Wildfire

Last updated

Wildfire burning in the Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, United States, in 2020. The Mangum Fire burned more than 70,000 acres (280 km) of forest. Burnout ops on Mangum Fire McCall Smokejumpers.jpg
Wildfire burning in the Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, United States, in 2020. The Mangum Fire burned more than 70,000 acres (280 km) of forest.
Wildfire near Yosemite National Park, United States, in 2013. The Rim Fire burned more than 250,000 acres (1,000 km) of forest. The Rim Fire in the Stanislaus National Forest near in California began on Aug. 17, 2013-0004.jpg
Wildfire near Yosemite National Park, United States, in 2013. The Rim Fire burned more than 250,000 acres (1,000 km) of forest.

A wildfire, forest fire, bushfire, wildland fire or rural fire is an unplanned, uncontrolled and unpredictable fire in an area of combustible vegetation. [1] [2] Depending on the type of vegetation present, a wildfire may be more specifically identified as a bushfire (in Australia), desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, prairie fire, vegetation fire, or veld fire. [3] Some natural forest ecosystems depend on wildfire. [4] Wildfires are distinct from beneficial human usage of wildland fire, called controlled or prescribed burning, although controlled burns can turn into wildfires. Modern forest management often engages in prescribed burns to mitigate risk and promote natural forest cycles.

Contents

Wildfires are often classified by characteristics like cause of ignition, physical properties, combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire. [5] Wildfire behavior and severity result from a combination of factors such as available fuels, physical setting, and weather. [6] [7] [8] [9] Climatic cycles with wet periods that create substantial fuels, followed by drought and heat, often proceed severe wildfires. [10] These cycles have been intensified by climate change. [11]

Naturally occurring wildfires have beneficial effects on native vegetation, animals, and ecosystems that have evolved with fire. [12] [13] [14] Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for growth and reproduction. [15] Some natural forests are dependent on wildfire. [16] High-severity wildfires may create complex early seral forest habitat (also called "snag forest habitat"), which may have higher species richness and diversity than an unburned old forest.

Human societies can be severely impacted by fires. Effects include the direct health impacts of smoke and fire, destruction of property (especially in wildland–urban interfaces) economic and ecosystem services losses, and contamination of water and soil. [11]

Wildfires are among the most common forms of natural disaster in some regions, including Siberia, California, British Columbia, and Australia. [17] [18] [19] [20] Areas with Mediterranean climates or in the taiga biome are particularly susceptible. At a global level, human practices have made the impacts of wildfire worse, with a doubling in land area burned by wildfires compared to natural levels. [11] Humans have impacted wildfire through climate change, land-use change, and wildfire suppression. [11] The increase in severity of fires in the US creates a positive feedback loop by releasing naturally sequestered carbon back into the atmosphere, increasing the atmosphere's greenhouse effect thereby contributing to climate change. [11]

Ignition

Global fires during the year 2008 for the months of August (top image) and February (bottom image), as detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Global Fires - August and February 2008.jpg
Global fires during the year 2008 for the months of August (top image) and February (bottom image), as detected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite.

The initial ignition of a fire is usually evaluated for natural or human causes.

Lightning-sparked wildfires are frequent occurrences during the dry summer season in Nevada. 2011-08-04 20 00 00 Susie Fire in the Adobe Range west of Elko Nevada.jpg
Lightning-sparked wildfires are frequent occurrences during the dry summer season in Nevada.

Natural

Natural occurrences that can ignite wildfires without the involvement of humans include lightning, volcanic eruptions, sparks from rock falls, and spontaneous combustions. [21] [22]

Human activity

Sources of human-caused fire may include arson, accidental ignition, or the uncontrolled use of fire in land-clearing and agriculture such as the slash-and-burn farming in Southeast Asia. [23] In the tropics, farmers often practice the slash-and-burn method of clearing fields during the dry season.

In middle latitudes, the most common human causes of wildfires are equipment generating sparks (chainsaws, grinders, mowers, etc.), overhead power lines, and arson. [24] [25] [26] [27] [28]

Arson may account for over 20% of human caused fires. [29] However, in the 2019–20 Australian bushfire season "an independent study found online bots and trolls exaggerating the role of arson in the fires." [30] In the 2023 Canadian wildfires false claims of arson gained traction on social media; however, arson is generally not a main cause of wildfires in Canada. [31] [32] In California, generally 6–10% of wildfires annually are arson. [33]

Coal seam fires burn in the thousands around the world, such as those in Burning Mountain, New South Wales; Centralia, Pennsylvania; and several coal-sustained fires in China. They can also flare up unexpectedly and ignite nearby flammable material. [34]

Spread

A surface fire in the western desert of Utah, United States Wildfire near Cedar Fort, Utah.jpg
A surface fire in the western desert of Utah, United States
Charred landscape following a crown fire in the North Cascades, United States Forest fire aftermath.jpg
Charred landscape following a crown fire in the North Cascades, United States
Forest fires visible from a distance in Dajti National Park, Tirana, Albania Priske 24.03.2019.jpg
Forest fires visible from a distance in Dajti National Park, Tirana, Albania

The spread of wildfires varies based on the flammable material present, its vertical arrangement and moisture content, and weather conditions. [35] Fuel arrangement and density is governed in part by topography, as land shape determines factors such as available sunlight and water for plant growth. Overall, fire types can be generally characterized by their fuels as follows:

Physical properties

A dirt road acted as a fire barrier in South Africa. The effects of the barrier can clearly be seen on the unburnt (left) and burnt (right) sides of the road. Comtrasts.jpg
A dirt road acted as a fire barrier in South Africa. The effects of the barrier can clearly be seen on the unburnt (left) and burnt (right) sides of the road.

Wildfires occur when all the necessary elements of a fire triangle come together in a susceptible area: an ignition source is brought into contact with a combustible material such as vegetation that is subjected to enough heat and has an adequate supply of oxygen from the ambient air. A high moisture content usually prevents ignition and slows propagation, because higher temperatures are needed to evaporate any water in the material and heat the material to its fire point. [44] [45]

Dense forests usually provide more shade, resulting in lower ambient temperatures and greater humidity, and are therefore less susceptible to wildfires. [46] Less dense material such as grasses and leaves are easier to ignite because they contain less water than denser material such as branches and trunks. [47] Plants continuously lose water by evapotranspiration, but water loss is usually balanced by water absorbed from the soil, humidity, or rain. [48] When this balance is not maintained, often as a consequence of droughts, plants dry out and are therefore more flammable. [49] [50]

A wildfire front is the portion sustaining continuous flaming combustion, where unburned material meets active flames, or the smoldering transition between unburned and burned material. [51] As the front approaches, the fire heats both the surrounding air and woody material through convection and thermal radiation. First, wood is dried as water is vaporized at a temperature of 100 °C (212 °F). Next, the pyrolysis of wood at 230 °C (450 °F) releases flammable gases. Finally, wood can smolder at 380 °C (720 °F) or, when heated sufficiently, ignite at 590 °C (1,000 °F). [52] [53] Even before the flames of a wildfire arrive at a particular location, heat transfer from the wildfire front warms the air to 800 °C (1,470 °F), which pre-heats and dries flammable materials, causing materials to ignite faster and allowing the fire to spread faster. [47] [54] High-temperature and long-duration surface wildfires may encourage flashover or torching: the drying of tree canopies and their subsequent ignition from below. [55]

Wildfires have a rapid forward rate of spread (FROS) when burning through dense uninterrupted fuels. [56] They can move as fast as 10.8 kilometres per hour (6.7 mph) in forests and 22 kilometres per hour (14 mph) in grasslands. [57] Wildfires can advance tangential to the main front to form a flanking front, or burn in the opposite direction of the main front by backing. [58] They may also spread by jumping or spotting as winds and vertical convection columns carry firebrands (hot wood embers) and other burning materials through the air over roads, rivers, and other barriers that may otherwise act as firebreaks. [59] [60] Torching and fires in tree canopies encourage spotting, and dry ground fuels around a wildfire are especially vulnerable to ignition from firebrands. [61] Spotting can create spot fires as hot embers and firebrands ignite fuels downwind from the fire. In Australian bushfires, spot fires are known to occur as far as 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the fire front. [62]

Especially large wildfires may affect air currents in their immediate vicinities by the stack effect: air rises as it is heated, and large wildfires create powerful updrafts that will draw in new, cooler air from surrounding areas in thermal columns. [63] Great vertical differences in temperature and humidity encourage pyrocumulus clouds, strong winds, and fire whirls with the force of tornadoes at speeds of more than 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph). [64] [65] [66] Rapid rates of spread, prolific crowning or spotting, the presence of fire whirls, and strong convection columns signify extreme conditions. [67]

Intensity variations during day and night

A wildfire in Venezuela during a drought Incendio en Caracas (4515878847).jpg
A wildfire in Venezuela during a drought

Intensity also increases during daytime hours. Burn rates of smoldering logs are up to five times greater during the day due to lower humidity, increased temperatures, and increased wind speeds. [68] Sunlight warms the ground during the day which creates air currents that travel uphill. At night the land cools, creating air currents that travel downhill. Wildfires are fanned by these winds and often follow the air currents over hills and through valleys. [69] Fires in Europe occur frequently during the hours of 12:00 p.m. and 2:00 p.m. [70] Wildfire suppression operations in the United States revolve around a 24-hour fire day that begins at 10:00 a.m. due to the predictable increase in intensity resulting from the daytime warmth. [71]

Climate change effects

1911- Wildfire disasters - worldwide.svg
Wildfire disasters have increased substantially in recent decades. [72] Climate change intensifies heatwaves and droughts that dry vegetation, which in turn fuels wildfires. [72]
1983- Canada wildfires - area burned annually.svg
The area that burned in the 2023 Canadian wildfires was more than twice that of any year since 1983. [73]

Increasing risks due to heat waves and droughts

Climate variability including heat waves, droughts, and El Niño, and regional weather patterns, such as high-pressure ridges, can increase the risk and alter the behavior of wildfires dramatically. [74] [75] [76] Years of high precipitation can produce rapid vegetation growth, which when followed by warmer periods can encourage more widespread fires and longer fire seasons. [77] High temperatures dry out the fuel loads and make them more flammable, increasing tree mortality and posing significant risks to global forest health. [78] [79] [80] Since the mid-1980s, in the Western US, earlier snowmelt and associated warming has also been associated with an increase in length and severity of the wildfire season, or the most fire-prone time of the year. [81] A 2019 study indicates that the increase in fire risk in California may be partially attributable to human-induced climate change. [82]

In the summer of 1974–1975 (southern hemisphere), Australia suffered its worst recorded wildfire, when 15% of Australia's land mass suffered "extensive fire damage". [83] Fires that summer burned up an estimated 117 million hectares (290 million acres ; 1,170,000 square kilometres ; 450,000 square miles ). [84] [85] In Australia, the annual number of hot days (above 35 °C) and very hot days (above 40 °C) has increased significantly in many areas of the country since 1950. The country has always had bushfires but in 2019, the extent and ferocity of these fires increased dramatically. [86] For the first time catastrophic bushfire conditions were declared for Greater Sydney. New South Wales and Queensland declared a state of emergency but fires were also burning in South Australia and Western Australia. [87]

In 2019, extreme heat and dryness caused massive wildfires in Siberia, Alaska, Canary Islands, Australia, and in the Amazon rainforest. The fires in the latter were caused mainly by illegal logging. The smoke from the fires expanded on huge territory including major cities, dramatically reducing air quality. [88]

As of August 2020, the wildfires in that year were 13% worse than in 2019 due primarily to climate change, deforestation and agricultural burning. The Amazon rainforest's existence is threatened by fires. [89] [90] [91] [92] Record-breaking wildfires in 2021 occurred in Turkey, Greece and Russia, thought to be linked to climate change. [93]

Video to explain how increasing ocean temperatures are linked to fire-season severity.

Carbon dioxide and other emissions from fires

Wildfires release large amounts of carbon dioxide, black and brown carbon particles, and ozone precursors such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides (NOx) into the atmosphere. [94] [95] These emissions affect radiation, clouds, and climate on regional and even global scales. Wildfires also emit substantial amounts of semi-volatile organic species that can partition from the gas phase to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) over hours to days after emission. In addition, the formation of the other pollutants as the air is transported can lead to harmful exposures for populations in regions far away from the wildfires. [96] While direct emissions of harmful pollutants can affect first responders and residents, wildfire smoke can also be transported over long distances and impact air quality across local, regional, and global scales. [97]

Over the past century, wildfires have accounted for 20–25% of global carbon emissions, the remainder from human activities. [98] Global carbon emissions from wildfires through August 2020 equaled the average annual emissions of the European Union. [99] In 2020, the carbon released by California's wildfires was significantly larger than the state's other carbon emissions. [100]

Forest fires in Indonesia in 1997 were estimated to have released between 0.81 and 2.57 gigatonnes (0.89 and 2.83 billion short tons) of CO2 into the atmosphere, which is between 13%–40% of the annual global carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels. [101] [102]

In June and July 2019, fires in the Arctic emitted more than 140 megatons of carbon dioxide, according to an analysis by CAMS. To put that into perspective this amounts to the same amount of carbon emitted by 36 million cars in a year. The recent wildfires and their massive CO2 emissions mean that it will be important to take them into consideration when implementing measures for reaching greenhouse gas reduction targets accorded with the Paris climate agreement. [103] Due to the complex oxidative chemistry occurring during the transport of wildfire smoke in the atmosphere, [104] the toxicity of emissions was indicated to increase over time. [105] [106]

Atmospheric models suggest that these concentrations of sooty particles could increase absorption of incoming solar radiation during winter months by as much as 15%. [107] The Amazon is estimated to hold around 90 billion tons of carbon. As of 2019, the earth's atmosphere has 415 parts per million of carbon, and the destruction of the Amazon would add about 38 parts per million. [108]

Some research has shown wildfire smoke can have a cooling effect. [109] [110] [111]

Research in 2007 stated that black carbon in snow changed temperature three times more than atmospheric carbon dioxide. As much as 94 percent of Arctic warming may be caused by dark carbon on snow that initiates melting. The dark carbon comes from fossil fuels burning, wood and other biofuels, and forest fires. Melting can occur even at low concentrations of dark carbon (below five parts per billion)”. [112]

Prevention

A short video on managing and protecting the natural habitat between a town and the hillside, from the risk of fire.

