Savanna

Last updated

Typical tropical savanna in Northern Australia demonstrating the high tree density and regular spacing characteristic of many savannas Australian savanna.jpg
Typical tropical savanna in Northern Australia demonstrating the high tree density and regular spacing characteristic of many savannas

A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland-grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses. [1] [2] [3]

Woodland low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade

A woodland or wood is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of shrubs and herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession. Higher density areas of trees with a largely closed canopy that provides extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forests.

Grassland areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae)

Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica. Grasslands are found in most ecoregions of the Earth. For example, there are five terrestrial ecoregion classifications (subdivisions) of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome (ecosystem), which is one of eight terrestrial ecozones.

Ecosystem A community of living organisms together with the nonliving components of their environment

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the system through photosynthesis and is incorporated into plant tissue. By feeding on plants and on one-another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.

Contents

Savannas maintain an open canopy despite a high tree density. [4] It is often believed that savannas feature widely spaced, scattered trees. However, in many savannas, tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forests. [5] [6] [7] [8] The South American savanna types cerrado sensu stricto and cerrado dense typically have densities of trees similar to or higher than that found in South American tropical forests, [5] [7] [8] with savanna ranging from 800–3300 trees per hectare (trees/ha) and adjacent forests with 800–2000 trees/ha. Similarly Guinean savanna has 129 trees/ha, compared to 103 for riparian forest, [6] while Eastern Australian sclerophyll forests have average tree densities of approximately 100 per hectare, comparable to savannas in the same region. [9]

Cerrado tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil

The Cerrado is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil, particularly in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Minas Gerais. The Cerrado biome core areas are the plateaus in the center of Brazil. The main habitat types of the Cerrado include: forest savanna, wooded savanna, park savanna and gramineous-woody savanna. Savanna wetlands and gallery forests are also included. The second largest of Brazil's major habitat types, after the Amazonian rainforest, the Cerrado accounts for a full 21 percent of the country's land area.

Hectare Metric unit of area

The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres.

Riparian forest forested or wooded area of land adjacent to a body of water

A riparian forest or riparian woodland is a forested or wooded area of land adjacent to a body of water such as a river, stream, pond, lake, marshland, estuary, canal, sink or reservoir.

Savannas are also characterised by seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall confined to one season; they are associated with several types of biomes, and are frequently in a transitional zone between forest and desert or grassland. Savanna covers approximately 20% of the Earth's land area. [10]

Biome Distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate

A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate. Biome is a broader term than habitat; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats.

Ecotone transition area between two biomes

An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes. It is where two communities meet and integrate. It may be narrow or wide, and it may be local or regional. An ecotone may appear on the ground as a gradual blending of the two communities across a broad area, or it may manifest itself as a sharp boundary line.

Forest dense collection of trees covering a relatively large area

A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. According to the widely used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares (9.9×109 acres) (15 million square miles) or approximately 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006.

Etymology

The word originally entered English in 1555 [11] as the Latin Zauana, [13] equivalent in the orthography of the times to zavana (see history of V). Peter Martyr reported it as the local name for the plain around Comagre, the court of the cacique Carlos in present-day Panama. The accounts are inexact, [15] but this is usually placed in present-day Madugandí [16] or at points on the nearby Guna Yala coast opposite Ustupo [17] or on Point Mosquitos. [18] These areas are now either given over to modern cropland or jungle. [19]

New Latin Form of the Latin language between c. 1375 and c. 1900

New Latin was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use, New Latin is subject to new word formation. As a language for full expression in prose or poetry, however, it is often distinguished from its successor, Contemporary Latin.

English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.

Peter Martyr dAnghiera Italo-Spanish historian and diplomat

Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, formerly known in English as Peter Martyr of Angleria, was an Italian historian at the service of Spain during the Age of Exploration. He wrote the first accounts of explorations in Central and South America in a series of letters and reports, grouped in the original Latin publications of 1511 to 1530 into sets of ten chapters called "decades." His Decades are of great value in the history of geography and discovery. His De Orbe Novo describes the first contacts of Europeans and Native Americans, Native American civilizations in the Caribbean and North America, as well as Mesoamerica, and includes, for example, the first European reference to India rubber. It was first translated into English in 1555, and in a fuller version in 1912.

