. The southern regions have a more equatorial climate, but they are subject to desertification, while the extreme northeast regions of the country are already desert.

Prefectures and sub-prefectures

The Central African Republic is divided into 16 administrative prefectures (préfectures), two of which are economic prefectures (préfectures economiques), and one an autonomous commune; the prefectures are further divided into 71 sub-prefectures (sous-préfectures).

The prefectures are Bamingui-Bangoran, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kémo, Lobaye, Mambéré-Kadéï, Mbomou, Nana-Mambéré, Ombella-M'Poko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pendé and Vakaga. The economic prefectures are Nana-Grébizi and Sangha-Mbaéré, while the commune is the capital city of Bangui.

Demographics

Fula women in Paoua Group of Peul women in Paoua.jpg
Fula women in Paoua

The population of the Central African Republic has almost quadrupled since independence. In 1960, the population was 1,232,000; as of a 2016 UN estimate, it is approximately 4,594,621. [1]

The United Nations estimates that approximately 4% of the population aged between 15 and 49 is HIV positive. [59] Only 3% of the country has antiretroviral therapy available, compared to a 17% coverage in the neighbouring countries of Chad and the Republic of the Congo. [60]

The nation is divided into over 80 ethnic groups, each having its own language. The largest ethnic groups are the Baya, Banda, Mandjia, Sara, Mboum, M'Baka, Yakoma, and Fula or Fulani, [61] with others including Europeans of mostly French descent. [8]

Urbanization

Religion

A Christian church in the Central African Republic. Niem (RCA) - Eglise de brousse 1.jpg
A Christian church in the Central African Republic.

According to the 2003 national census, 80.3% of the population was Christian—51.4% Protestant and 28.9% Roman Catholic—, 10% is Muslim and 4.5 percent other religious groups, with 5.5 percent having no religious beliefs. [63] More recent work from the Pew Research Center estimated that, as of 2010, Christians constituted 89.8% of the population (with Protestantism at 60.7% and Catholicism 28.5%) while Muslims make up 8.9%. [64] [65] The Catholic Church claims over 1.5 million adherents, approximately one-third of the population. [66] Indigenous belief (animism) is also practiced, and many indigenous beliefs are incorporated into Christian and Islamic practice. [67] A UN director described religious tensions between Muslims and Christians as being high. [68]

There are many missionary groups operating in the country, including Lutherans, Baptists, Catholics, Grace Brethren, and Jehovah's Witnesses. While these missionaries are predominantly from the United States, France, Italy, and Spain, many are also from Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and other African countries. Large numbers of missionaries left the country when fighting broke out between rebel and government forces in 2002–3, but many of them have now returned to continue their work. [69]

According to Overseas Development Institute research, during the crisis ongoing since 2012, religious leaders have mediated between communities and armed groups; they also provided refuge for people seeking shelter. [70]

Languages

The Central African Republic's two official languages are French and Sango (also spelled Sangho), a creole developed as an inter-ethnic lingua franca based on the local Ngbandi language. CAR is one of the few African countries to have an African language as their official language. [71]

Culture

Media

Sports

Basketball is the country's most popular sport and a good way to connect with its people. [72] [73] Its national team won the African Championship twice and was the first Sub-Saharan African team to qualify for the Basketball World Cup.

The country also has a national football team, which is governed by the Central African Football Federation, and stages matches at the Barthélemy Boganda Stadium.

Government and politics

Politics in the Central African Republic formally take place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic. In this system, the President is the head of state, with a Prime Minister as head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament.

Changes in government have occurred in recent years by three methods: violence, negotiations, and elections. A new constitution was approved by voters in a referendum held on 5 December 2004. The government was rated 'Partly Free' from 1991 to 2001 and from 2004 to 2013. [74]

Executive branch

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term, and the prime minister is appointed by the president. The president also appoints and presides over the Council of Ministers, which initiates laws and oversees government operations. However, as of 2018 the official government is not in control of large parts of the country, which are governed by rebel groups.

Acting president since April 2016 is Faustin Archange Touadera who followed the interim government under Catherine Samba-Panza, interim prime minister André Nzapayeké.

Legislative branch

The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) has 105 members, elected for a five-year term using the two-round (or Run-off) system.

Judicial branch

As in many other former French colonies, the Central African Republic's legal system is based on French law. [75] The Supreme Court, or Cour Supreme, is made up of judges appointed by the president. There is also a Constitutional Court, and its judges are also appointed by the president.