Wildfire prevention refers to the preemptive methods aimed at reducing the risk of fires as well as lessening its severity and spread. [113] Prevention techniques aim to manage air quality, maintain ecological balances, protect resources, [114] and to affect future fires. [115] Prevention policies must consider the role that humans play in wildfires, since, for example, 95% of forest fires in Europe are related to human involvement. [116]

Wildfire prevention programs around the world may employ techniques such as wildland fire use (WFU) and prescribed or controlled burns . [117] [118] Wildland fire use refers to any fire of natural causes that is monitored but allowed to burn. Controlled burns are fires ignited by government agencies under less dangerous weather conditions. [119] Other objectives can include maintenance of healthy forests, rangelands, and wetlands, and support of ecosystem diversity. [120]

A prescribed burn in a Pinus nigra stand in Portugal Prescribed burn in a Pinus nigra stand in Portugal.JPG
A prescribed burn in a Pinus nigra stand in Portugal

Strategies for wildfire prevention, detection, control and suppression have varied over the years. [121] One common and inexpensive technique to reduce the risk of uncontrolled wildfires is controlled burning: intentionally igniting smaller less-intense fires to minimize the amount of flammable material available for a potential wildfire. [122] [123] Vegetation may be burned periodically to limit the accumulation of plants and other debris that may serve as fuel, while also maintaining high species diversity. [124] [125] While other people claim that controlled burns and a policy of allowing some wildfires to burn is the cheapest method and an ecologically appropriate policy for many forests, they tend not to take into account the economic value of resources that are consumed by the fire, especially merchantable timber. [126] Some studies conclude that while fuels may also be removed by logging, such thinning treatments may not be effective at reducing fire severity under extreme weather conditions. [127]

Building codes in fire-prone areas typically require that structures be built of flame-resistant materials and a defensible space be maintained by clearing flammable materials within a prescribed distance from the structure. [128] [129] Communities in the Philippines also maintain fire lines 5 to 10 meters (16 to 33 ft) wide between the forest and their village, and patrol these lines during summer months or seasons of dry weather. [130] Continued residential development in fire-prone areas and rebuilding structures destroyed by fires has been met with criticism. [131] The ecological benefits of fire are often overridden by the economic and safety benefits of protecting structures and human life. [132]

Detection

Dry Mountain Fire Lookout in the Ochoco National Forest, Oregon, US circa 1930 Drymountainlookout1930.jpg
Dry Mountain Fire Lookout in the Ochoco National Forest, Oregon, US circa 1930

The demand for timely, high-quality fire information has increased in recent years. Fast and effective detection is a key factor in wildfire fighting. [133] Early detection efforts were focused on early response, accurate results in both daytime and nighttime, and the ability to prioritize fire danger. [134] Fire lookout towers were used in the United States in the early 20th century and fires were reported using telephones, carrier pigeons, and heliographs. [135] Aerial and land photography using instant cameras were used in the 1950s until infrared scanning was developed for fire detection in the 1960s. However, information analysis and delivery was often delayed by limitations in communication technology. Early satellite-derived fire analyses were hand-drawn on maps at a remote site and sent via overnight mail to the fire manager. During the Yellowstone fires of 1988, a data station was established in West Yellowstone, permitting the delivery of satellite-based fire information in approximately four hours. [134]

Public hotlines, fire lookouts in towers, and ground and aerial patrols can be used as a means of early detection of forest fires. However, accurate human observation may be limited by operator fatigue, time of day, time of year, and geographic location. Electronic systems have gained popularity in recent years as a possible resolution to human operator error. These systems may be semi- or fully automated and employ systems based on the risk area and degree of human presence, as suggested by GIS data analyses. An integrated approach of multiple systems can be used to merge satellite data, aerial imagery, and personnel position via Global Positioning System (GPS) into a collective whole for near-realtime use by wireless Incident Command Centers. [136]

Local sensor networks


A small, high risk area that features thick vegetation, a strong human presence, or is close to a critical urban area can be monitored using a local sensor network. Detection systems may include wireless sensor networks that act as automated weather systems: detecting temperature, humidity, and smoke. [137] [138] [139] [140] These may be battery-powered, solar-powered, or tree-rechargeable: able to recharge their battery systems using the small electrical currents in plant material. [141] Larger, medium-risk areas can be monitored by scanning towers that incorporate fixed cameras and sensors to detect smoke or additional factors such as the infrared signature of carbon dioxide produced by fires. Additional capabilities such as night vision, brightness detection, and color change detection may also be incorporated into sensor arrays. [142] [143] [144]

The Department of Natural Resources signed a contract with PanoAI for the installation of 360 degree 'rapid detection' cameras around the Pacific northwest, which are mounted on cell towers and are capable of 24/7 monitoring of a 15 mile radius. [145] Additionally, Sensaio Tech, based in Brazil and Toronto, has released a sensor device that continuously monitors 14 different variables common in forests, ranging from soil temperature to salinity. This information is connected live back to clients through dashboard visualizations, while mobile notifications are provided regarding dangerous levels. [146]

Satellite and aerial monitoring

Satellite and aerial monitoring through the use of planes, helicopter, or UAVs can provide a wider view and may be sufficient to monitor very large, low risk areas. These more sophisticated systems employ GPS and aircraft-mounted infrared or high-resolution visible cameras to identify and target wildfires. [147] [148] Satellite-mounted sensors such as Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer and European Remote-Sensing Satellite's Along-Track Scanning Radiometer can measure infrared radiation emitted by fires, identifying hot spots greater than 39 °C (102 °F). [149] [150] The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hazard Mapping System combines remote-sensing data from satellite sources such as Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for detection of fire and smoke plume locations. [151] [152] However, satellite detection is prone to offset errors, anywhere from 2 to 3 kilometers (1 to 2 mi) for MODIS and AVHRR data and up to 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) for GOES data. [153] Satellites in geostationary orbits may become disabled, and satellites in polar orbits are often limited by their short window of observation time. Cloud cover and image resolution may also limit the effectiveness of satellite imagery. [154] Global Forest Watch [155] provides detailed daily updates on fire alerts. [156]

In 2015 a new fire detection tool is in operation at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service (USFS) which uses data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite to detect smaller fires in more detail than previous space-based products. The high-resolution data is used with a computer model to predict how a fire will change direction based on weather and land conditions. [157]

In 2014, an international campaign was organized in South Africa's Kruger National Park to validate fire detection products including the new VIIRS active fire data. In advance of that campaign, the Meraka Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in Pretoria, South Africa, an early adopter of the VIIRS 375 m fire product, put it to use during several large wildfires in Kruger. [158] There have also been numerous companies and start-ups releasing new drone technology, many of which use AI. Data Blanket, a Seattle-based startup backed by Bill Gates, has developed drones capable of performing self-guided flights in order to conduct comprehensive assessments of wildfires and the surrounding site, providing real-time and critical information such as local vegetation and fuels. The drones are equipped with RGB and infrared cameras, AI-based computational software, 5G/Wi-Fi, and advanced navigational features. Data Blanket has also stated that its system will eventually be capable of producing micro-weather data, further supporting firefighter efforts by delivering crucial information. Additionally, scientists from Imperial College London and Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, have designed the experimental 'FireDrone', which can handle temperatures of up to 200C for 10 minutes. Another company, the German-based Orora Tech, as of 2023 has two satellites in orbit packaged with infrared sensors that are capable of quickly detecting temperature and soil anomalies, with the ability to predict the likely growth and spread rate of a fire in comparison to others. The company has stated that it will be capable of scanning the earth 48 times per day by 2026. [159]

Artificial intelligence

Between 2022–2023, wildfires throughout North America prompted an uptake in the delivery and design of various technologies using artificial intelligence for early detection, prevention, and prediction of wildfires. [160] [161] [162]

Suppression

A Russian firefighter extinguishing a wildfire RIAN archive 733844 Forest fires ravaging near Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant.jpg
A Russian firefighter extinguishing a wildfire

Wildfire suppression depends on the technologies available in the area in which the wildfire occurs. In less developed nations the techniques used can be as simple as throwing sand or beating the fire with sticks or palm fronds. [163] In more advanced nations, the suppression methods vary due to increased technological capacity. Silver iodide can be used to encourage snow fall, [164] while fire retardants and water can be dropped onto fires by unmanned aerial vehicles, planes, and helicopters. [165] [166] Complete fire suppression is no longer an expectation, but the majority of wildfires are often extinguished before they grow out of control. While more than 99% of the 10,000 new wildfires each year are contained, escaped wildfires under extreme weather conditions are difficult to suppress without a change in the weather. Wildfires in Canada and the US burn an average of 54,500 square kilometers (13,000,000 acres) per year. [167] [168]

Above all, fighting wildfires can become deadly. A wildfire's burning front may also change direction unexpectedly and jump across fire breaks. Intense heat and smoke can lead to disorientation and loss of appreciation of the direction of the fire, which can make fires particularly dangerous. For example, during the 1949 Mann Gulch fire in Montana, United States, thirteen smokejumpers died when they lost their communication links, became disoriented, and were overtaken by the fire. [169] In the Australian February 2009 Victorian bushfires, at least 173 people died and over 2,029 homes and 3,500 structures were lost when they became engulfed by wildfire. [170]

Costs of wildfire suppression

The suppression of wild fires takes up a large amount of a country's gross domestic product which directly affects the country's economy. [171] While costs vary wildly from year to year, depending on the severity of each fire season, in the United States, local, state, federal and tribal agencies collectively spend tens of billions of dollars annually to suppress wildfires. In the United States, it was reported that approximately $6 billion was spent between 2004–2008 to suppress wildfires in the country. [171] In California, the U.S. Forest Service spends about $200 million per year to suppress 98% of wildfires and up to $1 billion to suppress the other 2% of fires that escape initial attack and become large. [172]

Wildland firefighting safety

Wildland firefighter working a brush fire in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, US Wildland Firefighter.jpg
Wildland firefighter working a brush fire in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, US

Wildland fire fighters face several life-threatening hazards including heat stress, fatigue, smoke and dust, as well as the risk of other injuries such as burns, cuts and scrapes, animal bites, and even rhabdomyolysis. [173] [174] Between 2000 and 2016, more than 350 wildland firefighters died on-duty. [175]

Especially in hot weather conditions, fires present the risk of heat stress, which can entail feeling heat, fatigue, weakness, vertigo, headache, or nausea. Heat stress can progress into heat strain, which entails physiological changes such as increased heart rate and core body temperature. This can lead to heat-related illnesses, such as heat rash, cramps, exhaustion or heat stroke. Various factors can contribute to the risks posed by heat stress, including strenuous work, personal risk factors such as age and fitness, dehydration, sleep deprivation, and burdensome personal protective equipment. Rest, cool water, and occasional breaks are crucial to mitigating the effects of heat stress. [173]

Smoke, ash, and debris can also pose serious respiratory hazards for wildland firefighters. The smoke and dust from wildfires can contain gases such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and formaldehyde, as well as particulates such as ash and silica. To reduce smoke exposure, wildfire fighting crews should, whenever possible, rotate firefighters through areas of heavy smoke, avoid downwind firefighting, use equipment rather than people in holding areas, and minimize mop-up. Camps and command posts should also be located upwind of wildfires. Protective clothing and equipment can also help minimize exposure to smoke and ash. [173]

Firefighters are also at risk of cardiac events including strokes and heart attacks. Firefighters should maintain good physical fitness. Fitness programs, medical screening and examination programs which include stress tests can minimize the risks of firefighting cardiac problems. [173] Other injury hazards wildland firefighters face include slips, trips, falls, burns, scrapes, and cuts from tools and equipment, being struck by trees, vehicles, or other objects, plant hazards such as thorns and poison ivy, snake and animal bites, vehicle crashes, electrocution from power lines or lightning storms, and unstable building structures. [173]

Fire retardants

Fire retardants are used to slow wildfires by inhibiting combustion. They are aqueous solutions of ammonium phosphates and ammonium sulfates, as well as thickening agents. [176] The decision to apply retardant depends on the magnitude, location and intensity of the wildfire. In certain instances, fire retardant may also be applied as a precautionary fire defense measure. [177]

Typical fire retardants contain the same agents as fertilizers. Fire retardants may also affect water quality through leaching, eutrophication, or misapplication. Fire retardant's effects on drinking water remain inconclusive. [178] Dilution factors, including water body size, rainfall, and water flow rates lessen the concentration and potency of fire retardant. [177] Wildfire debris (ash and sediment) clog rivers and reservoirs increasing the risk for floods and erosion that ultimately slow and/or damage water treatment systems. [178] [179] There is continued concern of fire retardant effects on land, water, wildlife habitats, and watershed quality, additional research is needed. However, on the positive side, fire retardant (specifically its nitrogen and phosphorus components) has been shown to have a fertilizing effect on nutrient-deprived soils and thus creates a temporary increase in vegetation. [177]

Modeling

Fire Propagation Model Propagation model wildfire (English).svg
Fire Propagation Model
2003 Canberra bushfires, visible from Parliament House ACTbushfire03.jpg
2003 Canberra bushfires, visible from Parliament House

Wildfire modeling is concerned with numerical simulation of wildfires to comprehend and predict fire behavior. [180] [181] Wildfire modeling aims to aid wildfire suppression, increase the safety of firefighters and the public, and minimize damage. Wildfire modeling can also aid in protecting ecosystems, watersheds, and air quality.