Distribution

Tarangire National Park in Tanzania, East Africa Tarangire-Natpark800600.jpg
Tarangire National Park in Tanzania, East Africa

Many grassy landscapes and mixed communities of trees, shrubs, and grasses were described as savanna before the middle of the 19th century, when the concept of a tropical savanna climate became established. The Köppen climate classification system was strongly influenced by effects of temperature and precipitation upon tree growth, and his oversimplified assumptions resulted in a tropical savanna classification concept which resulted in it being considered as a "climatic climax" formation. The common usage meaning to describe vegetation now conflicts with a simplified yet widespread climatic concept meaning. The divergence has sometimes caused areas such as extensive savannas north and south of the Congo and Amazon Rivers to be excluded from mapped savanna categories. [20]

Köppen climate classification climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Congo River river in central Africa

The Congo River, formerly known as the Zaire River under the Mobutu regime, is the second longest river in Africa, shorter only than the Nile, as well as the second largest river in the world by discharge volume, following only the Amazon. It is also the world's deepest recorded river, with measured depths in excess of 220 m (720 ft). The Congo-Lualaba-Chambeshi River system has an overall length of 4,700 km (2,920 mi), which makes it the world's ninth-longest river. The Chambeshi is a tributary of the Lualaba River, and Lualaba is the name of the Congo River upstream of Boyoma Falls, extending for 1,800 km (1,120 mi).

Amazon River longest river in South America

The Amazon River in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and by some definitions it is the longest.

"Barrens" has been used almost interchangeably with savanna in different parts of North America. Sometimes midwestern savanna were described as "grassland with trees". Different authors have defined the lower limits of savanna tree coverage as 5–10% and upper limits range as 25–80% of an area. [21]

Two factors common to all savanna environments are rainfall variations from year to year, and dry season wildfires.[ citation needed ] In the Americas, e.g. in Belize, Central America, savanna vegetation is similar from Mexico to South America and to the Caribbean. [22]

Over many large tropical areas, the dominant biome (forest, savanna or grassland) can not be predicted only by the climate, as historical events plays also a key role, for example, fire activity. [23] In some areas, indeed, it is possible the occurrence of multiple stable biomes. [24]

Threats

Changes in fire management

Savannas are subject to regular wildfires and the ecosystem appears to be the result of human use of fire. For example, Native Americans created the Pre-Columbian savannas of North America by periodically burning where fire-resistant plants were the dominant species. [25] Pine barrens in scattered locations from New Jersey to coastal New England are remnants of these savannas. Aboriginal burning appears to have been responsible for the widespread occurrence of savanna in tropical Australia and New Guinea, [26] and savannas in India are a result of human fire use. [27] The maquis shrub savannas of the Mediterranean region were likewise created and maintained by anthropogenic fire. [28]

Prescribed burn; Wisconsin bur oak savanna Fire-sav-S-slope-3720.jpg
Prescribed burn; Wisconsin bur oak savanna

These fires are usually confined to the herbaceous layer and do little long term damage to mature trees. However, these fires either kill or suppress tree seedlings, thus preventing the establishment of a continuous tree canopy which would prevent further grass growth. Prior to European settlement aboriginal land use practices, including fire, influenced vegetation [29] and may have maintained and modified savanna flora. [3] [26] It has been suggested by many authors [29] [30] that aboriginal burning created a structurally more open savanna landscape. Aboriginal burning certainly created a habitat mosaic that probably increased biodiversity and changed the structure of woodlands and geographic range of numerous woodland species. [26] [29] It has been suggested by many authors [30] [31] that with the removal or alteration of traditional burning regimes many savannas are being replaced by forest and shrub thickets with little herbaceous layer.

The consumption of herbage by introduced grazers in savanna woodlands has led to a reduction in the amount of fuel available for burning and resulted in fewer and cooler fires. [32] The introduction of exotic pasture legumes has also led to a reduction in the need to burn to produce a flush of green growth because legumes retain high nutrient levels throughout the year, and because fires can have a negative impact on legume populations which causes a reluctance to burn. [33]

Grazing and browsing animals

Oak savanna, United States Savanna Oregon oak buttercup BLM.jpeg
Oak savanna, United States

