Southern California

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Southern California
San Diego panoramic skyline at night.jpg
Los Angeles downtown p1000070.jpg
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Hermosa Beach Pier I (262176665) (cropped).jpeg
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Red: The ten counties of Southern California
Country United States
State California
Counties Imperial
Kern
Los Angeles
Orange
Riverside
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Luis Obispo
Santa Barbara
Ventura
Largest city Los Angeles
Area
(10-county) [1]
  Total56,505 sq mi (146,350 km2)
Population
 (2019)
23,860,793 [2]

Southern California (popularly known as SoCal; Spanish : Sur de California) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. It includes the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. [3] [4] The region generally contains ten of California's 58 counties: Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Ventura counties. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, and San Bernardino County shares a border with Nevada to the northeast. Southern California's southern border with Baja California is part of the Mexico–United States border.

Contents

Constituent metropolitan areas

Southern California includes the heavily built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego (the contiguous urban area in fact continuing into Tijuana, Mexico), and inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley (Palm Springs area). It encompasses eight metropolitan areas (MSAs), three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area (CSA) with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA. These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area (Los Angeles and Orange counties, with 13.3 million people), the Inland Empire ((Riverside and San Bernardino counties, including the Coachella Valley cities, with 4.3 million people), and the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area (0.8 million people). In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, and the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and El Centro (Imperial County) metropolitan areas.

The Southern California Megaregion (or megalopolis) is larger still, extending northeast into Las Vegas, Nevada and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. [5]

Significance

San Diego Marina district Sdmarina.JPG
San Diego Marina district
Sunset in Venice, a neighborhood in Los Angeles Venice, California Beach.jpg
Sunset in Venice, a neighborhood in Los Angeles

Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. [6] With a population of approximately 4 million, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of approximately 1.4 million is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation.

Three Arch Bay in Laguna Beach Three Arch Bay Photo Taken by pilot D Ramey Logan.jpg
Three Arch Bay in Laguna Beach

The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino are the five most populous in the state, and are among the top 15 most populous counties in the United States. [7]

The motion picture, television and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, which is synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company (which owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony also run major record companies.

Southern California is also home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, Stussy, RVCA and Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; surfers Rob Machado, Timmy Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O'Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward live in southern California. Some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach and Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, [8] Boost Mobile Pro, [9] and the U.S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California. The region is also important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii. The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern-era triathlon was held in San Diego's Mission Bay in 1974. Since then, southern California, and San Diego in particular, have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing, products and culture.

Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net.

Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches. Some of southern California's most popular beaches are Malibu, Laguna Beach, La Jolla, and Hermosa Beach. The inland desert city of Palm Springs is also popular.

Northern boundary

California counties below the 36th standard parallel Southern California.png
California counties below the 36th standard parallel

Southern California is not a formal geographic designation, and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's north–south midway point lies at exactly 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles (18 km) south of San Jose; however, this does not coincide with the popular use of the term. When the state is divided into two areas (northern and southern California), the term southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state. This definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties. That closely matches the lower one-third of California's span of latitude. Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as geographical landmarks for the northern boundary.

Topography of the border region Wpdms shdrlfi020l tehachapi mountains.jpg
Topography of the border region

Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing southern California from becoming its own separate slave state.

Subsequently, Californians (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery Southerners in the lightly populated "cow counties" of southern California attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature and signed by State Governor John B. Weller. It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75 percent of voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado. This territory was to include all the counties up to the then much larger Tulare County (that included what is now Kings, most of Kern, and part of Inyo counties) and San Luis Obispo County. The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and the subsequent American Civil War led to the proposal never coming to a vote. [10] [11]

In 1900, the Los Angeles Times defined southern California as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura and Santa Barbara." In 1999, the Times added a newer county, Imperial, to that list. [12]

Southern California was the name of a proposed new state which failed to get on the 2018 California ballot. The ballot measure proposed splitting the existing state into three parts. [13]

The state is most commonly divided and promoted by its regional tourism groups, consisting of northern, central, and southern California regions. The two American Automobile Association (AAA) Auto Clubs of the state, the California State Automobile Association, and the Automobile Club of Southern California, choose to simplify matters by dividing the state along the lines where their jurisdictions for membership apply, as either northern or southern California, in contrast to the three-region point of view. Another influence is the geographical phrase South of the Tehachapis, which would split the southern region off at the crest of that transverse range, but in that definition, the desert portions of north Los Angeles County and eastern Kern and San Bernardino Counties would be included in the southern California region due to their remoteness from the central valley and interior desert landscape.