Using computational science, wildfire modeling involves the statistical analysis of past fire events to predict spotting risks and front behavior. Various wildfire propagation models have been proposed in the past, including simple ellipses and egg- and fan-shaped models. Early attempts to determine wildfire behavior assumed terrain and vegetation uniformity. However, the exact behavior of a wildfire's front is dependent on a variety of factors, including wind speed and slope steepness. Modern growth models utilize a combination of past ellipsoidal descriptions and Huygens' Principle to simulate fire growth as a continuously expanding polygon. [182] [183] Extreme value theory may also be used to predict the size of large wildfires. However, large fires that exceed suppression capabilities are often regarded as statistical outliers in standard analyses, even though fire policies are more influenced by large wildfires than by small fires. [184]

Impacts on the natural environment

On the atmosphere

Wildfire smoke in atmosphere off the U.S. West Coast in 2020 Western fires 2020.jpg
Wildfire smoke in atmosphere off the U.S. West Coast in 2020

Most of Earth's weather and air pollution resides in the troposphere, the part of the atmosphere that extends from the surface of the planet to a height of about 10 kilometers (6 mi). The vertical lift of a severe thunderstorm or pyrocumulonimbus can be enhanced in the area of a large wildfire, which can propel smoke, soot (black carbon), and other particulate matter as high as the lower stratosphere. [185] Previously, prevailing scientific theory held that most particles in the stratosphere came from volcanoes, but smoke and other wildfire emissions have been detected from the lower stratosphere. [186] Pyrocumulus clouds can reach 6,100 meters (20,000 ft) over wildfires. [187] Satellite observation of smoke plumes from wildfires revealed that the plumes could be traced intact for distances exceeding 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi). [188] Computer-aided models such as CALPUFF may help predict the size and direction of wildfire-generated smoke plumes by using atmospheric dispersion modeling. [189]

Wildfires can affect local atmospheric pollution, [190] and release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. [191] Wildfire emissions contain fine particulate matter which can cause cardiovascular and respiratory problems. [192] Increased fire byproducts in the troposphere can increase ozone concentrations beyond safe levels. [193]

On ecosystems

Wildfires are common in climates that are sufficiently moist to allow the growth of vegetation but feature extended dry, hot periods. [194] Such places include the vegetated areas of Australia and Southeast Asia, the veld in southern Africa, the fynbos in the Western Cape of South Africa, the forested areas of the United States and Canada, and the Mediterranean Basin.

High-severity wildfire creates complex early seral forest habitat (also called “snag forest habitat”), which often has higher species richness and diversity than unburned old forest. [195] Plant and animal species in most types of North American forests evolved with fire, and many of these species depend on wildfires, and particularly high-severity fires, to reproduce and grow. Fire helps to return nutrients from plant matter back to the soil. The heat from fire is necessary to the germination of certain types of seeds, and the snags (dead trees) and early successional forests created by high-severity fire create habitat conditions that are beneficial to wildlife. [195] Early successional forests created by high-severity fire support some of the highest levels of native biodiversity found in temperate conifer forests. [196] [197] Post-fire logging has no ecological benefits and many negative impacts; the same is often true for post-fire seeding. [126] The exclusion of wildfires can contribute to vegetation regime shifts, such as woody plant encroachment. [198] [199]

Although some ecosystems rely on naturally occurring fires to regulate growth, some ecosystems suffer from too much fire, such as the chaparral in southern California and lower-elevation deserts in the American Southwest. The increased fire frequency in these ordinarily fire-dependent areas has upset natural cycles, damaged native plant communities, and encouraged the growth of non-native weeds. [200] [201] [202] [203] Invasive species, such as Lygodium microphyllum and Bromus tectorum , can grow rapidly in areas that were damaged by fires. Because they are highly flammable, they can increase the future risk of fire, creating a positive feedback loop that increases fire frequency and further alters native vegetation communities. [41] [114]

In the Amazon rainforest, drought, logging, cattle ranching practices, and slash-and-burn agriculture damage fire-resistant forests and promote the growth of flammable brush, creating a cycle that encourages more burning. [204] Fires in the rainforest threaten its collection of diverse species and produce large amounts of CO2. [205] Also, fires in the rainforest, along with drought and human involvement, could damage or destroy more than half of the Amazon rainforest by 2030. [206] Wildfires generate ash, reduce the availability of organic nutrients, and cause an increase in water runoff, eroding other nutrients and creating flash flood conditions. [35] [207] A 2003 wildfire in the North Yorkshire Moors burned off 2.5 square kilometers (600 acres) of heather and the underlying peat layers. Afterwards, wind erosion stripped the ash and the exposed soil, revealing archaeological remains dating to 10,000 BC. [208] Wildfires can also have an effect on climate change, increasing the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere and inhibiting vegetation growth, which affects overall carbon uptake by plants. [209]

On waterways

Debris and chemical runoff into waterways after wildfires can make drinking water sources unsafe. [210] Though it is challenging to quantify the impacts of wildfires on surface water quality, research suggests that the concentration of many pollutants increases post-fire. The impacts occur during active burning and up to years later. [211] Increases in nutrients and total suspended sediments can happen within a year while heavy metal concentrations may peak 1-2 years after a wildfire. [212]

Benzene is one of many chemicals that have been found in drinking water systems after wildfires. Benzene can permeate certain plastic pipes and thus require long times to be removed from the water distribution infrastructure. Researchers estimated that, in worst case scenarios, more than 286 days of constant flushing of a contaminated HDPE service line were needed to reduce benzene below safe drinking water limits. [213] [214] Temperature increases caused by fires, including wildfires, can cause plastic water pipes to generate toxic chemicals [215] such as benzene. [216]

On plant and animals

Ecological succession after a wildfire in a boreal pine forest next to Hara Bog, Lahemaa National Park, Estonia. The pictures were taken one and two years after the fire. Boreal pine forest after fire.JPG
Ecological succession after a wildfire in a boreal pine forest next to Hara Bog, Lahemaa National Park, Estonia. The pictures were taken one and two years after the fire.

Fire adaptations are traits of plants and animals that help them survive wildfire or to use resources created by wildfire. These traits can help plants and animals increase their survival rates during a fire and/or reproduce offspring after a fire. Both plants and animals have multiple strategies for surviving and reproducing after fire. Plants in wildfire-prone ecosystems often survive through adaptations to their local fire regime. Such adaptations include physical protection against heat, increased growth after a fire event, and flammable materials that encourage fire and may eliminate competition.

For example, plants of the genus Eucalyptus contain flammable oils that encourage fire and hard sclerophyll leaves to resist heat and drought, ensuring their dominance over less fire-tolerant species. [217] [218] Dense bark, shedding lower branches, and high water content in external structures may also protect trees from rising temperatures. [219] Fire-resistant seeds and reserve shoots that sprout after a fire encourage species preservation, as embodied by pioneer species. Smoke, charred wood, and heat can stimulate the germination of seeds in a process called serotiny . [220] Exposure to smoke from burning plants promotes germination in other types of plants by inducing the production of the orange butenolide. [221]
National map of groundwater and soil moisture in the United States. It shows the very low soil moisture associated with the 2011 fire season in Texas. USA Groundwater and Soil moisture Drought Map.jpg
National map of groundwater and soil moisture in the United States. It shows the very low soil moisture associated with the 2011 fire season in Texas.
Fire activity swifts creek 2007 edit.jpg
Smoke trail from a fire seen while looking towards Dargo from Swifts Creek, Victoria, Australia, 11 January 2007

Impacts on humans

Wildfire risk is the chance that a wildfire will start in or reach a particular area and the potential loss of human values if it does. Risk is dependent on variable factors such as human activities, weather patterns, availability of wildfire fuels, and the availability or lack of resources to suppress a fire. [222] [223] Wildfires have continually been a threat to human populations. However, human-induced geographic and climatic changes are exposing populations more frequently to wildfires and increasing wildfire risk. It is speculated that the increase in wildfires arises from a century of wildfire suppression coupled with the rapid expansion of human developments into fire-prone wildlands. [224] Wildfires are naturally occurring events that aid in promoting forest health. Global warming and climate changes are causing an increase in temperatures and more droughts nationwide which contributes to an increase in wildfire risk. [225] [226]

2009 California Wildfires at JPL - Pasadena, California.jpg
The 2009 Station Fire burns in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains above the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, near Pasadena, California

Airborne hazards

The most noticeable adverse effect of wildfires is the destruction of property. However, hazardous chemicals released also significantly impact human health. [227]

Wildfire smoke is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Other common components present in lower concentrations are carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acrolein, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and benzene. [228] Small airborne particulates (in solid form or liquid droplets) are also present in smoke and ash debris. 80–90% of wildfire smoke, by mass, is within the fine particle size class of 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller. [229]

Carbon dioxide in smoke poses a low health risk due to its low toxicity. Rather, carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter, particularly 2.5 µm in diameter and smaller, have been identified as the major health threats. [228] High levels of heavy metals, including lead, arsenic, cadmium, and copper were found in the ash debris following the 2007 Californian wildfires. A national clean-up campaign was organised in fear of the health effects from exposure. [230] In the devastating California Camp Fire (2018) that killed 85 people, lead levels increased by around 50 times in the hours following the fire at a site nearby (Chico). Zinc concentration also increased significantly in Modesto, 150 miles away. Heavy metals such as manganese and calcium were found in numerous California fires as well. [231] Other chemicals are considered to be significant hazards but are found in concentrations that are too low to cause detectable health effects.[ citation needed ]

The degree of wildfire smoke exposure to an individual is dependent on the length, severity, duration, and proximity of the fire. People are exposed directly to smoke via the respiratory tract through inhalation of air pollutants. Indirectly, communities are exposed to wildfire debris that can contaminate soil and water supplies.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the air quality index (AQI), a public resource that provides national air quality standard concentrations for common air pollutants. The public can use it to determine their exposure to hazardous air pollutants based on visibility range. [232]

Health effects

Animation of diaphragmatic breathing with the diaphragm shown in green Diaphragmatic breathing.gif
Animation of diaphragmatic breathing with the diaphragm shown in green

Wildfire smoke contains particulates that may have adverse effects upon the human respiratory system. Evidence of the health effects should be relayed to the public so that exposure may be limited. The evidence can also be used to influence policy to promote positive health outcomes. [233]

Inhalation of smoke from a wildfire can be a health hazard. [234] Wildfire smoke is composed of combustion products i.e. carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapor, particulate matter, organic chemicals, nitrogen oxides and other compounds. The principal health concern is the inhalation of particulate matter and carbon monoxide. [235]

Particulate matter (PM) is a type of air pollution made up of particles of dust and liquid droplets. They are characterized into three categories based on particle diameter: coarse PM, fine PM, and ultrafine PM. Coarse particles are between 2.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers, fine particles measure 0.1 to 2.5 micrometers, and ultrafine particle are less than 0.1 micrometer. lmpact on the body upon inhalation varies by size. Coarse PM is filtered by the upper airways and can accumulate and cause pulmonary inflammation. This can result in eye and sinus irritation as well as sore throat and coughing. [236] [237] Coarse PM is often composed of heavier and more toxic materials that lead to short-term effects with stronger impact. [237]

Smaller PM moves further into the respiratory system creating issues deep into the lungs and the bloodstream. [236] [237] In asthma patients, PM2.5 causes inflammation but also increases oxidative stress in the epithelial cells. These particulates also cause apoptosis and autophagy in lung epithelial cells. Both processes damage the cells and impact cell function. This damage impacts those with respiratory conditions such as asthma where the lung tissues and function are already compromised. [237] Particulates less than 0.1 micrometer are called ultrafine particle (UFP). It is a major component of wildfire smoke. [238] UFP can enter the bloodstream like PM2.5-0.1 however studies show that it works into the blood much quicker. The inflammation and epithelial damage done by UFP has also shown to be much more severe. [237] PM2.5 is of the largest concern in regards to wildfire. [233] This is particularly hazardous to the very young, elderly and those with chronic conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis and cardiovascular conditions. The illnesses most commonly associated with exposure to fine PM from wildfire smoke are bronchitis, exacerbation of asthma or COPD, and pneumonia. Symptoms of these complications include wheezing and shortness of breath and cardiovascular symptoms include chest pain, rapid heart rate and fatigue. [236]

Asthma exacerbation

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close association between air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma. [233]

An observational study of smoke exposure related to the 2007 San Diego wildfires revealed an increase both in healthcare utilization and respiratory diagnoses, especially asthma among the group sampled. [239] Projected climate scenarios of wildfire occurrences predict significant increases in respiratory conditions among young children. [239] PM triggers a series of biological processes including inflammatory immune response, oxidative stress, which are associated with harmful changes in allergic respiratory diseases. [240]

Although some studies demonstrated no significant acute changes in lung function among people with asthma related to PM from wildfires, a possible explanation for these counterintuitive findings is the increased use of quick-relief medications, such as inhalers, in response to elevated levels of smoke among those already diagnosed with asthma. [241]