The closed forest types such as broadleaf forests and rainforests are usually not grazed owing to the closed structure precluding grass growth, and hence offering little opportunity for grazing. [34] In contrast the open structure of savannas allows the growth of a herbaceous layer and are commonly used for grazing domestic livestock. [35] As a result, much of the world's savannas have undergone change as a result of grazing by sheep, goats and cattle, ranging from changes in pasture composition to woody weed encroachment. [36]

The removal of grass by grazing affects the woody plant component of woodland systems in two major ways. Grasses compete with woody plants for water in the topsoil and removal by grazing reduces this competitive effect, potentially boosting tree growth. [37] In addition to this effect, the removal of fuel reduces both the intensity and the frequency of fires which may control woody plant species. [38] Grazing animals can have a more direct effect on woody plants by the browsing of palatable woody species. There is evidence that unpalatable woody plants have increased under grazing in savannas. [39] Grazing also promotes the spread of weeds in savannas by the removal or reduction of the plants which would normally compete with potential weeds and hinder establishment. [29] In addition to this, cattle and horses are implicated in the spread of the seeds of weed species such as Prickly Acacia ( Acacia nilotica ) and Stylo ( Stylosanthes spp.). [32] Alterations in savanna species composition brought about by grazing can alter ecosystem function, and are exacerbated by overgrazing and poor land management practices.

Introduced grazing animals can also affect soil condition through physical compaction and break-up of the soil caused by the hooves of animals and through the erosion effects caused by the removal of protective plant cover. Such effects are most likely to occur on land subjected to repeated and heavy grazing. [40] The effects of overstocking are often worst on soils of low fertility and in low rainfall areas below 500 mm, as most soil nutrients in these areas tend to be concentrated in the surface so any movement of soils can lead to severe degradation. Alteration in soil structure and nutrient levels affects the establishment, growth and survival of plant species and in turn can lead to a change in woodland structure and composition.

Tree clearing

Large areas of Australian and South American savannas have been cleared of trees, and this clearing is continuing today. For example, until recently 480,000 ha of savanna were cleared annually in Australia alone primarily to improve pasture production. [29] Substantial savanna areas have been cleared of woody vegetation and much of the area that remains today is vegetation that has been disturbed by either clearing or thinning at some point in the past.

Clearing is carried out by the grazing industry in an attempt to increase the quality and quantity of feed available for stock and to improve the management of livestock. The removal of trees from savanna land removes the competition for water from the grasses present, and can lead to a two to fourfold increase in pasture production, as well as improving the quality of the feed available. [41] Since stock carrying capacity is strongly correlated with herbage yield, there can be major financial benefits from the removal of trees, [42] such as assisting with grazing management: regions of dense tree and shrub cover harbors predators, leading to increased stock losses, for example, [43] while woody plant cover hinders mustering in both sheep and cattle areas. [44]

A number of techniques have been employed to clear or kill woody plants in savannas. Early pastoralists used felling and girdling, the removal of a ring of bark and sapwood, as a means of clearing land. [45] In the 1950s arboricides suitable for stem injection were developed. War-surplus heavy machinery was made available, and these were used for either pushing timber, or for pulling using a chain and ball strung between two machines. These two new methods of timber control, along with the introduction and widespread adoption of several new pasture grasses and legumes promoted a resurgence in tree clearing. The 1980s also saw the release of soil-applied arboricides, notably tebuthiuron, that could be utilised without cutting and injecting each individual tree.

In many ways "artificial" clearing, particularly pulling, mimics the effects of fire and, in savannas adapted to regeneration after fire as most Queensland savannas are, there is a similar response to that after fire. [46] Tree clearing in many savanna communities, although causing a dramatic reduction in basal area and canopy cover, often leaves a high percentage of woody plants alive either as seedlings too small to be affected or as plants capable of re-sprouting from lignotubers and broken stumps. A population of woody plants equal to half or more of the original number often remains following pulling of eucalypt communities, even if all the trees over 5 metres are uprooted completely.

Exotic plant species

Acacia savanna, Taita Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Kenya. Savanna towards the south-east from the south-west of Taita Hills Game Lodge within the Taita Hills Wildlife Sanctuary in Kenya.jpg
Acacia savanna, Taita Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Kenya.