In December 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the state government led by Governor Gavin Newsom divided the state into five regions for the purpose of issuing stay-at-home orders. The Southern California region consists of the following counties: Imperial, Inyo, Los Angeles, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara and Ventura. [14]

Population, land area & population density (2020)
County
Ref.
PopulationLand
mi2 [15]
Land
km2
Pop.
/mi2
Pop.
/km2
Los Angeles County [16] 10,014,0094,059.2810,513.492,466.94952.49
San Diego County [17] 3,298,6344,210.2310,904.45783.48302.50
Orange County [18] 3,186,989792.842,053.454,019.711,552.02
Riverside County [19] 2,418,1857,209.2718,671.92335.43129.51
San Bernardino County [20] 2,181,65420,068.0151,975.91108.7141.97
Kern County [21] 909,2358,134.6521,068.65111.7743.15
Ventura County [22] 843,8431,840.794,767.62458.41176.99
Santa Barbara County [23] 448,2292,733.947,080.87163.9563.30
San Luis Obispo County [24] 282,4243,300.858,549.1685.5633.03
Imperial County [25] 179,7024,175.5410,814.6043.0416.62
Southern California23,762,90456,525.40146,400.11420.39162.31
California39,538,223155,959.34403,932.84253.5297.88

Urban landscape

Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts. Distribution of high income households across LA County.png
Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts.

Southern California consists of a heavily developed urban environment, home to some of the largest urban areas in the state, along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped. It is the third most populated megalopolis in the United States, after the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the Northeast Megalopolis. Much of southern California is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, and Riverside-San Bernardino, each of which are the centers of their respective metropolitan areas, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities. The urban area is also host to an international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan region, created by the urban area spilling over into Baja California.

Travelling south on Interstate 5, the main barrier to continued urbanization is Camp Pendleton. The cities and communities along Interstate 15 and Interstate 215 are so interrelated that Temecula and Murrieta have as much connection with the San Diego metropolitan area as they do with the Inland Empire. To the east, the United States Census Bureau considers the San Bernardino and Riverside County areas, Riverside-San Bernardino area as a separate metropolitan area from Los Angeles County. Newly developed exurbs formed in the Antelope Valley, north of Los Angeles, the Victor Valley, and the Coachella Valley with the Imperial Valley. Also, population growth was high in the Bakersfield-Kern County, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas.

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The Downtown Los Angeles skyline seen at sunset on an October day. At 1,018 feet (310 m), 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower was the West Coast's tallest building when it was built in 1989.

Climate

Koppen climate types of southern California Southern California Koppen.png
Köppen climate types of southern California

Most of southern California has a Mediterranean-like climate, with warm and dry summers, mild and wet winters, where cool weather and freezing temperatures are rare. Southern California contains other types of climates, including semi-arid, desert and mountain, with infrequent rain and many sunny days. Summers are hot or warm, and dry, while winters are mild, and rainfall is low to moderate depending on the area. Although heavy rain can occur, it is unusual. This climatic pattern was alluded to in the hit song "It Never Rains (In Southern California)". While snow is very rare in lower elevations, mountains above 5,000 feet (1,500 m) receive plentiful snowfall in the winter.

Natural landscape

Proctor Valley in Chula Vista Proctorvalleylake.jpg
Proctor Valley in Chula Vista
Autumn of 2008 in southern California. San Gabriel Mountains (2972839468).jpg
Autumn of 2008 in southern California.

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, and into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California.

Introductory categories include:

Geography

Satellite view of southern California, including the Channel Islands Channelislandsca.jpg
Satellite view of southern California, including the Channel Islands

Southern California is divided into:

Geographic features

View from La Jolla Cove in San Diego. LaJolla California.JPG
View from La Jolla Cove in San Diego.
Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino County. Telegraph Cucamonga and Ontario Peaks.jpg
Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino County.
Yucca Valley with Visitor Center in Background in June 2017. Yucca Valley California 2017.jpg
Yucca Valley with Visitor Center in Background in June 2017.
Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego. Sunset pier.jpg
Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego.

Geology

List of major fault zones

Note: Plate boundary faults are indicated with a (#) symbol.

Northridge earthquake shake map Shake Map Northridge 1994.jpg
Northridge earthquake shake map

Earthquakes

Each year, southern California has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred have been greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15–20 have been greater than magnitude 4.0. [26] The magnitude 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake was particularly destructive, causing a substantial number of deaths, injuries, and structural collapses as well as the most property damage of any earthquake in U.S. history at an estimated $20 billion. [27]

Many faults are able to produce a magnitude greater than 6.7 earthquake, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce a magnitude 8.0 event. Other faults include the San Jacinto Fault, the Puente Hills Fault, and the Elsinore Fault Zone. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has released a California earthquake forecast, [28] which models earthquake occurrence in California.