There is consistent evidence between wildfire smoke and the exacerbation of asthma. [241]

Asthma is one of the most common chronic disease among children in the United States, affecting an estimated 6.2 million children. [242] Research on asthma risk focuses specifically on the risk of air pollution during the gestational period. Several pathophysiology processes are involved in this. Considerable airway development occurs during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters and continues until 3 years of age. [243] It is hypothesized that exposure to these toxins during this period could have consequential effects, as the epithelium of the lungs during this time could have increased permeability to toxins. Exposure to air pollution during parental and pre-natal stage could induce epigenetic changes which are responsible for the development of asthma. [244] Studies have found significant association between PM2.5, NO2 and development of asthma during childhood despite heterogeneity among studies. [245] Furthermore, maternal exposure to chronic stressors is most likely present in distressed communities, and as this can be correlated with childhood asthma, it may further explain links between early childhood exposure to air pollution, neighborhood poverty, and childhood risk. [246]

Carbon monoxide danger

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that can be found at the highest concentration at close proximity to a smoldering fire. Thus, it is a serious threat to the health of wildfire firefighters. CO in smoke can be inhaled into the lungs where it is absorbed into the bloodstream and reduces oxygen delivery to the body's vital organs. At high concentrations, it can cause headaches, weakness, dizziness, confusion, nausea, disorientation, visual impairment, coma, and even death. Even at lower concentrations, such as those found at wildfires, individuals with cardiovascular disease may experience chest pain and cardiac arrhythmia. [228] A recent study tracking the number and cause of wildfire firefighter deaths from 1990 to 2006 found that 21.9% of the deaths occurred from heart attacks. [247]

Another important and somewhat less obvious health effect of wildfires is psychiatric diseases and disorders. Both adults and children from various countries who were directly and indirectly affected by wildfires were found to demonstrate different mental conditions linked to their experience with the wildfires. These include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and phobias. [248] [249] [250] [251] [252]

Epidemiology

The Western US has seen an increase in both the frequency and intensity of wildfires over the last several decades. This has been attributed to the arid climate of there and the effects of global warming. An estimated 46 million people were exposed to wildfire smoke from 2004 to 2009 in the Western US. Evidence has demonstrated that wildfire smoke can increase levels of airborne particulate. [233]

The EPA has defined acceptable concentrations of PM in the air, through the National Ambient Air Quality Standards and monitoring of ambient air quality has been mandated. [253] Due to these monitoring programs and the incidence of several large wildfires near populated areas, epidemiological studies have been conducted and demonstrate an association between human health effects and an increase in fine particulate matter due to wildfire smoke.

An increase in PM smoke emitted from the Hayman fire in Colorado in June 2002, was associated with an increase in respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD. [254] Looking at the wildfires in Southern California in 2003, investigators have shown an increase in hospital admissions due to asthma symptoms while being exposed to peak concentrations of PM in smoke. [255] Another epidemiological study found a 7.2% (95% confidence interval: 0.25%, 15%) increase in risk of respiratory related hospital admissions during smoke wave days with high wildfire-specific particulate matter 2.5 compared to matched non-smoke-wave days. [233]

Children participating in the Children's Health Study were also found to have an increase in eye and respiratory symptoms, medication use and physician visits. [256] Mothers who were pregnant during the fires gave birth to babies with a slightly reduced average birth weight compared to those who were not exposed. Suggesting that pregnant women may also be at greater risk to adverse effects from wildfire. [257] Worldwide, it is estimated that 339,000 people die due to the effects of wildfire smoke each year. [258]

Besides the size of PM, their chemical composition should also be considered. Antecedent studies have demonstrated that the chemical composition of PM2.5 from wildfire smoke can yield different estimates of human health outcomes as compared to other sources of smoke such as solid fuels. [233]

Sediment off the Yucatan Peninsula Sediment off the Yucatan Peninsula.jpg
Sediment off the Yucatán Peninsula

Post-fire risks

Charred shrubland in suburban Sydney (2019-20 Australian bushfires). Prospect Hill bushfire.jpg
Charred shrubland in suburban Sydney (2019–20 Australian bushfires).

After a wildfire, hazards remain. Residents returning to their homes may be at risk from falling fire-weakened trees. Humans and pets may also be harmed by falling into ash pits. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) also reports that wildfires cause significant damage to electric systems, especially in dry regions. [259]

Chemically contaminated drinking water, at levels of hazardous waste concern, is a growing problem. In particular, hazardous waste scale chemical contamination of buried water systems was first discovered in the U.S. in 2017, [260] and has since been increasingly documented in Hawaii, Colorado, and Oregon after wildfires. [261] In 2021, Canadian authorities adapted their post-fire public safety investigation approaches in British Columbia to screen for this risk, but have not found it as of 2023. Another challenge is that private drinking wells and the plumbing within a building can also become chemically contaminated and unsafe. [262] Households experience a wide-variety of significant economic and health impacts related to this contaminated water. [263] Evidence-based guidance on how to inspect and test wildfire impacted wells [264] and building water systems was developed for the first time in 2020. [265] In Paradise, California, for example, [266] the 2018 Camp Fire caused more than $150 million dollars worth of damage. This required almost a year of time to decontaminate and repair the municipal drinking water system from wildfire damage. The source of this contamination was first proposed after the 2018 Camp Fire in California as originating from thermally degraded plastics in water systems, smoke and vapors entering depressurized plumbing, and contaminated water in buildings being sucked into the municipal water system. In 2020, it was first shown that thermal degradation of plastic drinking water materials was one potential contamination source. [267] In 2023, the second theory was confirmed where contamination could be sucked into pipes that lost water pressure. [268]

Other post-fire risks, can increase if other extreme weather follows. For example, wildfires make soil less able to absorb precipitation, so heavy rainfall can result in more severe flooding and damages like mud slides. [269] [270]

At-risk groups

Firefighters

Firefighters are at greatest risk for acute and chronic health effects resulting from wildfire smoke exposure. Due to firefighters' occupational duties, they are frequently exposed to hazardous chemicals at close proximity for longer periods of time. A case study on the exposure of wildfire smoke among wildland firefighters shows that firefighters are exposed to significant levels of carbon monoxide and respiratory irritants above OSHA-permissible exposure limits (PEL) and ACGIH threshold limit values (TLV). 5–10% are overexposed. [271]

Between 2001 and 2012, over 200 fatalities occurred among wildland firefighters. In addition to heat and chemical hazards, firefighters are also at risk for electrocution from power lines; injuries from equipment; slips, trips, and falls; injuries from vehicle rollovers; heat-related illness; insect bites and stings; stress; and rhabdomyolysis. [272]

Residents

Smoke from the 2020 California wildfires settles over San Francisco North Complex smoke in San Francisco - Bay Bridge and Financial District.jpg
Smoke from the 2020 California wildfires settles over San Francisco

Residents in communities surrounding wildfires are exposed to lower concentrations of chemicals, but they are at a greater risk for indirect exposure through water or soil contamination. Exposure to residents is greatly dependent on individual susceptibility. Vulnerable persons such as children (ages 0–4), the elderly (ages 65 and older), smokers, and pregnant women are at an increased risk due to their already compromised body systems, even when the exposures are present at low chemical concentrations and for relatively short exposure periods. [228] They are also at risk for future wildfires and may move away to areas they consider less risky. [273]

Wildfires affect large numbers of people in Western Canada and the United States. In California alone, more than 350,000 people live in towns and cities in "very high fire hazard severity zones". [274]

Direct risks to building residents in fire-prone areas can be moderated through design choices such as choosing fire-resistant vegetation, maintaining landscaping to avoid debris accumulation and to create firebreaks, and by selecting fire-retardant roofing materials. Potential compounding issues with poor air quality and heat during warmer months may be addressed with MERV 11 or higher outdoor air filtration in building ventilation systems, mechanical cooling, and a provision of a refuge area with additional air cleaning and cooling, if needed. [275]

History

Elk Bath, an award-winning photograph of elk avoiding a wildfire in Montana Deerfire high res.jpg
Elk Bath , an award-winning photograph of elk avoiding a wildfire in Montana

The first evidence of wildfires is fossils of the giant fungi Prototaxites preserved as charcoal, discovered in South Wales and Poland, dating to the Silurian period (about 430  million years ago). [276] Smoldering surface fires started to occur sometime before the Early Devonian period 405  million years ago. Low atmospheric oxygen during the Middle and Late Devonian was accompanied by a decrease in charcoal abundance. [277] [278] Additional charcoal evidence suggests that fires continued through the Carboniferous period. Later, the overall increase of atmospheric oxygen from 13% in the Late Devonian to 30–31% by the Late Permian was accompanied by a more widespread distribution of wildfires. [279] Later, a decrease in wildfire-related charcoal deposits from the late Permian to the Triassic periods is explained by a decrease in oxygen levels. [280]

Wildfires during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic periods followed patterns similar to fires that occur in modern times. Surface fires driven by dry seasons[ clarification needed ] are evident in Devonian and Carboniferous progymnosperm forests. Lepidodendron forests dating to the Carboniferous period have charred peaks, evidence of crown fires. In Jurassic gymnosperm forests, there is evidence of high frequency, light surface fires. [280] The increase of fire activity in the late Tertiary [281] is possibly due to the increase of C4-type grasses. As these grasses shifted to more mesic habitats, their high flammability increased fire frequency, promoting grasslands over woodlands. [282] However, fire-prone habitats may have contributed to the prominence of trees such as those of the genera Eucalyptus , Pinus and Sequoia , which have thick bark to withstand fires and employ pyriscence. [283] [284]

Human involvement

Aerial view of deliberate wildfires on the Khun Tan Range, Thailand. These fires are lit by local farmers every year to promote the growth of a certain mushroom. Burning mountains Thailand.JPG
Aerial view of deliberate wildfires on the Khun Tan Range, Thailand. These fires are lit by local farmers every year to promote the growth of a certain mushroom.

The human use of fire for agricultural and hunting purposes during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages altered pre-existing landscapes and fire regimes. Woodlands were gradually replaced by smaller vegetation that facilitated travel, hunting, seed-gathering and planting. [285] In recorded human history, minor allusions to wildfires were mentioned in the Bible and by classical writers such as Homer. However, while ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Roman writers were aware of fires, they were not very interested in the uncultivated lands where wildfires occurred. [286] [287] Wildfires were used in battles throughout human history as early thermal weapons. From the Middle Ages, accounts were written of occupational burning as well as customs and laws that governed the use of fire. In Germany, regular burning was documented in 1290 in the Odenwald and in 1344 in the Black Forest. [288] In the 14th century Sardinia, firebreaks were used for wildfire protection. In Spain during the 1550s, sheep husbandry was discouraged in certain provinces by Philip II due to the harmful effects of fires used in transhumance. [286] [287] As early as the 17th century, Native Americans were observed using fire for many purposes including cultivation, signaling, and warfare. Scottish botanist David Douglas noted the native use of fire for tobacco cultivation, to encourage deer into smaller areas for hunting purposes, and to improve foraging for honey and grasshoppers. Charcoal found in sedimentary deposits off the Pacific coast of Central America suggests that more burning occurred in the 50 years before the Spanish colonization of the Americas than after the colonization. [289] In the post-World War II Baltic region, socio-economic changes led more stringent air quality standards and bans on fires that eliminated traditional burning practices. [288] In the mid-19th century, explorers from HMS Beagle observed Australian Aborigines using fire for ground clearing, hunting, and regeneration of plant food in a method later named fire-stick farming. [290] Such careful use of fire has been employed for centuries in lands protected by Kakadu National Park to encourage biodiversity. [291]

Wildfires typically occur during periods of increased temperature and drought. An increase in fire-related debris flow in alluvial fans of northeastern Yellowstone National Park was linked to the period between AD 1050 and 1200, coinciding with the Medieval Warm Period. [292] However, human influence caused an increase in fire frequency. Dendrochronological fire scar data and charcoal layer data in Finland suggests that, while many fires occurred during severe drought conditions, an increase in the number of fires during 850 BC and 1660 AD can be attributed to human influence. [293] Charcoal evidence from the Americas suggested a general decrease in wildfires between 1 AD and 1750 compared to previous years. However, a period of increased fire frequency between 1750 and 1870 was suggested by charcoal data from North America and Asia, attributed to human population growth and influences such as land clearing practices. This period was followed by an overall decrease in burning in the 20th century, linked to the expansion of agriculture, increased livestock grazing, and fire prevention efforts. [294] A meta-analysis found that 17 times more land burned annually in California before 1800 compared to recent decades (1,800,000 hectares/year compared to 102,000 hectares/year). [295]

According to a paper published in the journal Science , the number of natural and human-caused fires decreased by 24.3% between 1998 and 2015. Researchers explain this as a transition from nomadism to settled lifestyle and intensification of agriculture that lead to a drop in the use of fire for land clearing. [296] [297]

Increases of certain tree species (i.e. conifers) over others (i.e. deciduous trees) can increase wildfire risk, especially if these trees are also planted in monocultures. [298] [299] Some invasive species, moved in by humans (i.e., for the pulp and paper industry) have in some cases also increased the intensity of wildfires. Examples include species such as Eucalyptus in California [300] [301] and gamba grass in Australia.