A number of exotic plants species have been introduced to the savannas around the world. Amongst the woody plant species are serious environmental weeds such as Prickly Acacia ( Acacia nilotica ), Rubbervine ( Cryptostegia grandiflora ), Mesquite ( Prosopis spp.), Lantana ( Lantana camara and L. montevidensis ) and Prickly Pear ( Opuntia spp.) A range of herbaceous species have also been introduced to these woodlands, either deliberately or accidentally including Rhodes grass and other Chloris species, Buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ), Giant rat's tail grass ( Sporobolus pyramidalis ) parthenium ( Parthenium hysterophorus ) and stylos ( Stylosanthes spp.) and other legumes. These introductions have the potential to significantly alter the structure and composition of savannas worldwide, and have already done so in many areas through a number of processes including altering the fire regime, increasing grazing pressure, competing with native vegetation and occupying previously vacant ecological niches. [46] [47] Other plant species include: white sage, spotted cactus, cotton seed, rosemary.

Climate change

Human induced climate change resulting from the greenhouse effect may result in an alteration of the structure and function of savannas. Some authors [48] have suggested that savannas and grasslands may become even more susceptible to woody plant encroachment as a result of greenhouse induced climate change. However, a recent case described a savanna increasing its range at the expense of forest in response to climate variation, and potential exists for similar rapid, dramatic shifts in vegetation distribution as a result of global climate change, particularly at ecotones such as savannas so often represent. [49]

Savanna ecoregions

Mediterranean savanna in Alentejo region, Portugal Quercus suber.Alentejo04.jpg
Mediterranean savanna in Alentejo region, Portugal

Savanna ecoregions are of several different types:

See also

Related Research Articles

Sclerophyll A type of vegetation that has hard leaves, short internodes and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight

Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves, short internodes and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight. The word comes from the Greek sklēros (hard) and phyllon (leaf).

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature.. The biome is dominated by grass and/or shrubs located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.

Pasture land used for grazing

Pasture is land used for grazing. Pasture lands in the narrow sense are enclosed tracts of farmland, grazed by domesticated livestock, such as horses, cattle, sheep, or swine. The vegetation of tended pasture, forage, consists mainly of grasses, with an interspersion of legumes and other forbs. Pasture is typically grazed throughout the summer, in contrast to meadow which is ungrazed or used for grazing only after being mown to make hay for animal fodder. Pasture in a wider sense additionally includes rangelands, other unenclosed pastoral systems, and land types used by wild animals for grazing or browsing.

<i>Acacia aneura</i> species of shrub or small tree

Acacia aneura, commonly known as mulga or true mulga, is a shrub or small tree native to arid outback areas of Australia. It is the dominant tree in the habitat that it gives its name to (mulga) that occurs across much of inland Australia. Specific regions have been designated the Western Australian mulga shrublands in Western Australia and Mulga Lands in Queensland.

Grazing method of feeding in which a herbivore eats parts of low-growing grasses, forbs or algae

Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture, grazing is one method used whereby domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat, milk and other products.

Rangeland open grazing land

Rangelands are grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, wetlands, and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies, desert grasslands and shrublands, woodlands, savannas, chaparrals, steppes, and tundras. Rangelands do not include forests lacking grazable understory vegetation, barren desert, farmland, or land covered by solid rock, concrete and/or glaciers.

Fire ecology scientific discipline concerned with natural processes involving fire in an ecosystem and the ecological effects

Fire ecology is a scientific discipline concerned with natural processes involving fire in an ecosystem and the ecological effects, the interactions between fire and the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem, and the role as an ecosystem process. Many ecosystems, particularly prairie, savanna, chaparral and coniferous forests, have evolved with fire as an essential contributor to habitat vitality and renewal. Many plant species in fire-affected environments require fire to germinate, establish, or to reproduce. Wildfire suppression not only eliminates these species, but also the animals that depend upon them.

<i>Acacia harpophylla</i> species of plant

Acacia harpophylla, commonly known as brigalow, brigalow spearwood or orkor is an endemic tree of Australia. It is found in central and coastal Queensland to northern New South Wales. It can reach up to 25 metres tall and forms extensive open-forest communities on clay soils.

<i>Acacia cambagei</i> species of plant

Acacia cambagei, commonly known as gidgee, stinking wattle or stinking gidgee, is an endemic tree of Australia. It is found primarily in semiarid and arid Queensland, but extends into the Northern Territory, South Australia and north-western New South Wales. It can reach up to 12 m in height and can form extensive open woodland communities. The leaves, bark, and litter of A. cambagei produce a characteristic odour, vaguely reminiscent of boiled cabbage, gas or sewerage that accounts for the common name of "stinking gidgee".

The Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion is a large area of grassland dotted with eucalyptus trees running north-south across central New South Wales, Australia.

<i>Melinis minutiflora</i> species of plant

Melinis minutiflora, commonly known as molasses grass, is a species of grass.

Marsupial lawn

Marsupial lawns are portions of land where the soil moisture is much higher than in the vegetation surrounding it. These high moisture levels create lawns that attract a large amount of grazing by marsupials. Commonly found in Tasmania, the lawns function as habitats for local animals.

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub is a biome defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. The biome is generally characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform. Summers are typically hot in low-lying inland locations but can be cool near colder seas. Winters are typically mild to cool in low-lying locations but can be cold in inland and higher locations. All these ecoregions are highly distinctive, collectively harboring 10% of the Earth's plant species.

Montane ecosystems ecosystems found in mountains

Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains. These ecosystems are strongly affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases. They are stratified according to elevation. Dense forests are common at moderate elevations. However, as the elevation increases, the climate becomes harsher, and the plant community transitions to grasslands or tundra.

Central Great Plains (ecoregion)

The Central Great Plains are a semi-arid prairie ecoregion of the central United States, part of North American Great Plains. The region runs from west-central Texas through west-central Oklahoma, central Kansas, and south-central Nebraska.

References

  1. Anderson, Roger A., Fralish, James S. and Baskin, Jerry M. editors.1999. Savannas, Barrens, and Rock Outcrop Plant Communities of North America. Cambridge University Press.
  2. McPherson, G. R. (1997). Ecology and management of North American Savannas. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
  3. 1 2 Werner, Patricia A.; B. H. Walker; P. A Stott (1991). "Introduction". In Patricia A. Werner (ed.). Savanna Ecology and Management: Australian Perspectives and Intercontinental Comparisons. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN   978-0-632-03199-3.
  4. Alexandro Solórzano, Jeanine Maria Felfili 2008”Comparative analysis of the international terminaoolgy for cerrado” IX Symposio Nacional Cerrado 13 a 17 de outubro de 2008 Parlamundi Barsilia, DF
  5. 1 2 Manoel Cláudio da Silva Jánior, Christopher William Fagg, Maria Cristina Felfili, Paulo Ernane Nogueira, Alba Valéria Rezende, and Jeanine Maria Felfili 2006 “Chapter 4. Phytogeography of Cerrado Sensu Stricto and Land System Zoning in Central Brazil” in “Neotropical Savannas and Seasonally Dry Forests: Plant Diversity, Biogeography, and Conservation” R. Toby Pennington, James A. Ratter (eds) 2006 CRC Press
  6. 1 2 Abdullahi Jibrin 2013 “A Study of Variation in Physiognomic Characteristics of Guinea Savanna Vegetation” Environment and Natural Resources Research 3:2
  7. 1 2 Erika L. Geiger, Sybil G. Gotsch, Gabriel Damasco, M. Haridasan, Augusto C. Franco & William A. Hoffmann 2011 “Distinct roles of savanna and forest tree species in regeneration under fire suppression in a Brazilian savanna” Journal of Vegetation Science 22
  8. 1 2 Scholz, Fabian G.; Bucci, Sandra J.; Goldstein, Guillermo; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Franco, Augusto C.; Salazar, Ana. 2008 “Plant- and stand-level variation in biophysical and physiological traits along tree density gradients in the Cerrado”, Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
  9. Tait, L 2010, Structure and dynamics of grazed woodlands in North-eastern Australia, Master of Applied Science Thesis, Central Queensland University, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Health, Rockhampton.
  10. Sankaran, Mahesh; Hanan, Niall P.; Scholes, Robert J.; Ratnam, Jayashree; Augustine, David J.; Cade, Brian S.; Gignoux, Jacques; Higgins, Steven I.; Le Roux, Xavier (December 2005). "Determinants of woody cover in African savannas". Nature. 438 (7069): 846–849. doi:10.1038/nature04070. ISSN   0028-0836. PMID   16341012.
  11. Oxford English Dictionary , 3rd ed. "savannah", n. Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2012.