List of earthquakes

This is a partial list of earthquakes in Southern California. For a full list, see List of earthquakes in California. Note: Earthquakes with epicenters in the Los Angeles Metro Area are marked with the (#) symbol. Other earthquakes mentioned means shaking was felt.

Regions

Divisions

Salton Sea in the Coachella Valley Salton Sea Reflection.jpg
Salton Sea in the Coachella Valley
The Oceanside Pier on the San Diego County coast Oceansidepier.jpg
The Oceanside Pier on the San Diego County coast

Southern California is divided culturally, politically, and economically into distinct regions, each containing its own culture and atmosphere, anchored usually by a city with both national and sometimes global recognition, which is often the hub of economic activity for its respective region and being home to many tourist destinations. Each region is further divided into many culturally distinct areas but as a whole, combine to create the southern California atmosphere.

*Part of multiple regions

Population

Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 6,492
1860 33,280412.6%
1870 44,15832.7%
1880 91,916108.2%
1890 251,770173.9%
1900 337,32834.0%
1910 808,408139.7%
1920 1,423,78676.1%
1930 3,044,978113.9%
1940 3,840,73326.1%
1950 5,931,97554.4%
1960 9,398,72258.4%
1970 12,103,55928.8%
1980 14,308,74218.2%
1990 18,269,09527.7%
2000 20,637,51213.0%
2010 22,680,0109.9%
2019 (est.)23,860,7935.2%
Sources: 1790–1990, 2000, 2010, 2019 [29] [30] [31]
Chart does not include Indigenous population figures.
Studies indicate that the Native American
population in California in 1850 was close to 150,000
before declining to 15,000 by 1900. [32]
Downtown San Bernardino Downtown San Bernardino.jpg
Downtown San Bernardino

As of the 2010 United States Census, southern California has a population of 22,680,010. Despite a reputation for high growth rates, southern California's rate grew less than the state average of 10.0 percent in the 2000s. This was due to California's growth becoming concentrated in the northern part of the state as result of a stronger, tech-oriented economy in the Bay Area and an emerging Greater Sacramento region.

Southern California consists of one Combined Statistical Area, eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas, one international metropolitan area, and multiple metropolitan divisions. The region is home to two extended metropolitan areas that exceed five million in population. These are the Greater Los Angeles Area at 17,786,419, and San Diego–Tijuana at 5,105,768. [33] [34] Of these metropolitan areas, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, and Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metropolitan area form Greater Los Angeles; [35] while the El Centro metropolitan area and San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area form the Southern Border Region. [36] [37] North of Greater Los Angeles are the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Bakersfield metropolitan areas.

Cities

Los Angeles (with a population of approximately 3.9 million people) and San Diego (at nearly 1.4 million people) are the two largest cities in all of California and are among the top eight largest cities in the United States. In southern California, there are also 12 cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 residents. Many of southern California's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino and Riverside.

Counties

Economy

Industries

Southern California has a diverse economy and is one of the largest economies in the United States. It is dominated by and heavily dependent upon the abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles are not nearly as dominant, due to the vast majority of transport that runs on this fuel. Southern California is famous for tourism and the entertainment industry. Other industries include software, automotive, ports, finance, biomedical, and regional logistics. The region was a leader in the housing bubble from 2001 to 2007 and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash.

Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum, and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands were turned into suburbs. Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor. [38]

Major central business districts

Taco Bell Headquarters in Irvine Taco Bell Headquarters Irvine.jpg
Taco Bell Headquarters in Irvine

Southern California is home to many major business districts. Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown Riverside, Downtown San Bernardino, Downtown San Diego, and the South Coast Metro. Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Pasadena, Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Los Angeles itself has many business districts, such as Downtown Los Angeles and those lining Wilshire Boulevard including Mid-Wilshire, the Miracle Mile, Downtown Beverly Hills and Westwood; others include Century City and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley. The area of Santa Monica and Venice (and perhaps some of Culver City) is informally referred to as "Silicon Beach" because of the concentration of financial and marketing technology-centric firms located in the region.

The San Bernardino-Riverside Area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University District which are in the cities of San Bernardino and Riverside.

In Orange County, has highly developed suburban business centers (also known as edge cities) including the Anaheim–Santa Ana edge city along I-5; and another, the South Coast Plaza–John Wayne Airport edge city that stretches from the South Coast Metro to the Irvine Business Complex; Newport Center; and Irvine Spectrum. Downtown Santa Ana is an important government, arts and entertainment, and retail district.