Foreign relations

Foreign aid and UN Involvement

The Central African Republic is heavily dependent upon foreign aid and numerous NGOs provide services that the government does not provide.

In 2006, due to ongoing violence, over 50,000 people in the country's northwest were at risk of starvation [76] but this was averted due to assistance from the United Nations.[ citation needed ] On 8 January 2008, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon declared that the Central African Republic was eligible to receive assistance from the Peacebuilding Fund. [77] Three priority areas were identified: first, the reform of the security sector; second, the promotion of good governance and the rule of law; and third, the revitalization of communities affected by conflicts. On 12 June 2008, the Central African Republic requested assistance from the UN Peacebuilding Commission, [78] which was set up in 2005 to help countries emerging from conflict avoid devolving back into war or chaos.

In response to concerns of a potential genocide, a peacekeeping force – the International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA) – was authorized in December 2013. This African Union force of 6,000 personnel was accompanied by the French Operation Sangaris. [70]

Economy

Bangui shopping district Bangui Shopping District.jpg
Bangui shopping district

The per capita income of the Republic is often listed as being approximately $400 a year, one of the lowest in the world, but this figure is based mostly on reported sales of exports and largely ignores the unregistered sale of foods, locally produced alcoholic beverages, diamonds, ivory, bushmeat, and traditional medicine.

The currency of Central African Republic is the CFA franc, which is accepted across the former countries of French West Africa and trades at a fixed rate to the euro. Diamonds constitute the country's most important export, accounting for 40–55% of export revenues, but it is estimated that between 30% and 50% of those produced each year leave the country clandestinely.

Graphical depiction of Central African Republic's product exports in 28 color-coded categories Tree map export 2009 Central African Republic.jpeg
Graphical depiction of Central African Republic's product exports in 28 color-coded categories

Agriculture is dominated by the cultivation and sale of food crops such as cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame, and plantain. The annual real GDP growth rate is just above 3%. The importance of food crops over exported cash crops is indicated by the fact that the total production of cassava, the staple food of most Central Africans, ranges between 200,000 and 300,000 tonnes a year, while the production of cotton, the principal exported cash crop, ranges from 25,000 to 45,000 tonnes a year. Food crops are not exported in large quantities, but still constitute the principal cash crops of the country, because Central Africans derive far more income from the periodic sale of surplus food crops than from exported cash crops such as cotton or coffee.[ citation needed ] Much of the country is self-sufficient in food crops; however, livestock development is hindered by the presence of the tsetse fly.[ citation needed ]

The Republic's primary import partner is the Netherlands (19.5%). Other imports come from Cameroon (9.7%), France (9.3%), and South Korea (8.7%). Its largest export partner is Belgium (31.5%), followed by China (27.7%), the Democratic Republic of Congo (8.6%), Indonesia (5.2%), and France (4.5%). [8]

The CAR is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). In the 2009 World Bank Group's report Doing Business, it was ranked 183rd of 183 as regards 'ease of doing business', a composite index which takes into account regulations that enhance business activity and those that restrict it. [79]

Infrastructure

Transportation

Trucks in Bangui Central African Republic - Trucks in Bangui.jpg
Trucks in Bangui

Bangui is the transport hub of the Central African Republic. As of 1999, eight roads connected the city to other main towns in the country, Cameroon, Chad and South Sudan; of these, only the toll roads are paved. During the rainy season from July to October, some roads are impassable. [80] [81]

River ferries sail from the river port at Bangui to Brazzaville and Zongo. The river can be navigated most of the year between Bangui and Brazzaville. From Brazzaville, goods are transported by rail to Pointe-Noire, Congo's Atlantic port. [82] The river port handles the overwhelming majority of the country's international trade and has a cargo handling capacity of 350,000 tons; it has 350 metres (1,150 ft) length of wharfs and 24,000 square metres (260,000 sq ft) of warehousing space. [80]

Bangui M'Poko International Airport is Central African Republic's only international airport. As of June 2014 it had regularly scheduled direct flights to Brazzaville, Casablanca, Cotonou, Douala, Kinshasha, Lomé, Luanda, Malabo, N'Djamena, Paris, Pointe-Noire, and Yaoundé.

Since at least 2002 there have been plans to connect Bangui by rail to the Transcameroon Railway. [83]

Energy

The Central African Republic primarily uses hydroelectricity as there are few other resources for energy and power.