Society and culture

Wildfires have a place in many cultures. "To spread like wildfire" is a common idiom in English, meaning something that "quickly affects or becomes known by more and more people". [302]

Wildfire activity has been attributed as a major factor in the development of Ancient Greece. In modern Greece, as in many other regions, it is the most common natural disaster and figures prominently in the social and economic lives of its people. [303]

In 1937, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated a nationwide fire prevention campaign, highlighting the role of human carelessness in forest fires. Later posters of the program featured Uncle Sam, characters from the Disney movie Bambi , and the official mascot of the U.S. Forest Service, Smokey Bear. [304] The Smokey Bear fire prevention campaign has yielded one of the most popular characters in the United States; for many years there was a living Smokey Bear mascot, and it has been commemorated on postage stamps. [305]

There are also significant indirect or second-order societal impacts from wildfire, such as demands on utilities to prevent power transmission equipment from becoming ignition sources, and the cancelation or nonrenewal of homeowners insurance for residents living in wildfire-prone areas. [306]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fire</span> Rapid and hot oxidation of a material

Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. At a certain point in the combustion reaction, called the ignition point, flames are produced. The flame is the visible portion of the fire. Flames consist primarily of carbon dioxide, water vapor, oxygen and nitrogen. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma. Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity will be different.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Smoke</span> Mass of airborne particulates and gases

Smoke is a suspension of airborne particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires, but may also be used for pest control (fumigation), communication, defensive and offensive capabilities in the military, cooking, or smoking. It is used in rituals where incense, sage, or resin is burned to produce a smell for spiritual or magical purposes. It can also be a flavoring agent and preservative.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Firefighter</span> Rescuer trained to extinguish fires and save people

A firefighter is a first responder trained in firefighting, primarily to control and extinguish fires that threaten life and property, as well as to rescue persons from confinement or dangerous situations. Male firefighters are sometimes referred to as firemen.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indoor air quality</span> Air quality within and around buildings and structures

Indoor air quality (IAQ) is the air quality within buildings and structures. Poor indoor air quality due to indoor air pollution is known to affect the health, comfort, and well-being of building occupants. It has also been linked to sick building syndrome, reduced productivity, and impaired learning in schools. Common pollutants of indoor air include: secondhand tobacco smoke, air pollutants from indoor combustion, radon, molds and other allergens, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, legionella and other bacteria, asbestos fibers, carbon dioxide, ozone and particulates. Source control, filtration, and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Controlled burn</span> Technique to reduce potential fuel for wildfire through managed burning

A controlled or prescribed (Rx) burn is the practice of intentionally setting a fire to change the assemblage of vegetation and decaying material in a landscape. The purpose could be for forest management, ecological restoration, land clearing or wildfire fuel management. A controlled burn may also refer to the intentional burning of slash and fuels through burn piles. Controlled burns may also be referred to as hazard reduction burning, backfire, swailing or a burn-off. In industrialized countries, controlled burning regulations and permits are usually overseen by fire control authorities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fire ecology</span> Study of fire in ecosystems

Fire ecology is a scientific discipline concerned with the effects of fire on natural ecosystems. Many ecosystems, particularly prairie, savanna, chaparral and coniferous forests, have evolved with fire as an essential contributor to habitat vitality and renewal. Many plant species in fire-affected environments use fire to germinate, establish, or to reproduce. Wildfire suppression not only endangers these species, but also the animals that depend upon them.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fire retardant</span> Substance reducing flammability

A fire retardant is a substance that is used to slow down or stop the spread of fire or reduce its intensity. This is commonly accomplished by chemical reactions that reduce the flammability of fuels or delay their combustion. Fire retardants may also cool the fuel through physical action or endothermic chemical reactions. Fire retardants are available as powder, to be mixed with water, as fire-fighting foams and fire-retardant gels. Fire retardants are also available as coatings or sprays to be applied to an object.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wildfire suppression</span> Firefighting tactics used to suppress wildfires

Wildfire suppression is a range of firefighting tactics used to suppress wildfires. Firefighting efforts depend on many factors such as the available fuel, the local atmospheric conditions, the features of the terrain, and the size of the wildfire. Because of this wildfire suppression in wild land areas usually requires different techniques, equipment, and training from the more familiar structure fire fighting found in populated areas. Working in conjunction with specially designed aerial firefighting aircraft, fire engines, tools, firefighting foams, fire retardants, and using various firefighting techniques, wildfire-trained crews work to suppress flames, construct fire lines, and extinguish flames and areas of heat in order to protect resources and natural wilderness. Wildfire suppression also addresses the issues of the wildland–urban interface, where populated areas border with wild land areas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Climate change in California</span>

Climate change in California has resulted in higher than average temperatures, leading to increased occurrences of drought and wildfires. During the next few decades in California, climate change is likely to further reduce water availability, increase wildfire risk, decrease agricultural productivity, and threaten coastal ecosystems. The state will also be impacted economically due to the rising cost of providing water to its residents along with revenue and job loss in the agricultural sector. California has taken a number of steps to mitigate impacts of climate change in the state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dry thunderstorm</span> Thunderstorm where little to no precipitation reaches the ground

A dry thunderstorm is a thunderstorm that produces thunder and lightning, but where most of its precipitation evaporates before reaching the ground. Dry lightning refers to lightning strikes occurring in this situation. Both are so common in the American West that they are sometimes used interchangeably.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bushfires in Australia</span> Frequently occurring wildfire events

Bushfires in Australia are a widespread and regular occurrence that have contributed significantly to shaping the nature of the continent over millions of years. Eastern Australia is one of the most fire-prone regions of the world, and its predominant eucalyptus forests have evolved to thrive on the phenomenon of bushfire. However, the fires can cause significant property damage and loss of both human and animal life. Bushfires have killed approximately 800 people in Australia since 1851, and billions of animals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2004 Alaska wildfires</span>

The 2004 Alaska fire season was the worst wildfire season on record in the U.S. state of Alaska in terms of area burned. Though the 1989 fire season recorded more fires, nearly 1,000, the 2004 season burned more than 6,600,000 acres in just 701 fires. The largest of these fires was the Taylor Complex Fire. This fire consumed over 1,700,000 acres and was the deemed to be the largest fire in the United States from at least 1997 to 2019. Out of all 701 fires, 426 fires were started by humans and 215 by lightning.

The wildland–urban interface (WUI) is a zone of transition between wilderness and land developed by human activity – an area where a built environment meets or intermingles with a natural environment. Human settlements in the WUI are at a greater risk of catastrophic wildfire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Particulates</span> Microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earths atmosphere

Particulates or atmospheric particulate matter are microscopic particles of solid or liquid matter suspended in the air. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone. Sources of particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic. They have impacts on climate and precipitation that adversely affect human health, in ways additional to direct inhalation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deforestation and climate change</span> Relationship between deforestation and global warming

Deforestation is a primary contributor to climate change, and climate change affects the health of forests. Land use change, especially in the form of deforestation, is the second largest source of carbon dioxide emissions from human activities, after the burning of fossil fuels. Greenhouse gases are emitted from deforestation during the burning of forest biomass and decomposition of remaining plant material and soil carbon. Global models and national greenhouse gas inventories give similar results for deforestation emissions. As of 2019, deforestation is responsible for about 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation are accelerating.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wildfires in the United States</span> Wildfires that occur in the United States


Wildfires can happen in many places in the United States, especially during droughts, but are most common in the Western United States and Florida. They may be triggered naturally, most commonly by lightning, or by human activity like unextinguished smoking materials, faulty electrical equipment, overheating automobiles, or arson.

Sarah B. Henderson is a senior environmental health scientist at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control and a public health professor at the University of British Columbia.

Proforestation is the practice of protecting existing natural forests to foster continuous growth, carbon accumulation, and structural complexity. It is recognized as an important forest based strategy for addressing the global crises in climate and biodiversity. Forest restoration can be a strategy for climate change mitigation. Proforestation complements other forest-based solutions like afforestation, reforestation and improved forest management.

This article documents events, research findings, scientific and technological advances, and human actions to measure, predict, mitigate, and adapt to the effects of global warming and climate change—during the year 2020.

Particulate pollution is pollution of an environment that consists of particles suspended in some medium. There are three primary forms: atmospheric particulate matter, marine debris, and space debris. Some particles are released directly from a specific source, while others form in chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Particulate pollution can be derived from either natural sources or anthropogenic processes.

References

  1. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (Third ed.). Cambridge University Press. 2008. ISBN   978-0-521-85804-5. Archived from the original on 13 August 2009.
  2. "CIFFC Canadian Wildland Fire Management Glossary" (PDF). Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  3. "Forest fire videos – See how fire started on Earth". BBC Earth. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  4. "Drought, Tree Mortality, and Wildfire in Forests Adapted to Frequent Fire" (PDF). UC Berkeley College of Natural Resources. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  5. Flannigan, M.D.; B.D. Amiro; K.A. Logan; B.J. Stocks & B.M. Wotton (2005). "Forest Fires and Climate Change in the 21st century" (PDF). Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 11 (4): 847–859. doi:10.1007/s11027-005-9020-7. S2CID   2757472. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  6. Graham, et al., 12, 36
  7. National Wildfire Coordinating Group Communicator's Guide For Wildland Fire Management, 4–6.
  8. "National Wildfire Coordinating Group Fireline Handbook, Appendix B: Fire Behavior" (PDF). National Wildfire Coordinating Group. April 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
  9. Trigo, Ricardo M.; Provenzale, Antonello; Llasat, Maria Carmen; AghaKouchak, Amir; Hardenberg, Jost von; Turco, Marco (6 March 2017). "On the key role of droughts in the dynamics of summer fires in Mediterranean Europe". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 81. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7...81T. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00116-9. ISSN   2045-2322. PMC   5427854 . PMID   28250442.
  10. Westerling, A. L.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Cayan, D. R.; Swetnam, T. W. (18 August 2006). "Warming and Earlier Spring Increase Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity". Science. 313 (5789): 940–943. Bibcode:2006Sci...313..940W. doi: 10.1126/science.1128834 . ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   16825536.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Parmesan, Camille; Morecroft, Mike; Trisurat, Yongyut; et al. "Chapter 2: Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems and their Services". Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  12. Heidari, Hadi; Arabi, Mazdak; Warziniack, Travis (August 2021). "Effects of Climate Change on Natural-Caused Fire Activity in Western U.S. National Forests". Atmosphere. 12 (8): 981. Bibcode:2021Atmos..12..981H. doi: 10.3390/atmos12080981 .
  13. DellaSalla, Dominick A.; Hanson, Chad T. (2015). The Ecological Importance of Mixed-Severity Fires. Elsevier. ISBN   978-0-12-802749-3.
  14. Hutto, Richard L. (1 December 2008). "The Ecological Importance of Severe Wildfires: Some Like It Hot". Ecological Applications. 18 (8): 1827–1834. Bibcode:2008EcoAp..18.1827H. doi: 10.1890/08-0895.1 . ISSN   1939-5582. PMID   19263880.
  15. Stephen J. Pyne. "How Plants Use Fire (And Are Used By It)". NOVA online. Archived from the original on 8 August 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  16. "Drought, Tree Mortality, and Wildfire in Forests Adapted to Frequent Fire" (PDF). UC Berkeley College of Natural Resources. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  17. "Main Types of Disasters and Associated Trends". lao.ca.gov. Legislative Analyst's Office. 10 January 2019.
  18. Machemer, Theresa (9 July 2020). "The Far-Reaching Consequences of Siberia's Climate-Change-Driven Wildfires". Smithsonian Magazine.
  19. Australia, Government Geoscience (25 July 2017). "Bushfire". www.ga.gov.au.
  20. "B.C. wildfires: State of emergency declared in Kelowna, evacuations underway | Globalnews.ca". Global News. Retrieved 18 August 2023.
  21. "Wildfire Prevention Strategies" (PDF). National Wildfire Coordinating Group. March 1998. p. 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
  22. Scott, A (2000). "The Pre-Quaternary history of fire". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 164 (1–4): 281–329. Bibcode:2000PPP...164..281S. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00192-9.
  23. Karki, 7, 11–19.
  24. Boxall, Bettina (5 January 2020). "Human-caused ignitions spark California's worst wildfires but get little state focus". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  25. Liu, Zhihua; Yang, Jian; Chang, Yu; Weisberg, Peter J.; He, Hong S. (June 2012). "Spatial patterns and drivers of fire occurrence and its future trend under climate change in a boreal forest of Northeast China". Global Change Biology. 18 (6): 2041–2056. Bibcode:2012GCBio..18.2041L. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02649.x. ISSN   1354-1013. S2CID   26410408.
  26. de Rigo, Daniele; Libertà, Giorgio; Houston Durrant, Tracy; Artés Vivancos, Tomàs; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús (2017). Forest fire danger extremes in Europe under climate change: variability and uncertainty. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union. p. 71. doi:10.2760/13180. ISBN   978-92-79-77046-3.
  27. Krock, Lexi (June 2002). "The World on Fire". NOVA online – Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
  28. Balch, Jennifer K.; Bradley, Bethany A.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Nagy, R. Chelsea; Fusco, Emily J.; Mahood, Adam L. (2017). "Human-started wildfires expand the fire niche across the United States". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (11): 2946–2951. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114.2946B. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1617394114 . ISSN   1091-6490. PMC   5358354 . PMID   28242690.
  29. "Wildfire Investigation". National Interagency Fire Center.
  30. "How Rupert Murdoch Is Influencing Australia's Bushfire Debate". The New York Times. 8 January 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2023__"An independent study found online bots and trolls exaggerating the role of arson in the fires, at the same time that an article in [Murdoch-owned] The Australian making similar assertions became the most popular offering on the newspaper’s website,” the New York Times writes. “It’s all part of what critics see as a relentless effort led by the powerful media outlet to do what it has also done in the United States and Britain—shift blame to the left, protect conservative leaders, and divert attention from climate change.”{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  31. Kaminski, Isabella (12 June 2023). "Did climate change cause Canada's wildfires?". BBC News . Retrieved 18 June 2023.
  32. "Who's fuelling the wild theories about Canada's wildfires". CBC News. 15 June 2023. Retrieved 17 June 2023__When many fires started at once in Quebec then people took that as evidence of arson, and their claims got millions of views online. These claims were debunked by meteorologist Wagstaffe who explained that a series of lightning strikes can cause many smouldering hotspots underneath rain-moistened surface fuels; and then when those surface fuels are all dried by the daytime wind simultaneously, then they are all ignited into full blown fires simultaneously. Wagstaffe also corrected the idea that controlled burns are state-sponsored arson.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  33. "How Arson factors into California's Wildfires". High Country News. 15 October 2021.
  34. Krajick, Kevin (May 2005). "Fire in the hole". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
  35. 1 2 Graham, et al., iv.
  36. Graham, et al., 9, 13
  37. Rincon, Paul (9 March 2005). "Asian peat fires add to warming". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) News. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
  38. Hamers, Laurel (29 July 2019). "When bogs burn, the environment takes a hit". Science News. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  39. Graham, et al ., iv, 10, 14
  40. C., Scott, Andrew (2014). Fire on earth : an introduction. Bowman, D. M. J. S.; Bond, William J.; Pyne, Stephen J.; Alexander, Martin E. Chichester, West Sussex. ISBN   978-1-119-95357-9. OCLC   854761793.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  41. 1 2 "Global Fire Initiative: Fire and Invasives". The Nature Conservancy. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
  42. Graham, et al., iv, 8, 11, 15.
  43. Butler, Rhett (19 June 2008). "Global Commodities Boom Fuels New Assault on Amazon". Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  44. "National Wildfire Coordinating Group Fireline Handbook, Appendix B: Fire Behavior" (PDF). National Wildfire Coordinating Group. April 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
  45. "The Science of Wildland fire". National Interagency Fire Center. Archived from the original on 5 November 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  46. Graham, et al., 12.
  47. 1 2 National Wildfire Coordinating Group Communicator's Guide For Wildland Fire Management, 3.
  48. "Ashes cover areas hit by Southern Calif. fires". NBC News. Associated Press. 15 November 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008.
  49. "Influence of Forest Structure on Wildfire Behavior and the Severity of Its Effects" (PDF). US Forest Service. November 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
  50. "Prepare for a Wildfire". Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Archived from the original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  51. Glossary of Wildland Fire Terminology, 74.
  52. de Sousa Costa and Sandberg, 229–230.
  53. "Archimedes Death Ray: Idea Feasibility Testing". Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). October 2005. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
  54. "Satellites are tracing Europe's forest fire scars". European Space Agency. 27 July 2004. Archived from the original on 10 November 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  55. Graham, et al., 10–11.
  56. "Protecting Your Home From Wildfire Damage" (PDF). Florida Alliance for Safe Homes (FLASH). p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
  57. Billing, 5–6
  58. Graham, et al., 12
  59. Shea, Neil (July 2008). "Under Fire". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2008.
  60. Graham, et al., 16.
  61. Graham, et al., 9, 16.
  62. "Volume 1: The Kilmore East Fire". 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission. Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission, Australia. July 2010. ISBN   978-0-9807408-2-0. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  63. National Wildfire Coordinating Group Communicator's Guide For Wildland Fire Management, 4.
  64. Graham, et al., 16–17.
  65. Olson, et al., 2
  66. "The New Generation Fire Shelter" (PDF). National Wildfire Coordinating Group. March 2003. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
  67. Glossary of Wildland Fire Terminology, 69.
  68. de Souza Costa and Sandberg, 228
  69. National Wildfire Coordinating Group Communicator's Guide For Wildland Fire Management, 5.
  70. San-Miguel-Ayanz, et al., 364.
  71. Glossary of Wildland Fire Terminology, 73.
  72. 1 2 Haddad, Mohammed; Hussein, Mohammed (19 August 2021). "Mapping wildfires around the world". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Data source: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. Wildfire disasters are those claiming at least 10 lives or affecting over 100 people.
  73. "Fire Statistics". CIFFC.net. Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre (CIFFC). October 2023. Archived from the original on 25 October 2023. Retrieved 25 October 2023. ● Cited by Livingston, Ian (24 October 2023). "Earth's climate shatters heat records. These 5 charts show how". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 October 2023.
  74. "Chronological List of U.S. Billion Dollar Events". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite and Information Service. Archived from the original on 15 September 2001. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
  75. McKenzie, et al., 893
  76. Provenzale, Antonello; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Jerez, Sonia; Bedia, Joaquín; Rosa-Cánovas, Juan José; Turco, Marco (2 October 2018). "Exacerbated fires in Mediterranean Europe due to anthropogenic warming projected with non-stationary climate-fire models". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 3821. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.3821T. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06358-z. ISSN   2041-1723. PMC   6168540 . PMID   30279564.
  77. Graham, et al., 2
  78. Hartmann, Henrik; Bastos, Ana; Das, Adrian J.; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane; Hammond, William M.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; McDowell, Nate G.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Pugh, Thomas A.M.; Ruthrof, Katinka X.; Allen, Craig D. (20 May 2022). "Climate Change Risks to Global Forest Health: Emergence of Unexpected Events of Elevated Tree Mortality Worldwide". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 73 (1): 673–702. doi:10.1146/annurev-arplant-102820-012804. ISSN   1543-5008. OSTI   1876701. PMID   35231182. S2CID   247188778.
  79. Brando, Paulo M.; Paolucci, Lucas; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Ordway, Elsa M.; Hartmann, Henrik; Cattau, Megan E.; Rattis, Ludmila; Medjibe, Vincent; Coe, Michael T.; Balch, Jennifer (30 May 2019). "Droughts, Wildfires, and Forest Carbon Cycling: A Pantropical Synthesis". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 47 (1): 555–581. Bibcode:2019AREPS..47..555B. doi: 10.1146/annurev-earth-082517-010235 . ISSN   0084-6597. S2CID   189975585.
  80. Anuprash (28 January 2022). "What Causes Wildfires? Understand The Science Here". TechiWiki. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  81. "Fire Terminology". Fs.fed.us. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  82. Williams, A. Park; Abatzoglou, John T.; Gershunov, Alexander; Guzman-Morales, Janin; Bishop, Daniel A.; Balch, Jennifer K.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. (2019). "Observed Impacts of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Wildfire in California". Earth's Future. 7 (8): 892–910. Bibcode:2019EaFut...7..892W. doi: 10.1029/2019EF001210 . ISSN   2328-4277.
  83. Cheney, N. P. (1 January 1995). "Bushfires – An Integral Part of Australia's Environment". 1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 1995. Australian Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved 14 January 2020. In 1974–75 [...] in this season fires burnt over 117 million hectares or 15 per cent of the total land area of this continent.
  84. "New South Wales, December 1974 Bushfire – New South Wales". Australian Institute for Disaster Resilience. Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020. Approximately 15 per cent of Australia's physical land mass sustained extensive fire damage. This equates to roughly around 117 million ha.
  85. Cole, Brendan (7 January 2020). "What Caused the Wildfires in Australia? Amid Worst Blazes for a Decade, 24 People are Charged with Arson". Newsweek . Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020. In 1974, 117 million hectares of land was burnt in wildfires in central Australia.
  86. As Smoke From Bushfires Chokes Sydney, Australian Prime Minister Dodges on Climate Change Archived 2 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine , Time 21 November 2019.
  87. The facts about bushfires and climate change Archived 16 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine , Climate Council, 13 November 2019
  88. Irfan, Umair (21 August 2019). "Wildfires are burning around the world. The most alarming is in the Amazon rainforest". Vox. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  89. Benson, Michael (28 December 2020). "Opinion: Watching Earth Burn – For 10 days in September, satellites in orbit sent tragic evidence of climate change's destructive power". The New York Times.
  90. Vargas, Ana Paula (10 December 2020). "Resisting Another Record-Breaking Year of Deforestation and Destruction in the Brazilian Amazon – While Brazilian authorities deny the impact of the criminal arson, Amazon Watch and our allies exposed and challenged the growing fires and deforestation in the Amazon". Amazon Watch.
  91. Colón, Marcos; de Camões Lima Boaventura, Luís; Jennings, Erik (1 June 2020). "Offensive against the Amazon: An incontrollable pandemic (commentary)".
  92. Dom Phillips (2 January 2019). "Jair Bolsonaro launches assault on Amazon rainforest protections – Executive order transfers regulation and creation of indigenous reserves to agriculture ministry controlled by agribusiness lobby". The Guardian .
  93. "Wildfires: How are they linked to climate change?". BBC News. 11 August 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  94. Spracklen, Dominick V.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Park, Rokjin J.; Yevich, Rosemarie; Westerling, Anthony L.; Jaffe, Dan A. (2007). "Wildfires drive interannual variability of organic carbon aerosol in the western U.S. in summer". Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (16). Bibcode:2007GeoRL..3416816S. doi: 10.1029/2007GL030037 . ISSN   1944-8007. S2CID   5642896.
  95. Wofsy, S. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Blake, D. R.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Barrick, J. A.; Harriss, R. C.; Talbot, R. W.; Shipham, M. A.; Browell, E.V.; Jacob, D.J.; Logan, J.A. (1992). "Atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic and subarctic: Influence of natural fires, industrial emissions, and stratospheric inputs". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 97 (D15): 16731–16746. Bibcode:1992JGR....9716731W. doi:10.1029/92JD00622. ISSN   2156-2202. S2CID   53612820. Archived from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  96. "The Impact of Wildfires on Climate and Air Quality" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  97. US EPA, ORD (30 March 2017). "Wildland Fire Research: Health Effects Research". US EPA. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  98. Laura Millan Lombrana; Hayley Warren; Akshat Rathi (10 February 2020). "Measuring the Carbon-Dioxide Cost of Last Year's Worldwide Wildfires". Bloomberg.
  99. Boyle, Louise (27 August 2020). "Global fires are up 13% from 2019's record-breaking numbers". The Independent. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  100. Alberts, Elizabeth Claire (18 September 2020). "'Off the chart': CO2 from California fires dwarf state's fossil fuel emissions". Mongabay.
  101. Page, Susan E.; Florian Siegert; John O. Rieley; Hans-Dieter V. Boehm; Adi Jaya & Suwido Limin (11 July 2002). "The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during 1997". Nature. 420 (6911): 61–65. Bibcode:2002Natur.420...61P. doi:10.1038/nature01131. PMID   12422213. S2CID   4379529.
  102. Tacconi, Luca (February 2003). "Fires in Indonesia: Causes, Costs, and Policy Implications (CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 38)" (PDF). Occasional Paper. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research. ISSN   0854-9818. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  103. Bassetti, Francesco (31 August 2019). "The Effects of Wildfires on a Zero Carbon Future". Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  104. Rana, Md. Sohel; Guzman, Marcelo I. (22 October 2020). "Oxidation of Phenolic Aldehydes by Ozone and Hydroxyl Radicals at the Air–Water Interface". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 124 (42): 8822–8833. Bibcode:2020JPCA..124.8822R. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpca.0c05944 . ISSN   1089-5639. PMID   32931271. S2CID   221747201.
  105. "Wildfire Smoke Toxicity Increases Over Time, Poses Public Health Risk, According to UK Chemist". UKNow. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  106. "As smoke from forest fires ages in the atmosphere its toxicity increases". phys.org. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  107. Baumgardner, D.; et al. (2003). "Warming of the Arctic lower stratosphere by light absorbing particles". American Geophysical Union fall meeting. San Francisco, California.
  108. Mufson, Steven. "What you need to know about the Amazon rainforest fires". Washington post. Archived from the original on 27 August 2019.
  109. David, Aaron T.; Asarian, J. Eli; Lake, Frank K. (2018). "Wildfire smoke cools summer river and stream water temperatures". Water Resources Research. 54 (10): 7273–7290. Bibcode:2018WRR....54.7273D. doi: 10.1029/2018WR022964 . S2CID   134898973.
  110. "How Extreme Weather can Cool the Planet". National Geographic. 6 August 2021. Archived from the original on 6 August 2021.
  111. Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Portmann, Robert W.; Liu, Shang; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Peng, Yifeng; Yu, Pengfei (2022). "Significant Effective Radiative Forcing of Stratospheric Wildfire Smoke". Geophysical Research Letters. 49 (17). Bibcode:2022GeoRL..4900175L. doi: 10.1029/2022GL100175 . S2CID   252148515.
  112. Biello, David (8 June 2007). "Impure as the Driven Snow". Scientific American. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  113. Karki, 6.
  114. 1 2 van Wagtendonk (2007), 14.
  115. van Wagtendonk (1996), 1156.
  116. San-Miguel-Ayanz, et al., 361.
  117. "Backburn". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  118. "UK: The Role of Fire in the Ecology of Heathland in Southern Britain". International Forest Fire News. 18: 80–81. January 1998. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  119. "Prescribed Fires". SmokeyBear.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  120. "Fire Management: Wildland Fire Use". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  121. "International Experts Study Ways to Fight Wildfires". Voice of America (VOA) News. 24 June 2009. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  122. Interagency Strategy for the Implementation of the Federal Wildland Fire Policy, entire text
  123. National Wildfire Coordinating Group Communicator's Guide For Wildland Fire Management, entire text
  124. Fire. The Australian Experience, 5–6.
  125. Graham, et al., 15.
  126. 1 2 Noss, Reed F.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Baker, William L.; Schoennagel, Tania; Moyle, Peter B. (1 November 2006). "Managing fire-prone forests in the western United States". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 4 (9): 481–487. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2006)4[481:MFFITW]2.0.CO;2. ISSN   1540-9309.
  127. Lydersen, Jamie M.; North, Malcolm P.; Collins, Brandon M. (15 September 2014). "Severity of an uncharacteristically large wildfire, the Rim Fire, in forests with relatively restored frequent fire regimes". Forest Ecology and Management. 328: 326–334. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.06.005.
  128. "California's Fire Hazard Severity Zone Update and Building Standards Revision" (PDF). CAL FIRE. May 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  129. "California Senate Bill No. 1595, Chapter 366" (PDF). State of California. 27 September 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  130. Karki, 14.
  131. Manning, Richard (1 December 2007). "Our Trial by Fire". onearth.org. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
  132. "Extreme Events: Wild & Forest Fire". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
  133. San-Miguel-Ayanz, et al., 362.
  134. 1 2 "An Integration of Remote Sensing, GIS, and Information Distribution for Wildfire Detection and Management" (PDF). Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 64 (10): 977–985. October 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  135. "Radio communication keeps rangers in touch". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) Digital Archives. 21 August 1957. Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  136. "Wildfire Detection and Control". Alabama Forestry Commission. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  137. Fok, Chien-Liang; Roman, Gruia-Catalin & Lu, Chenyang (29 November 2004). "Mobile Agent Middleware for Sensor Networks: An Application Case Study". Washington University in St. Louis. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 January 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  138. Chaczko, Z.; Ahmad, F. (July 2005). "Wireless Sensor Network Based System for Fire Endangered Areas". Third International Conference on Information Technology and Applications (ICITA'05). Vol. 2. pp. 203–207. doi:10.1109/ICITA.2005.313. ISBN   978-0-7695-2316-3. S2CID   14472324.
  139. "Wireless Weather Sensor Networks for Fire Management". University of Montana – Missoula. Archived from the original on 4 April 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
  140. Solobera, Javier (9 April 2010). "Detecting Forest Fires using Wireless Sensor Networks with Waspmote". Libelium Comunicaciones Distribuidas S.L. Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  141. Thomson, Elizabeth A. (23 September 2008). "Preventing forest fires with tree power". Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) News. Archived from the original on 29 December 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  142. "Evaluation of three wildfire smoke detection systems", 6
  143. "SDSU Tests New Wildfire-Detection Technology". San Diego, CA: San Diego State University. 23 June 2005. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  144. San-Miguel-Ayanz, et al., 366–369, 373–375.
  145. burgos, matthew (1 August 2023). "is artificial intelligence the future of wildfire prevention?". designboom | architecture & design magazine. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  146. "Devastating wildfires spur new detection systems". BBC News. 3 August 2023. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  147. Rochester Institute of Technology (4 October 2003). "New Wildfire-detection Research Will Pinpoint Small Fires From 10,000 feet". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  148. "Airborne campaign tests new instrumentation for wildfire detection". European Space Agency. 11 October 2006. Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  149. "World fire maps now available online in near-real time". European Space Agency. 24 May 2006. Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  150. "Earth from Space: California's 'Esperanza' fire". European Space Agency. 11 March 2006. Archived from the original on 10 November 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  151. "Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite and Information Service. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  152. Ramachandran, Chandrasekar; Misra, Sudip & Obaidat, Mohammad S. (9 June 2008). "A probabilistic zonal approach for swarm-inspired wildfire detection using sensor networks". Int. J. Commun. Syst. 21 (10): 1047–1073. doi:10.1002/dac.937. S2CID   30988736. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017.
  153. Miller, Jerry; Borne, Kirk; Thomas, Brian; Huang Zhenping & Chi, Yuechen. "Automated Wildfire Detection Through Artificial Neural Networks" (PDF). NASA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
  154. Zhang, Junguo; Li, Wenbin; Han, Ning & Kan, Jiangming (September 2008). "Forest fire detection system based on a ZigBee wireless sensor network". Frontiers of Forestry in China. 3 (3): 369–374. doi:10.1007/s11461-008-0054-3. S2CID   76650011.
  155. Vizzuality. "Forest Fires & Climate Change | Effects of Deforestation on Wildfires | GFW". www.globalforestwatch.org. Retrieved 25 July 2023.
  156. Earth Science Data Systems, NASA (28 January 2016). "VIIRS I-Band 375 m Active Fire Data". Earthdata. Retrieved 5 July 2023.
  157. "NASA-FIRMS". firms.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov. Retrieved 25 July 2023.
  158. "NASA VIIRS Land Products". viirsland.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 25 July 2023.
  159. "Devastating wildfires spur new detection systems". BBC News. 3 August 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  160. "Faster satellite detection of extreme wildfires eminent". Mirage News. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  161. "Wildfire startup puts AI-powered eyes in the forest to watch for new blazes and provide rapid alerts". 9 August 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  162. "Transport Canada SFOC Granted to Support Wildfire Suppression" . Retrieved 15 August 2023.
  163. Karki, 16
  164. "China Makes Snow to Extinguish Forest Fire". FOXNews.com. 18 May 2006. Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
  165. Ambrosia, Vincent G. (2003). "Disaster Management Applications – Fire" (PDF). NASA-Ames Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009.
  166. Plucinski, et al., 6
  167. "Fighting fire in the forest". CBS News. 17 June 2009. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  168. "Climate of 2008 Wildfire Season Summary". National Climatic Data Center. 11 December 2008. Archived from the original on 23 October 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
  169. Rothermel, Richard C. (May 1993). "General Technical Report INT-GTR-299 – Mann Gulch Fire: A Race That Couldn't Be Won". United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  170. "Victorian Bushfires". Parliament of New South Wales. New South Wales Government. 13 March 2009. Archived from the original on 27 February 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
  171. 1 2 Ellison, A; Evers, C.; Moseley, C.; Nielsen-Pincus, M. (2012). "Forest service spending on large wildfires in the West" (PDF). Ecosystem Workforce Program. 41: 1–16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2020.
  172. "Region 5 – Land & Resource Management". US Forest Service. Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  173. 1 2 3 4 5 Campbell, Corey; Liz Dalsey (13 July 2012). "Wildland Fire Fighting Safety and Health". NIOSH Science Blog. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  174. "Wildland Fire Fighting: Hot Tips to Stay Safe and Healthy" (PDF). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  175. "CDC – Fighting Wildfires – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018. Between 2000–2016, based on data compiled in the NIOSH Wildland Fire Fighter On-Duty Death Surveillance System from three data sources, over 350 on-duty WFF fatalities occurred.
  176. A. Agueda; E. Pastor; E. Planas (2008). "Different scales for studying the effectiveness of long-term forest fire retardants". Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 24 (6): 782–796. doi:10.1016/j.pecs.2008.06.001.
  177. 1 2 3 Magill, B. "Officials: Fire slurry poses little threat". Coloradoan.com.
  178. 1 2 Boerner, C.; Coday B.; Noble, J.; Roa, P.; Roux V.; Rucker K.; Wing, A. (2012). "Impact of wildfire in Clear Creek Watershed of the city of Golden's drinking water supply" (PDF). Colorado School of Mines. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012.
  179. Eichenseher, T. (2012). "Colorado Wildfires Threaten Water Supplies". National Geographic Daily News. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012.
  180. "Prometheus". Tymstra, C.; Bryce, R.W.; Wotton, B.M.; Armitage, O.B. 2009. Development and structure of Prometheus: the Canadian wildland fire growth simulation model. Inf. Rep. NOR-X-417. Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Serv., North. For. Cent., Edmonton, AB. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  181. "FARSITE". FireModels.org – Fire Behavior and Danger Software, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  182. G.D. Richards, "An Elliptical Growth Model of Forest Fire Fronts and Its Numerical Solution", Int. J. Numer. Meth. Eng.. 30:1163–1179, 1990.
  183. Finney, 1–3.
  184. Alvarado, et al., 66–68
  185. Wang, P.K. (2003). The physical mechanism of injecting biomass burning materials into the stratosphere during fire-induced thunderstorms. San Francisco, California: American Geophysical Union fall meeting.
  186. Fromm, M.; Stocks, B.; Servranckx, R.; Lindsey, D. Smoke in the Stratosphere: What Wildfires have Taught Us About Nuclear Winter; abstract #U14A-04. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2006. Bibcode:2006AGUFM.U14A..04F.{{cite conference}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  187. Graham, et al., 17
  188. John R. Scala; et al. "Meteorological Conditions Associated with the Rapid Transport of Canadian Wildfire Products into the Northeast during 5–8 July 2002" (PDF). American Meteorological Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
  189. Breyfogle, Steve; Sue A., Ferguson (December 1996). "User Assessment of Smoke-Dispersion Models for Wildland Biomass Burning" (PDF). US Forest Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  190. Bravo, A.H.; E. R. Sosa; A. P. Sánchez; P. M. Jaimes & R. M. I. Saavedra (2002). "Impact of wildfires on the air quality of Mexico City, 1992–1999". Environmental Pollution. 117 (2): 243–253. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00277-9. PMID   11924549.
  191. Dore, S.; Kolb, T. E.; Montes-Helu, M.; Eckert, S. E.; Sullivan, B. W.; Hungate, B. A.; Kaye, J. P.; Hart, S. C.; Koch, G. W. (1 April 2010). "Carbon and water fluxes from ponderosa pine forests disturbed by wildfire and thinning". Ecological Applications. 20 (3): 663–683. Bibcode:2010EcoAp..20..663D. doi:10.1890/09-0934.1. ISSN   1939-5582. PMID   20437955.
  192. Douglass, R. (2008). "Quantification of the health impacts associated with fine particulate matter due to wildfires. MS Thesis" (PDF). Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences of Duke University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  193. National Center for Atmospheric Research (13 October 2008). "Wildfires Cause Ozone Pollution to Violate Health Standards". Geophysical Research Letters. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2009.
  194. Stephen J. Pyne. "How Plants Use Fire (And Are Used By It)". NOVA online. Archived from the original on 8 August 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  195. 1 2 "The Ecological Importance of Mixed-Severity Fires – ScienceDirect". www.sciencedirect.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  196. Hutto, Richard L. (1 December 2008). "The Ecological Importance of Severe Wildfires: Some Like It Hot". Ecological Applications. 18 (8): 1827–1834. Bibcode:2008EcoAp..18.1827H. doi: 10.1890/08-0895.1 . ISSN   1939-5582. PMID   19263880.
  197. Donato, Daniel C.; Fontaine, Joseph B.; Robinson, W. Douglas; Kauffman, J. Boone; Law, Beverly E. (1 January 2009). "Vegetation response to a short interval between high-severity wildfires in a mixed-evergreen forest". Journal of Ecology. 97 (1): 142–154. Bibcode:2009JEcol..97..142D. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2008.01456.x . ISSN   1365-2745.
  198. O'Connor, Tim G; Puttick, James R; Hoffman, M Timm (4 May 2014). "Bush encroachment in southern Africa: changes and causes". African Journal of Range & Forage Science. 31 (2): 67–88. Bibcode:2014AJRFS..31...67O. doi:10.2989/10220119.2014.939996. ISSN   1022-0119.
  199. Cardoso, Anabelle W.; Archibald, Sally; Bond, William J.; Coetsee, Corli; Forrest, Matthew; Govender, Navashni; Lehmann, David; Makaga, Loïc; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Ndong, Josué Edzang; Koumba Pambo, Aurélie Flore; Strydom, Tercia; Tilman, David; Wragg, Peter D.; Staver, A. Carla (28 June 2022). "Quantifying the environmental limits to fire spread in grassy ecosystems". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 119 (26): e2110364119. Bibcode:2022PNAS..11910364C. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2110364119 . ISSN   0027-8424. PMC   9245651 . PMID   35733267.
  200. Interagency Strategy for the Implementation of the Federal Wildland Fire Policy, 3, 37.
  201. Graham, et al., 3.
  202. Keeley, J.E. (1995). "Future of California floristics and systematics: wildfire threats to the California flora" (PDF). Madroño. 42: 175–179. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  203. Zedler, P.H. (1995). "Fire frequency in southern California shrublands: biological effects and management options". In Keeley, J.E.; Scott, T. (eds.). Brushfires in California wildlands: ecology and resource management. Fairfield, WA: International Association of Wildland Fire. pp. 101–112.
  204. Nepstad, 4, 8–11
  205. Lindsey, Rebecca (5 March 2008). "Amazon fires on the rise". Earth Observatory (NASA). Archived from the original on 13 August 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
  206. Nepstad, 4
  207. "Bushfire and Catchments: Effects of Fire on Soils and Erosion". eWater Cooperative Research Center's. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2009.
  208. Refern, Neil; Vyner, Blaise. "Fylingdales Moor a lost landscape rises from the ashes". Current Archaeology. XIX (226): 20–27. ISSN   0011-3212.
  209. Running, S.W. (2008). "Ecosystem Disturbance, Carbon and Climate". Science. 321 (5889): 652–653. doi:10.1126/science.1159607. PMID   18669853. S2CID   206513681.
  210. Proctor, Caitlin R.; Lee, Juneseok; Yu, David; Shah, Amisha D.; Whelton, Andrew J. (2020). "Wildfire caused widespread drinking water distribution network contamination". AWWA Water Science. 2 (4). Bibcode:2020AWWWS...2E1183P. doi:10.1002/aws2.1183. S2CID   225641536.
  211. "Wildfires and Water Quality | U.S. Geological Survey". www.usgs.gov. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  212. Raoelison, Onja D.; Valenca, Renan; Lee, Allison; Karim, Samiha; Webster, Jackson P.; Poulin, Brett A.; Mohanty, Sanjay K. (15 January 2023). "Wildfire impacts on surface water quality parameters: Cause of data variability and reporting needs". Environmental Pollution. 317: 120713. Bibcode:2023EPoll.31720713R. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120713. ISSN   0269-7491. PMID   36435284. S2CID   253859681.
  213. "Considerations for Decontaminating HDPE Service Lines by Flushing" (PDF). engineering.purdue.edu. 18 March 2019.
  214. Haupert, Levi M.; Magnuson, Matthew L. (2019). "Numerical Model for Decontamination of Organic Contaminants in Polyethylene Drinking Water Pipes in Premise Plumbing by Flushing". Journal of Environmental Engineering. 145 (7). doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001542. PMC   7424390 . PMID   32801447.
  215. Isaacson, Kristofer P.; Proctor, Caitlin R.; Wang, Q. Erica; Edwards, Ethan Y.; Noh, Yoorae; Shah, Amisha D.; Whelton, Andrew J. (2021). "Drinking water contamination from the thermal degradation of plastics: Implications for wildfire and structure fire response". Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology. 7 (2): 274–284. doi: 10.1039/D0EW00836B . S2CID   230567682.
  216. "Plastic pipes are polluting drinking water systems after wildfires". Ars Technica . 28 December 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  217. Santos, Robert L. (1997). "Section Three: Problems, Cares, Economics, and Species". The Eucalyptus of California. California State University. Archived from the original on 2 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  218. Fire. The Australian Experience, 5.
  219. Stephen J. Pyne. "How Plants Use Fire (And Are Used By It)". NOVA online. Archived from the original on 8 August 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  220. Keeley, J.E. & C.J. Fotheringham (1997). "Trace gas emission in smoke-induced germination" (PDF). Science. 276 (5316): 1248–1250. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.3.2708 . doi:10.1126/science.276.5316.1248. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  221. Flematti GR; Ghisalberti EL; Dixon KW; Trengove RD (2004). "A compound from smoke that promotes seed germination". Science. 305 (5686): 977. doi: 10.1126/science.1099944 . PMID   15247439. S2CID   42979006.
  222. "About Oregon wildfire risk". Oregon State University. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  223. Doerr, Stefan H.; Santín, Cristina (2016). "Global trends in wildfire and its impacts: perceptions versus realities in a changing world". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences . 371 (1696): 20150345. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0345 . PMC   4874420 . PMID   27216515.
  224. "The National Wildfire Mitigation Programs Database: State, County, and Local Efforts to Reduce Wildfire Risk" (PDF). US Forest Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  225. "Extreme wildfires may be fueled by climate change". Michigan State University. 1 August 2013. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  226. Rajamanickam Antonimuthu (5 August 2014). White House explains the link between Climate Change and Wild Fires. YouTube. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014.
  227. "How Have Forest Fires Affected Air Quality in California?". www.purakamasks.com. 5 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.[ permanent dead link ]
  228. 1 2 3 4 Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (2008). "Wildfire smoke: A guide for public health officials" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  229. National Wildlife Coordination Group (2001). "Smoke management guide for prescribed and wildland fire" (PDF). Boise, ID: National Interagency Fire Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2016.
  230. Finlay SE, Moffat A, Gazzard R, Baker D, Murray V (November 2012). "Health impacts of wildfires". PLOS Currents. 4: e4f959951cce2c. doi: 10.1371/4f959951cce2c (inactive 31 January 2024). PMC   3492003 . PMID   23145351.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
  231. "Wildfire smoke can increase hazardous toxic metals in air, study finds | Climate crisis | The Guardian".
  232. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2009). "Air quality index: A guide to air quality and health" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  233. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Liu, Jia Coco; Wilson, Ander; Mickley, Loretta J.; Dominici, Francesca; Ebisu, Keita; Wang, Yun; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Peng, Roger D.; Yue, Xu (January 2017). "Wildfire-specific Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Hospital Admissions in Urban and Rural Counties". Epidemiology. 28 (1): 77–85. doi:10.1097/ede.0000000000000556. ISSN   1044-3983. PMC   5130603 . PMID   27648592.
  234. "Side Effects of Wildfire Smoke Inhalation". www.cleanairresources.com. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  235. "1 Wildfire Smoke A Guide for Public Health Officials" (PDF). US Environmental Protection Agency. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  236. 1 2 3 Forsberg, Nicole T.; Longo, Bernadette M.; Baxter, Kimberly; Boutté, Marie (2012). "Wildfire Smoke Exposure: A Guide for the Nurse Practitioner". The Journal for Nurse Practitioners . 8 (2): 98–106. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2011.07.001.
  237. 1 2 3 4 5 Wu, Jin-Zhun; Ge, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Lin-Fu; Hou, Ling-Yun; Zhou, Ying; Li, Qi-Yuan (June 2018). "Effects of particulate matter on allergic respiratory diseases". Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. 4 (2): 95–102. doi:10.1016/j.cdtm.2018.04.001. ISSN   2095-882X. PMC   6034084 . PMID   29988900.
  238. Holm SM, Miller MD, Balmes JR (February 2021). "Health effects of wildfire smoke in children and public health tools: a narrative review". J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 31 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1038/s41370-020-00267-4. PMC   7502220 . PMID   32952154.
  239. 1 2 Hutchinson, Justine A.; Vargo, Jason; Milet, Meredith; French, Nancy H. F.; Billmire, Michael; Johnson, Jeffrey; Hoshiko, Sumi (10 July 2018). "The San Diego 2007 wildfires and Medi-Cal emergency department presentations, inpatient hospitalizations, and outpatient visits: An observational study of smoke exposure periods and a bidirectional case-crossover analysis". PLOS Medicine. 15 (7): e1002601. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002601 . ISSN   1549-1676. PMC   6038982 . PMID   29990362.
  240. Wu, Jin-Zhun; Ge, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Lin-Fu; Hou, Ling-Yun; Zhou, Ying; Li, Qi-Yuan (8 June 2018). "Effects of particulate matter on allergic respiratory diseases". Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. 4 (2): 95–102. doi:10.1016/j.cdtm.2018.04.001. ISSN   2095-882X. PMC   6034084 . PMID   29988900.
  241. 1 2 Reid, Colleen E.; Brauer, Michael; Johnston, Fay H.; Jerrett, Michael; Balmes, John R.; Elliott, Catherine T. (15 April 2016). "Critical Review of Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke Exposure". Environmental Health Perspectives. 124 (9): 1334–1343. doi:10.1289/ehp.1409277. ISSN   0091-6765. PMC   5010409 . PMID   27082891.
  242. "American Lung Association and Asthma Fact sheet". American Lung Association. 19 October 2018. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015.
  243. Nishimura, Katherine K.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Oh, Sam S.; Thakur, Neeta; Nguyen, Elizabeth A. (August 2013). "Early-Life Air Pollution and Asthma Risk in Minority Children. The GALA II and SAGE II Studies". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 188 (3): 309–318. doi:10.1164/rccm.201302-0264oc. ISSN   1073-449X. PMC   3778732 . PMID   23750510.
  244. Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Coull, Brent A.; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Lee, Alison (1 November 2015). "Prenatal Particulate Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Urban Children. Identifying Sensitive Windows and Sex Differences". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 192 (9): 1052–1059. doi:10.1164/rccm.201504-0658OC. ISSN   1535-4970. PMC   4642201 . PMID   26176842.
  245. Hehua, Zhang; Qing, Chang; Shanyan, Gao; Qijun, Wu; Yuhong, Zhao (November 2017). "The impact of prenatal exposure to air pollution on childhood wheezing and asthma: A systematic review". Environmental Research. 159: 519–530. Bibcode:2017ER....159..519H. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.038. ISSN   0013-9351. PMID   28888196. S2CID   22300866.
  246. Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Shenassa, Edmond D. (August 2006). "The Environmental "Riskscape" and Social Inequality: Implicationsfor Explaining Maternal and Child Health Disparities". Environmental Health Perspectives. 114 (8): 1150–1153. doi:10.1289/ehp.8930. ISSN   0091-6765. PMC   1551987 . PMID   16882517.
  247. National Wildfire Coordinating Group (June 2007). "Wildland firefighter fatalities in the United States 1990–2006" (PDF). NWCG Safety and Health Working Team. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 March 2012.
  248. Papanikolaou, V; Adamis, D; Mellon, RC; Prodromitis, G (2011). "Psychological distress following wildfires disaster in a rural part of Greece: A case-control population-based study". International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. 13 (1): 11–26. PMID   21957753.
  249. Mellon, Robert C.; Papanikolau, Vasiliki; Prodromitis, Gerasimos (2009). "Locus of control and psychopathology in relation to levels of trauma and loss: Self-reports of Peloponnesian wildfire survivors". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 22 (3): 189–196. doi:10.1002/jts.20411. PMID   19452533.
  250. Marshall, G. N.; Schell, T. L.; Elliott, M. N.; Rayburn, N. R.; Jaycox, L. H. (2007). "Psychiatric Disorders Among Adults Seeking Emergency Disaster Assistance After a Wildland-Urban Interface Fire". Psychiatric Services. 58 (4): 509–514. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.58.4.509. PMID   17412853.
  251. McDermott, BM; Lee, EM; Judd, M; Gibbon, P (2005). "Posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychopathology in children and adolescents following a wildfire disaster" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 50 (3): 137–143. doi:10.1177/070674370505000302. PMID   15830823. S2CID   38364512.
  252. Jones, RT; Ribbe, DP; Cunningham, PB; Weddle, JD; Langley, AK (2002). "Psychological impact of fire disaster on children and their parents". Behavior Modification. 26 (2): 163–186. doi:10.1177/0145445502026002003. PMID   11961911. S2CID   629959.
  253. "Particulate Matter (PM) Standards". EPA. 24 April 2016. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012.
  254. Sutherland, E. Rand; Make, Barry J.; Vedal, Sverre; Zhang, Lening; Dutton, Steven J.; Murphy, James R.; Silkoff, Philip E. (2005). "Wildfire smoke and respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 115 (2): 420–422. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.11.030. PMID   15696107.
  255. Delfino, R J; Brummel, S; Wu, J; Stern, H; Ostro, B; Lipsett, M (2009). "The relationship of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions to the southern California wildfires of 2003". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 66 (3): 189–197. doi:10.1136/oem.2008.041376. PMC   4176821 . PMID   19017694.
  256. Kunzli, N.; Avol, E.; Wu, J.; Gauderman, W. J.; Rappaport, E.; Millstein, J. (2006). "Health Effects of the 2003 Southern California Wildfires on Children". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 174 (11): 1221–1228. doi:10.1164/rccm.200604-519OC. PMC   2648104 . PMID   16946126.
  257. Holstius, David M.; Reid, Colleen E.; Jesdale, Bill M.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel (2012). "Birth Weight Following Pregnancy During the 2003 Southern California Wildfires". Environmental Health Perspectives. 120 (9): 1340–1345. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104515. PMC   3440113 . PMID   22645279.
  258. Johnston, Fay H.; et al. (May 2012). "Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires" (PDF). Environmental Health Perspectives. 120 (5): 695–701. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104422. PMC   3346787 . PMID   22456494. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  259. "IPCC Sixth Assessment Report 2022". Archived from the original on 4 April 2022. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  260. Proctor, Caitlin R.; Lee, Juneseok; Yu, David; Shah, Amisha D.; Whelton, Andrew J. (2020). "Wildfire caused widespread drinking water distribution network contamination". Awwa Water Science. 2 (4). Bibcode:2020AWWWS...2E1183P. doi:10.1002/aws2.1183. S2CID   225641536.
  261. Whelton, Andrew J.; Seidel, Chad; Wham, Brad P.; Fischer, Erica C.; Isaacson, Kristofer; Jankowski, Caroline; MacArthur, Nathan; McKenna, Elizabeth; Ley, Christian (2023). "The Marshall Fire: Scientific and policy needs for water system disaster response". Awwa Water Science. 5 (1). Bibcode:2023AWWWS...5E1318W. doi: 10.1002/aws2.1318 .
  262. Jankowski, Caroline; Isaacson, Kristofer; Larsen, Madeline; Ley, Christian; Cook, Myles; Whelton, Andrew J. (2023). "Wildfire damage and contamination to private drinking water wells". Awwa Water Science. 5 (1). Bibcode:2023AWWWS...5E1319J. doi: 10.1002/aws2.1319 .
  263. Odimayomi, Tolulope O.; Proctor, Caitlin R.; Wang, Qi Erica; Sabbaghi, Arman; Peterson, Kimberly S.; Yu, David J.; Lee, Juneseok; Shah, Amisha D.; Ley, Christian J.; Noh, Yoorae; Smith, Charlotte D.; Webster, Jackson P.; Milinkevich, Kristin; Lodewyk, Michael W.; Jenks, Julie A.; Smith, James F.; Whelton, Andrew J. (3 May 2021). "Water safety attitudes, risk perception, experiences, and education for households impacted by the 2018 Camp Fire, California". Natural Hazards. 108 (1): 947–975. Bibcode:2021NatHa.108..947O. doi:10.1007/s11069-021-04714-9.
  264. "After a Wildfire: Water Safety Considerations for Private Wells" (PDF). Purdue University. 16 May 2021.
  265. "After a Wildfire: Water Safety Considerations Inside Buildings" (PDF). Purdue University. 16 May 2021.