Downtown San Diego is the CBD of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego and some within North County regions.

Theme parks and waterparks

Disneyland in Anaheim Sleepingbeautycastle50.jpg
Disneyland in Anaheim

Vinyard-Winery American Viticultural Area (AVA) districts

California wine AVA-American Viticultural Areas in southern California:

Transportation

See: Category: Transportation in Southern California

Southern California is home to Los Angeles International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the United States by passenger volume (see World's busiest airports by passenger traffic) and the third-busiest by international passenger volume (see Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic); San Diego International Airport, the busiest single-runway airport in the world; Van Nuys Airport, the world's busiest general aviation airport; major commercial airports at Orange County, Bakersfield, Ontario, Burbank and Long Beach; and numerous smaller commercial and general aviation airports.

Six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system, Metrolink, run out of Downtown Los Angeles, connecting Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties with the other line connecting San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties directly.

Southern California is also home to the Port of Los Angeles, the country's busiest commercial port; the adjacent Port of Long Beach, the country's second busiest container port; and the Port of San Diego.

Airports

The following table shows all airports listed by the Federal Aviation Association (FAA) as a hub airport: [39]

AirportIDCity
(Metro area)
CategoryEnplanements
(2011) (mil)
Los Angeles International Airport LAXLos AngelesLarge Hub30.5m
San Diego International Airport SANSan DiegoLarge Hub8.5m
John Wayne Airport SNAOrange CountyMedium Hub4.2m
Ontario International Airport ONTSan Bernardino, RiversideMedium hub2.3m
Hollywood Burbank Airport BURBurbank (LA)Medium Hub2.1m
Long Beach Airport LGBLong Beach (LA)Small Hub1.5m
Palm Springs International Airport PSPPalm SpringsSmall Hub0.8m
Santa Barbara Municipal Airport SBASanta BarbaraSmall Hub0.7m
San Luis Obispo Regional Airport SBPSan Luis ObispoSmall Hub0.5m

Freeways and highways

Interstate and state highway system of Southern California SocalfreewaysystemWIKI.jpg
Interstate and state highway system of Southern California

Sections of the southern California freeway system are often referred to by names rather than by the official numbers.

Interstate Highways
SignInterstateFreeway name
I-5 (CA).svg Interstate 5 Golden State Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
San Diego Freeway
Montgomery Freeway
I-8 (CA).svg Interstate 8 Ocean Beach Freeway
Mission Valley Freeway
I-10 (CA).svg Interstate 10 Santa Monica (Rosa Parks) Freeway
Golden State Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Indio (Dr. June McCarroll) Freeway
Blythe Freeway
I-15 (CA).svg Interstate 15 Mojave Freeway
Barstow Freeway
Ontario Freeway
Corona Freeway
Temecula Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
I-40 (CA).svg Interstate 40 Needles Freeway
I-105 (CA).svg Interstate 105 Century (Glenn Anderson) Freeway
I-110 (CA).svg Interstate 110 Harbor Freeway
I-210 (CA).svg Interstate 210 Foothill Freeway
I-215 (CA).svg Interstate 215 Barstow Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Moreno Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
I-405 (CA).svg Interstate 405 San Diego Freeway
I-605 (CA).svg Interstate 605 San Gabriel River Freeway
I-710 (CA).svg Interstate 710 Long Beach Freeway
I-805 (CA).svg Interstate 805 Jacob Dekema Freeway
I-905 (CA).svg Future Interstate 905

Public transportation

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway's combined Super Chief-El Capitan pulls into Los Angeles's Union Passenger Terminal on September 24, 1966. AT&SF44CatLosAngelesCA9-24-66.jpg
The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway's combined Super Chief-El Capitan pulls into Los Angeles's Union Passenger Terminal on September 24, 1966.
See: Category: Public transportation in Southern California

Communication

Map of some major area codes in Greater Los Angeles Los Angeles area codes.png
Map of some major area codes in Greater Los Angeles

Telephone area codes

Colleges and universities

University of California, Santa Barbara Ucsbuniversitycenterandstorketower.jpg
University of California, Santa Barbara
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Alex G. Spanos Stadium (San Luis Obispo).jpg
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Tech Coast is a moniker that has gained use as a descriptor for the region's diversified technology and industrial base as well as its multitude of prestigious and world-renowned research universities and other public and private institutions. Amongst these include five University of California campuses (Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and San Diego), 12 California State University campuses (Bakersfield, Channel Islands, Dominguez Hills, Fullerton, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo); and private institutions such as the California Institute of Technology, Azusa Pacific University, Chapman University, the Claremont Colleges (Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, Scripps College, Claremont Graduate University and Keck Graduate Institute), Loma Linda University, Loyola Marymount University, Occidental College, Pepperdine University, University of Redlands, University of San Diego and the University of Southern California.