  12. 1 2 D'Anghiera, Peter Martyr. De Orbe Novo Decades. Cum Ejusdem Legatione Babylonica. [The Decades of the New World. With the Babylonian Legation.] Arnao Guillén de Brocar (Alcala), 1516 (in Latin). Trans. Richard Eden as The decades of the newe worlde or west India conteynyng the nauigations and conquestes of the Spanyardes with the particular description of the moste ryche and large landes and Ilands lately founde in the west Ocean perteynyng to the inheritaunce of the kinges of Spayne, Book III, §3. William Powell (London), 1555.
  13. Richard Eden: "The palace of this Comogrus, is ſituate at the foote of a ſtiepe hyll well cultured. Hauynge towarde the ſouthe a playne of twelue leages in breadth and veary frutefull. This playne, they caule Zauana." [12]
  14. Eden (1555), Book III, §6.
  15. The account of Peter Martyr itself differs in places, variously placing Comagre 25 leagues west of and accessible by ship from Dariena [14] or 70 leagues (roughly 290 kilometers or 180 miles) west of Dariena and beside a river flowing into the southern ocean. [12]
  16. Bancroft, Hubert H. (1882). "History of Central America. 1501–1530". San Francisco: A.L. Bancroft & Co. p. LXXIV.
  17. Bancroft (1882), p. 362.
  18. Bancroft (1882), p. 347.
  19. NASA. "[earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Experiments/ICE/panama/Images/igbp_panama2000289_lg.gif Land Cover Classification]" from Earth Observatory. The Image Composite Explorer. Exercise 4: Vegetation Vital Signs. Accessed 1 August 2014.
  20. David R. Harris, ed. (1980). Human Ecology in Savanna Environments. London: Academic Press. pp. 3, 5–9, 12, 271–278, 297–298. ISBN   978-0-12-326550-0.
  21. Roger C. Anderson; James S. Fralish; Jerry M. Baskin, eds. (1999). Savannas, Barrens, and Rock Outcrop Plant Communities of North America. Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN   978-0-521-57322-1.
  22. David L. Lentz, ed. (2000). Imperfect balance: landscape transformations in the Precolumbian Americas. New York City: Columbia University Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN   978-0-231-11157-7.
  23. Moncrieff, G. R., Scheiter, S., Langan, L., Trabucco, A., Higgins, S. I. (2016). The future distribution of the savannah biome: model-based and biogeographic contingency, Philos. T. R. Soc. B, 371, 2015.0311, 2016. link.
  24. Staver, A.C., Archibald, S., Levin, S.A. (2011). The global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states. Science 334, 230–232. link.
  25. "Use of Fire by Native Americans". The Southern Forest Resource Assessment Summary Report. Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
  26. 1 2 3 Flannery, Timothy Fridtjof (1994). The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People. Frenchs Forest, New South Wales: Reed New Holland. ISBN   978-0-8076-1403-7.
  27. Saha, S. (2003). "Patterns in woody species diversity, richness and partitioning of diversity in forest communities of tropical deciduous forest biomes". Ecography . 26 (1): 80–86. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0587.2003.03411.x.
  28. Pyne, Stephen J. (1997). Vestal Fire: An Environmental History, Told through Fire, of Europe and Europe's Encounter with the World . Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN   978-0-295-97596-2.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 Wilson, B., S. Boulter, et al. (2000). Queensland's resources. Native Vegetation Management in Queensland. S. L. Boulter, B. A. Wilson, J. Westrupet eds. Brisbane, Department of Natural Resources ISBN   0-7345-1701-7.
  30. 1 2 Lunt, I. D.; N. Jones (2006). "Effects of European colonisation on indigenous ecosystems: post-settlement changes in tree stand structures in EucalyptusCallitris woodlands in central New South Wales, Australia". Journal of Biogeography . 33 (6): 1102–1115. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01484.x.
  31. Archer S, (1994.) "Woody plant encroachment into southwestern grasslands and savannas: Rates, patterns and proximate causes." pp. 13–68 in Vavra, Laycock and Pieper (eds.) Ecological Implications of Livestock Herbivory in the West. Society For Range Management, Denver ISBN   1-884930-00-X.
  32. 1 2 Pressland, A. J., J. R. Mills, et al. (1988). Landscape degradation in native pasture. Native pastures in Queensland their resources and management. W. H. Burrows, J. C. Scanlan and M. T. Rutherford. Queensland, Queensland Government Press ISBN   0-7242-2443-2.