Communications

Presently, the Central African Republic has active television services, radio stations, internet service providers, and mobile phone carriers; Socatel is the leading provider for both internet and mobile phone access throughout the country. The primary governmental regulating bodies of telecommunications are the Ministère des Postes and Télécommunications et des Nouvelles Technologies. In addition, the Central African Republic receives international support on telecommunication related operations from ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) within the International Telecommunication Union to improve infrastructure.

Education

Classroom in Sam Ouandja CAR classroom.jpg
Classroom in Sam Ouandja

Public education in the Central African Republic is free and is compulsory from ages 6 to 14. [84] However, approximately half of the adult population of the country is illiterate. [85]

Higher education

The University of Bangui, a public university located in Bangui, includes a medical school, and Euclid University, an international university in Bangui, are the two institutions of higher education in the Central African Republic.

Healthcare

Mothers and babies aged between 0 and 5 years are lining up in a Health Post at Begoua, a district of Bangui, waiting for the two drops of the oral polio vaccine. Caf babies.jpg
Mothers and babies aged between 0 and 5 years are lining up in a Health Post at Begoua, a district of Bangui, waiting for the two drops of the oral polio vaccine.

The largest hospitals in the country are located in the Bangui district. As a member of the World Health Organization, the Central African Republic receives vaccination assistance, such as a 2014 intervention for the prevention of a measles epidemic. [86] In 2007, female life expectancy at birth was 48.2 years and male life expectancy at birth was 45.1 years. [87]

Women's health is poor in the Central African Republic. As of 2010, the country had the 4th highest maternal mortality rate in the world. [88] The total fertility rate in 2014 was estimated at 4.46 children born/woman. [8] Approximately 25% of women had undergone female genital mutilation. [89] Many births in the country are guided by traditional birth attendants, who often have little or no formal training. [90]

Malaria is endemic in the Central African Republic, and one of the leading causes of death. [91] According to 2009 estimates, the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is about 4.7% of the adult population (ages 15–49). [92] This is in general agreement with the 2016 United Nations estimate of approximately 4%. [93] Government expenditure on health was US$20 (PPP) per person in 2006 [87] and 10.9% of total government expenditure in 2006. [87] There was only around 1 physician for every 20,000 persons in 2009. [94]

Human rights

The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted that human rights in CAR were poor and expressed concerns over numerous government abuses. [95] The U.S. State Department alleged that major human rights abuses such as extrajudicial executions by security forces, torture, beatings and rape of suspects and prisoners occurred with impunity. It also alleged harsh and life-threatening conditions in prisons and detention centers, arbitrary arrest, prolonged pretrial detention and denial of a fair trial, restrictions on freedom of movement, official corruption, and restrictions on workers' rights. [95]

The State Department report also cites widespread mob violence, the prevalence of female genital mutilation, discrimination against women and Pygmies, human trafficking, forced labor, and child labor. [96] Freedom of movement is limited in the northern part of the country "because of actions by state security forces, armed bandits, and other nonstate armed entities", and due to fighting between government and anti-government forces, many persons have been internally displaced. [97]

Violence against children and women in relation to accusations of witchcraft has also been cited as a serious problem in the country. [98] [99] [100] Witchcraft is a criminal offense under the penal code. [98]

Freedom of speech is addressed in the country's constitution, but there have been incidents of government intimidation of the media. [95] A report by the International Research & Exchanges Board's media sustainability index noted that "the country minimally met objectives, with segments of the legal system and government opposed to a free media system". [95]

Approximately 68% of girls are married before they turn 18, [101] and the United Nations' Human Development Index ranked the country 188 out of 188 countries surveyed. [102] The Bureau of International Labor Affairs has also mentioned it in its last edition of the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor .

See also

Related Research Articles

The history of the Central African Republic is roughly composed of four distinct periods. The earliest period of settlement began around 10,000 years ago when nomadic people first began to settle, farm and fish in the region. The next period began around 1,000 to 3,000 years ago when several non-indigenous groups began to migrate into the region from other parts of the continent. The third period involved the colonial conquest and rule of the country by France and Germany which spanned from the late 1800s until 1960 when the Central African Republic became an independent state. The final period has been the era during which the Central African Republic has been an independent state.

The Central African Armed Forces are the armed forces of the Central African Republic, established after independence in 1960. Today they are among the world's weakest armed forces, dependent on international support to hold back enemies in the current civil war. Its disloyalty to the president came to the fore during the mutinies in 1996–1997, and since then has faced internal problems. It has been strongly criticised by human rights organisations due to terrorism, including killings, torture and sexual violence. Its budget is currently just $15 million adjusted USD per year.

Bangui Place in Central African Republic

Bangui is the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic. As of 2012 it had an estimated population of 734,350. It was established as a French outpost in 1889 and named after its location on the northern bank of the Ubangi River ; the Ubangi itself was named from the Bobangi word for the "rapids" located beside the settlement, which marked the end of navigable water north from Brazzaville. The majority of the population of the Central African Republic lives in the western parts of the country, in Bangui and the surrounding area.

David Dacko Prime Minister of the Central African Republic

David Dacko was the 1st President of the Central African Republic from 14 August 1960 to 1 January 1966, and 3rd President from 21 September 1979 to 1 September 1981. After his second removal from power in a coup d'état led by General André Kolingba, he pursued an active career as an opposition politician and presidential candidate with many loyal supporters; Dacko was an important political figure in the country for over 50 years.

André Kolingba Central African politician

André-Dieudonné Kolingba was a Central African politician, who was the fourth President of the Central African Republic (CAR), from 1 September 1981 until 1 October 1993. He took power from President David Dacko in a bloodless coup d'état in 1981 and lost power to Ange-Félix Patassé in a democratic election held in 1993. Kolingba retained the strong support of France until the fall of the Berlin Wall, after which both internal and external pressure forced him to hold presidential elections which he lost.

Zongo, Sud-Ubangi (DR Congo) Place in Équateur, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Zongo is a city in Sud-Ubangi District in Équateur Province in the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, lying on the south bank of the Ubangi River, across from Bangui in the Central African Republic. It is linked by ferry to Bangui but has declined in importance as a transport hub since much traffic moved east in the late 1980s.

Henri Maïdou is a retired Central African politician who served as Prime Minister of the Central African Empire from 14 July 1978 to 26 September 1979, and Vice President of the CAR in the cabinet of David Dacko from September 1979 to August 1980.

Central African Republic–China relations Diplomatic relations between the Central African Republic and the Peoples Republic of China

Central African Republic–People's Republic of China relations refer to the bilateral relations of the Central African Republic and the People's Republic of China. Diplomatic relations between the People's Republic of China and the Central African Republic were established on September 29, 1964 when the CAR's government severed diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan). China's ambassador to the Central African Republic is Ma Fulin as of 2017.

Michel Am-Nondokro Djotodia is a Central African politician who was President of the Central African Republic from 2013 to 2014. He was the first Muslim to hold that office in the predominantly Christian country. Djotodia was a leader of the almost entirely Muslim Séléka rebel coalition in the December 2012 rebellion against President François Bozizé. Following a peace agreement, Djotodia was appointed to the government as First Deputy Prime Minister for National Defense in February 2013. When the peace agreement unravelled, Séléka captured Bangui and Djotodia took power on 24 March 2013. He promised to lead a transition to new elections in which he would not be a candidate, but his time in office was marked by escalating sectarian violence, and he was ultimately pressured into resigning by regional leaders on 10 January 2014.

Central African Republic Civil War (2012–present) conflict between the government of the Central African Republic and rebels

The Central African Republic conflict is a civil war in the Central African Republic (CAR) involving the government, rebels from the Séléka coalition, and anti-balaka militias.

2015–16 Central African general election

General elections were held in the Central African Republic on 30 December 2015 to elect the President and National Assembly. As no presidential candidate received more than 50% of the vote, and following the annulling of the results of the National Assembly elections by the Transitional Constitutional Court, a second round of the presidential elections and a re-run of the parliamentary vote took place on 14 February 2016, with run-offs on 31 March 2016.

Nicolas Tiangaye Central African politician and lawyer

Nicolas Tiangaye is a Central African politician and lawyer who was Prime Minister of the Central African Republic from 17 January 2013 until his resignation on 10 January 2014. He was President of the National Transitional Council from 2003 to 2005.

A coup d'état occurred in March 2003 in the Central African Republic when the forces of General François Bozizé marched on Bangui, the country's capital, while President Ange-Félix Patassé was at a regional conference in Niger. While he was away, Bozizé led 1,000 fighters to the capital city of Bangui and captured the international airport and the presidential palace. Government troops, many of whom had not been paid in months, put up little resistance. The 370 CEMAC peacekeepers abandoned their posts rather than fight. A curfew was imposed afterwards by Bozizé and the constitution was suspended. President Patassé, meanwhile, fled the country to nearby Cameroon when rebels shot at his plane. Militants from Chad were spotted among the rebel fighters, but the President of Chad, Idriss Déby, denied providing any military support to Bozizé. At least fifteen people were killed.

The following lists events that happened during 2013 in the Central African Republic.

Central African Republic–France relations Diplomatic relations between the Central African Republic and the French Republic

Central African Republic–France relations are foreign relations between the Central African Republic (CAR) and France. Both nations are members of the Francophonie and the United Nations.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bangui, Central African Republic.

References

  1. 1 2 "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  2. countrymeters.info. "Live Central African Republic population (2017). Current population of Central African Republic — Countrymeters". countrymeters.info.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Central African Republic". International Monetary Fund.
  4. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  5. 1 2 (PDF) http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdi_table.pdf.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. Which side of the road do they drive on? Brian Lucas. August 2005. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
  7. 1 2 3 'Cannibal' dictator Bokassa given posthumous pardon. The Guardian. 3 December 2010
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Central African Republic. CIA World Factbook
  9. World Economic Outlook Database, January 2018, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 12 April 2017. Accessed on 21 April 2017.
  10. "These are the world's unhealthiest countries - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 2016-09-25. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  11. Foundation, Thomson Reuters. "Central African Republic worst country in the world for young people - study".
  12. 1 2 McKenna, p. 4
  13. Brierley, Chris; Manning, Katie; Maslin, Mark (2018-10-01). "Pastoralism may have delayed the end of the green Sahara". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 4018. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.4018B. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06321-y. ISSN   2041-1723. PMC   6167352 . PMID   30275473.
  14. Fran Osseo-Asare (2005) Food Culture in Sub Saharan Africa. Greenwood. ISBN   0313324883. p. xxi
  15. McKenna, p. 5
  16. Methodology and African Prehistory by, UNESCO. International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa, p. 548
  17. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Les mégalithes de Bouar". UNESCO.
  18. McKenna, p. 7
  19. McKenna, p. 10
  20. International Business Publications, USA (7 February 2007). Central African Republic Foreign Policy and Government Guide (World Strategic and Business Information Library). 1. Int'l Business Publications. p. 47. ISBN   978-1433006210 . Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  21. 1 2 Alistair Boddy-Evans. Central Africa Republic Timeline – Part 1: From Prehistory to Independence (13 August 1960), A Chronology of Key Events in Central Africa Republic. About.com
  22. "Central African Republic". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  23. French Colonies – Central African Republic. Discoverfrance.net. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  24. 1 2 3 4 "One day we will start a big war". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  25. 1 2 Thomas O'Toole (1997) Political Reform in Francophone Africa. Westview Press. p. 111
  26. "In pictures: Malaria train, Mayomba forest". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  27. Central African Republic: The colonial era – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  28. Olson, p. 122.
  29. Kalck, p. xxxi.
  30. Kalck, p. 90.
  31. Kalck, p. 136.
  32. Kalck, p. xxxii.
  33. "'Good old days' under Bokassa?". BBC News. 2 January 2009
  34. 1 2 3 "Central African Republic - Discover World". www.discoverworld.com. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  35. International Crisis Group. "Central African Republic: Anatomy of a Phantom State" (PDF). CrisisGroup.org. International Crisis Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  36. "Central African Republic History". DiscoverWorld.com. 2018. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
  37. "CAR hails French pledge on rebels". BBC. 14 November 2006. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  38. "French planes attack CAR rebels". BBC. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  39. "Central African Republic president flees capital amid violence, official says". CNN. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  40. Lydia Polgreen (25 March 2013). "Leader of Central African Republic Fled to Cameroon, Official Says". The New York Times.
  41. "CrisisWatch N°117" Archived 20 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine . crisisgroup.org.
  42. "UN warning over Central African Republic genocide risk". BBC News. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  43. "France says Central African Republic on verge of genocide". Reuters. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  44. 1 2 Smith, David (22 November 2013) Unspeakable horrors in a country on the verge of genocide The Guardian. Retrieved 23 November 2013
  45. "CrisisWatch N°118" Archived 20 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine . crisisgroup.org.
  46. "CrisisWatch N°119" Archived 20 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine . crisisgroup.org.
  47. Mark Tran (14 August 2013). "Central African Republic crisis to be scrutinised by UN security council". The Guardian.
  48. "CAR interim President Michel Djotodia resigns". BBC News. 2014-01-11. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  49. Paul-Marin Ngoupana (11 January 2014). "Central African Republic's capital tense as ex-leader heads into exile". Reuters. Reuters.
  50. "RCA : signature d’un accord de cessez-le-feu à Brazzaville". VOA. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  51. "Rebel declares autonomous state in Central African Republic". Reuters. 16 December 2015.
  52. "Sold Down the River (English)" Archived 13 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine . forestsmonitor.org.
  53. "The Forests of the Congo Basin: State of the Forest 2006". Archived from the original on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2010.. CARPE 13 July 2007
  54. National Geographic Magazine, November 2008
  55. L. A. G. Antoine; W. U. Reimold; A. Tessema (1999). "The Bangui Magnetic Anomaly Revisited" (PDF). Proceedings 62nd Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting. 34: A9. Bibcode:1999M&PSA..34Q...9A . Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  56. "Wildlife of northern Central African Republic in danger". phys.org. Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  57. Central African Republic: Country Study Guide volume 1, p. 24.
  58. Ward, Inna, ed. (2007). Whitaker's Almanack (139th ed.). London: A & C Black. p. 796. ISBN   978-0-7136-7660-0.
  59. "Central African Republic". Unaids.org. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  60. ANNEX 3: Country progress indicators. 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. unaids.org
  61. In Fula : Fulɓe; in French : Peul
  62. http://citypopulation.de/Centralafrica.html
  63. "International Religious Freedom Report 2010". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  64. "Table: Christian Population as Percentages of Total Population by Country". Pew Research Center. 2011-12-19. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  65. "Table: Muslim Population by Country". Pew Research Center. 2011-01-27. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  66. "Central African Republic, Statistics by Diocese". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  67. "Central African Republic". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  68. "Central African Republic: Religious tinderbox". BBC News. 2013-11-04.
  69. "Central African Republic. International Religious Freedom Report 2006". U.S. Department of State.
  70. 1 2 Veronique Barbelet (2015) Central African Republic: addressing the protection crisis London: Overseas Development Institute
  71. See list of official languages by state on Wikipedia
  72. Country Profile – Central African Republic-Sports and Activities, Indo-African Chamber of Commerce and Industry Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  73. Central African Republic — Things to Do, iExplore Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  74. "FIW Score". Freedom House. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
  75. "Legal System". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  76. CAR: Food shortages increase as fighting intensifies in the northwest. irinnews.org, 29 March 2006
  77. Central African Republic Peacebuilding Fund – Overview. United Nations.
  78. "Peacebuilding Commission Places Central African Republic On Agenda; Ambassador Tells Body 'CAR Will Always Walk Side By Side With You, Welcome Your Advice'". United Nations. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  79. Doing Business 2010. Central African Republic. Doing Business. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; The World Bank. 2009. doi:10.1596/978-0-8213-7961-5. ISBN   978-0-8213-7961-5.
  80. 1 2 Eur, pp. 200–202
  81. Graham Booth; G. R McDuell; John Sears (1999). World of Science: 2. Oxford University Press. p. 57. ISBN   978-0-19-914698-7.
  82. "Central African Republic: Finance and trade". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  83. Eur, p. 185
  84. "Central African Republic". Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2001). Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  85. "Central African Republic – Statistics". UNICEF. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  86. "WHO – Health in Central African Republic" . Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  87. 1 2 3 "Human Development Report 2009 – Central African Republic". Hdrstats.undp.org. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  88. "Country Comparison :: Maternal mortality rate". The World Factbook. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  89. "WHO – Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices" . Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  90. "Mother and child health in Central African Republic" . Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  91. "Malaria – one of the leading causes of death in the Central African Republic" . Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  92. CIA World Factbook: HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate. Cia.gov. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  93. "Central African Republic". Unaids.org. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  94. "WHO Country Offices in the WHO African Region – WHO | Regional Office for Africa". Afro.who.int. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  95. 1 2 3 4 2009 Human Rights Report: Central African Republic. U.S. Department of State, 11 March 2010.
  96. "Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor – Central African Republic". dol.gov.
  97. "2010 Human Rights Report: Central African Republic". US Department of State. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
  98. 1 2 "UNICEF WCARO – Media Centre – Central African Republic: Children, not witches" . Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  99. "Report: Accusations of child witchcraft on the rise in Africa" . Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  100. UN human rights chief says impunity major challenge in run-up to elections in Central African Republic. ohchr.org. 19 February 2010
  101. "Child brides around the world sold off like cattle". USA Today . 8 March 2013.
  102. "Central African Republic". International Human Development Indicators. Retrieved 3 March 2017.

Bibliography

Further reading

Overviews
News
Other