Parks and recreation areas

Numerous parks provide recreation opportunities and open space. Locations include:

Sports

Major professional sports teams in southern California include:

Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs. The Bruins and the Trojans both field football teams in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference, and there is a longtime rivalry between the schools.

See also

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Outline of California Overview of and topical guide to California

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S. state of California.

The California High School Speech Association, or CHSSA, is a speech and debate organization offered to all schools in the state of California. It is the governing body for local and state speech and debate competitions in California, with higher-level competition under the auspices of the National Forensic League and the National Catholic Forensic League. The league held its first championship tournament in 1958, and continues to hold championship tournaments every April.

In the U.S. state of California, a congestion management agency is a county-level government agency responsible for a comprehensive transportation improvement program that reduces traffic congestion and reduces transportation-related air pollution through local land-use planning.

References

  1. "Square Mileage by County". counties.org. California State Association of Counties (CSAC). Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  2. "State Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019". Census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 26, 2020. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  3. "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy". Touring Topics. Los Angeles, California: Automobile Club of Southern California. 8 (2): 38–39. March 1916.
  4. Cooley, Timothy J. (2014). Surfing about Music. University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN   978-0-52095-721-3.
  5. "Megaregions". Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  6. The three metropolitan areas are:
    1. Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana (the second largest in the US),
    2. Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario (the Inland Empire) and
    3. San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos – see: United States metropolitan areas
  7. "California County Population Estimates" (PDF). California Department of Finance. January 7, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 29, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  8. Yoon, Peter (August 7, 2006). "X Games Take a Turn for the Better". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  9. Higgins, Matt (September 13, 2006). "Construction Stirs Debate on Effects on 'Perfect Wave'". The New York Times . Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
  10. DiLeo, Michael; Smith, Eleanor (1983). Two Californias: The Myths And Realities of a State Divided Against Itself. Covelo, California: Island Press. p. 30. ISBN   978-0-93328-016-8.
  11. California, Historical Society of Southern (1901). The Quarterly, Volumes 5-6. Historical Society of Southern California. p. 223.
  12. Bernstein, Leilah (December 31, 1999). "L.A. Then AND NOW". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  13. Myers, John (June 13, 2018). "Radical plan to split California into three states earns spot on November ballot". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  14. "California Health Officials Announce a Regional Stay at Home Order Triggered by ICU Capacity". State of California. December 3, 2020. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  15. "Counties". 2020 U.S. Census Gazetteer Files. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  16. "Los Angeles County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  17. "San Diego County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  18. "Orange County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  19. "Riverside County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  20. "San Bernardino County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  21. "Kern County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  22. "Ventura County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  23. "Santa Barbara County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  24. "San Luis Obispo County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  25. "Imperial County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  26. "USGS facts". data from southern California Earthquake Center. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  27. "Northridge Earthquake". 2005. Archived from the original on July 12, 2006. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  28. "UCERF3: A New Earthquake Forecast for California's Complex Fault System" (PDF). USGS. March 3, 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
  29. "California Grew By 356,000 Residents in 2013" (PDF). California Department of Finance. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 2, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
  30. "1990 Census of Population and Housing Unit Counts, Population Estimates 1790–1990 CPH-2-1, pages 26–27" (PDF). United States Census Bureau, United States Department of Commerce (DOC) Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA). August 20, 1993. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  31. "California QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 28, 2009. Retrieved December 26, 2009.
  32. "Indians of Northern California: A Case Study of Federal, State, and Local Policies, 1850-1860". AmericanIndianTAH.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  33. "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 23, 2010. Archived from the original (CSV) on March 27, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
  34. "World Gazetteer; San Diego-Tijuana". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
  35. "Population Estimates". Archived from the original (CSV) on November 17, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  36. "California Coast, Los Angeles to San Diego Bay". December 15, 2008. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  37. Loucky, James, ed. (2008). Transboundary policy challenges in the Pacific border regions of North America. University of Calgary Press. p. 8. ISBN   978-1-55238-223-3.
  38. Westwick, Peter J., ed. (June 4, 2012). Blue Sky Metropolis. Huntington Library: University of California Press. ISBN   978-0-52028-906-2.
  39. "Calendar Year 2011 Primary Airports" (PDF). September 27, 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2016.

Further reading

Coordinates: 34°00′N117°00′W / 34.000°N 117.000°W / 34.000; -117.000