  33. Dyer, R., A. Craig, et al. (1997). Fire in northern pastoral lands. Fire in the management of northern Australian pastoral lands. T. C. Grice and S. M. Slatter. St. Lucia, Australia, Tropical Grassland Society of Australia ISBN   0-9590948-9-X.
  34. Lodge, G. M. and R. D. B. Whalley (1984). Temperate rangelands. Management of Australia’s Rangelands. G. N. Harrington and A. D. Wilson. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing.
  35. Mott, J. J., Groves, R.H. (1994). Natural and derived grasslands. Australian Vegetation. R. H. Groves. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  36. Winter, W. H. (1991). "Australia's northern savannas: a time for change in management philosophy". In Patricia A. Werner (ed.). Savanna Ecology and Management: Australian Perspectives and Intercontinental Comparisons. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 181–186. ISBN   978-0-632-03199-3.
  37. Burrows, W. H., J. C. Scanlan, et al. (1988). Plant ecological relations in open forests, woodlands and shrublands. Native pastures in Queensland their resources and management. W. H. Burrows, J. C. Scanlan and M. T. Rutherford eds. Brisbane, Department of Primary Industries ISBN   0-7242-2443-2.
  38. Smith, G., A. Franks, et al. (2000). Impacts of domestic grazing within remnant vegetation. Native Vegetation Management in Queensland. S. L. Boulter, B. A. Wilson, J. Westrupet al. Brisbane, Department of Natural Resources ISBN   0-7345-1701-7.
  39. Florence, R. G. (1996). Ecology and silviculture of eucalypt forests. Collingwood, CSIRO Publishing ISBN   0-643-10252-3.
  40. Foran, B. D. (1984). Central arid woodlands. Management of Australia’s Rangelands. G. N. Harrington and A. D. Wilson. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing ISBN   0-643-03615-6.
  41. Scanlan, J. and C. Chilcott (2000). Management and production aspects. Native Vegetation Management in Queensland. S. L. Boulter, B. A. Wilson, J. Westrupet al. Brisbane, Department of Natural Resources.
  42. Harrington, G. N., M. H. Friedel, et al. (1984). Vegetation ecology and management. Management of Australia's Rangelands. G. N. Harrington and A. D. Wilson. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing ISBN   0-643-03615-6.
  43. Harrington, G. N., D. M. D. Mills, et al. (1984). Semi-arid woodlands. Management of Australia's Rangelands. G. N. Harrington and A. D. Wilson. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing ISBN   0-643-03615-6.
  44. Harrington, G. N., D. M. D. Mills, et al. (1984). Management of Rangeland Ecosystems. Management of Australia's Rangelands. G. N. Harrington and A. D. Wilson. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing ISBN   0-643-03615-6.
  45. Partridge, I. (1999). Managing grazing in northern Australia. Brisbane, Department of Primary Industries ISBN   0-7345-0035-1.
  46. 1 2 Scanlan, J. C. (1988). Managing tree and shrub populations. Native pastures in Queensland their resources and management. W. H. Burrows, J. C. Scanlan and M. T. Rutherford. Queensland, Queensland Government Press ISBN   0-7242-2443-2.
  47. Tothill, J. C. and C. Gillies (1992). The pasture lands of northern Australia. Brisbane, Tropical Grassland Society of Australia ISBN   0-9590948-4-9.
  48. Archer, S. (1991). "Development and stability of grass/woody mosaics in a subtropical savanna parkland, Texas, USA". In Patricia A. Werner (ed.). Savanna Ecology and Management: Australian Perspectives and Intercontinental Comparisons. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 109–118. ISBN   978-0-632-03199-3.
  49. Allen, C. D. & D. D. Breshears (1998). "Drought-induced shift of a forest–woodland ecotone: Rapid landscape response to climate variation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 95 (25): 14839–14842. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.25.14839. PMC   24536 . PMID   9843976.
  50. Calvachi Zambrano, Byron (2002). "La biodiversidad bogotana" (PDF). Revista la Tadeo (in Spanish). Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano. 67: 89–98. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  51. Pérez Preciado, Alfonso (2000). La estructura ecológica principal de la Sabana de Bogotá (PDF) (in Spanish). Sociedad Geográfica de Colombia. pp. 1–37. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  52. Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands