Sequoia National Forest

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Sequoia National Forest
Long Meadow Grove CA.jpg
Long Meadow Grove on a misty day
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Location Tulare / Kern / Fresno counties, California, US
Nearest city Bakersfield, CA / Porterville, CA /
Coordinates 36°2′24″N118°30′16″W / 36.04000°N 118.50444°W / 36.04000; -118.50444 Coordinates: 36°2′24″N118°30′16″W / 36.04000°N 118.50444°W / 36.04000; -118.50444
Area1,193,315 acres (4,829.17 km2) [1]
Established1908
Governing body U.S. Forest Service
Website Sequoia National Forest

Sequoia National Forest is located in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains of California. The U.S. National Forest is named for the majestic Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) trees which populate 38 distinct groves within the boundaries of the forest.

Contents

The Giant Sequoia National Monument is located in the national forest. Other notable features include glacier-carved landscapes and impressive granite monoliths. The Needles are a series of granite spires atop a narrow ridge above the Kern River. Forest headquarters are located in Porterville, California. There are local ranger district offices in Dunlap, Kernville, Lake Isabella, and Springville. [2]

Geography

The Sequoia National Forest covers 1,193,315 acres (1,864.555 sq mi; 4,829.17 km2), [1] and ranges in elevation from 1,000 feet (300 m) in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to over 12,000 feet (3,700 m). Its giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves are part of its 196,000 acres (790 km2) of old growth forests. Other tree species include: [3]

The National Forest contains over 2,500 miles (4,000 km) of road and 850 miles (1,370 km) of trails, and hosts a number of camping and recreational facilities. The forest is adjacent to Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

Wilderness areas

Farewell Gap in the Golden Trout Wilderness Farewell Gap.jpg
Farewell Gap in the Golden Trout Wilderness

There are six wilderness areas within Sequoia NF that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Some of these extend into neighboring National Forests, as indicated. Two of them also extend into land that is managed by the Bureau of Land Management.

Giant Sequoia National Monument

On April 15, 2000, President Bill Clinton proclaimed 328,000-acre (1,330 km2) of the Sequoia National Forest as the Giant Sequoia National Monument by Presidential Proclamation 7295, published in the Federal Register, Tuesday, April 25, 2000, Vol. 65, No. 80.

The monument is in two sections. The northern section surrounds General Grant Grove and other parts of Kings Canyon National Park and is administered by the Hume Lake Ranger District. The southern section is directly south of Sequoia National Park and is administered by the Western Divide Ranger District, surrounding the eastern half of the Tule River Indian Reservation.

The Needles

The Needles are a series of granite spires atop a narrow ridge above the Kern River.( 36°07′17″N118°30′16″W / 36.1214°N 118.5044°W / 36.1214; -118.5044 ) [4]

History

Sequoia National Forest was established on July 1, 1908, from a portion of Sierra Forest Reserve. On March 2, 1909, Theodore Roosevelt added land by Presidential Proclamation. [5] On July 1, 1910 1,951,191 acres (7,896.19 km2) was removed from the forest to create the Kern National Forest. [6] This land was returned to Sequoia National Forest on July 1, 1915.

Fire impact

The Great Bonsai tree was destroyed in the Castle Fire of 2020 Great Bonsai2.jpg
The Great Bonsai tree was destroyed in the Castle Fire of 2020

The Castle Fire in 2020 burned 131,087 acres (53,049 ha) in the forest, with 13,600 acres (5,500 ha) of giant sequoia groves burned [7] [8] The fire swept through portions of the Dillonwood, Mountain Home, Alder Creek, Freeman Creek, McIntyre, and Wheel Meadow, Belknap, Burro Creek, Silver Creek, Middle Tule, Upper Tule, and Wishon Groves. [8] The fire burned at high intensity in 6,000 acres (2,400 ha) of sequoia groves: [8] high-intensity fire kills more than 90% of the giant sequoias in the area. [9] The number of mature Sequoia Trees that died overall is estimated at over 7500–10,600 mature trees, or over 10-14% of the species' population. [9] [10]

The most intense previous fire in this area is dated to 1297 based on tree ring data. The McIntrye Grove, a short distance to the south from Cedar Slope, was heavily damaged. Near Sequoia Crest, one-third of the Alder Creek Grove of Giant Sequoia was severely damaged. [11] The large Stagg Tree in Alder Creek Grove was not impacted. [12] Other areas experienced “light fire” which is expected to be ecologically beneficial in the long run.

The following individual large Giant Sequoias in the forest have been reported to be damaged or destroyed in the Castle Fire:

The Windy Fire in 2021 burned over 97,528 acres (39,468 ha), including a large area in the forest. [16] A number of groves were completely within the fire perimeter, including the Cunningham, Deer Creek, Long Meadow, Packsaddle, Peyrone, Redhill, South Peyrone, and Starvation Creek Groves. [17] Over 3,000 acres (1,200 ha) of groves were within the fire perimeter. [17] Satellite image analysis showed that 50% of that area was burned at moderate or high intensity: over 1,000 giant sequoia were estimated to be destroyed in the forest. [17] Only four mature giant sequoia survived the fire in the Starvation Creek Grove. [18]

Giant sequoia groves

The Boole tree, the sixth-largest tree by volume Boole Tree.JPG
The Boole tree, the sixth-largest tree by volume

The Sequoia National Forest has 34 giant sequoia groves.

  1. Indian Basin Grove (GSNM) A mid-size grove, mostly logged. It can be accessed by paved roads. The grove contains many young sequoias approaching diameters of up to 10 feet (3.0 m). 36°48′N118°56′W / 36.800°N 118.933°W / 36.800; -118.933 1800–2000 m.
  2. Converse Basin Grove (GSNM). Once the second-largest grove, but much logged around 1890–1900; However, nearly 100 widely scattered old-growth Giant Sequoias remain (apparently bypassed by the loggers), also good regrowth of younger trees. Home of the Boole Tree, which the loggers spared as it was by far the largest tree in the grove and is now identified as the sixth-largest tree by volume. Also home of the Chicago Stump, which is the remnant of the General Noble Tree that was cut for the 1893 World Columbian Exposition; the General Noble Tree was the second largest tree in the grove (after the Boole Tree) and it was the largest tree ever cut down. Although not among the very largest Giant Sequoias, the General Noble Tree was perhaps among the top 30 largest Giant Sequoias before it was cut. 36°48′N118°58′W / 36.800°N 118.967°W / 36.800; -118.967 1800–2000 m.
  3. Lockwood Grove (GSNM). 36°48′N118°52′W / 36.800°N 118.867°W / 36.800; -118.867 1700–1800 m.
  4. Monarch Grove (GSNM). Immediately north of the Agnew Grove, near Monarch Wilderness boundary. On Forest Service GSNM map.
  5. Evans Grove (GSNM). Partially logged, before 1920. 36°48'N 118°49'30"W 2050–2250 m.
  6. Agnew & Deer Meadow Grove (GSNM). 36°47′20″N118°46′45″W / 36.78889°N 118.77917°W / 36.78889; -118.77917 1950–2000 m.
  7. Cherry Gap Grove (GSNM). Logged. Located between Converse Basin Grove and General Grant Grove, near McGee Overlook ( 36°46′40″N118°57′30″W / 36.77778°N 118.95833°W / 36.77778; -118.95833 ). 2070 m. Cherry Gap Grove is a small sequoia grove of about thirty-five acres in Sequoia national forest; it was logged of all of its old growth sequoias.
  8. Abbott Creek Grove (GSNM). 36°46′N118°58′W / 36.767°N 118.967°W / 36.767; -118.967 1900 m. Listed by Rundel and Flint; very small (largely logged); too few trees to qualify as a grove according to Willard.
  9. Kennedy Grove (GSNM). 36°46′0″N118°49′20″W / 36.76667°N 118.82222°W / 36.76667; -118.82222 2050–2250 m. Contains the 13th largest giant sequoia in the world, The Ishi Giant.
  10. Little Boulder Creek Grove (GSNM). 36°45′10″N118°49′0″W / 36.75278°N 118.81667°W / 36.75278; -118.81667 2000 m.
  11. Boulder Creek Grove (GSNM). 36°45′N118°49′W / 36.750°N 118.817°W / 36.750; -118.817 2050 m.
  12. Landslide Grove (GSNM). 36°45′0″N118°51′50″W / 36.75000°N 118.86389°W / 36.75000; -118.86389 2050–2250 m.
  13. Bearskin Grove (GSNM). 36°45′0″N118°54′40″W / 36.75000°N 118.91111°W / 36.75000; -118.91111 1850–1900 m.
  14. Big Stump Grove (KCNP/GSNM). 36°43′N118°58′W / 36.717°N 118.967°W / 36.717; -118.967 1850 m.
  1. Redwood Mountain Grove (KCNP/GSNM). The largest grove, 1240 ha (3100 acres), with 15,800 sequoias 30 cm (one foot) or more in diameter at the base.
The Genesis tree, 7th-largest tree in the world (before the Castle Fire in 2020) Genesis tree.jpg
The Genesis tree, 7th-largest tree in the world (before the Castle Fire in 2020)
  1. Upper Tule Grove (GSNM). Included on Forest Service GSNM map.
  2. Maggie Mountain Grove (GSNM).
  3. Silver Creek Grove (GSNM).
  4. Mountain Home Grove (CSF / GSNM). Home of the 'Genesis' tree, seventh largest by volume, this grove also contains the smaller Middle Tule Grove
  5. Burro Creek Grove (GSNM).
  6. Wishon Grove (GSNM). South of Silver Creek Grove. Included on Forest Service GSNM map.
  7. Alder Creek Grove (GSNM / private); also known as Hossack, Pixley, or Ross Creek Grove. Home of 'Alonzo Stagg', the fifth largest tree by volume. Also home to the Waterfall tree, which has the largest circumference and diameter at ground level of any sequoia.
  8. McIntyre Grove (GSNM).
  9. Carr Wilson Grove(GSNM); also known as Bear Creek Grove.
  10. Freeman Creek Grove (GSNM).
  11. Black Mountain Grove (GSNM / TIR / private). Heavily logged in 1984, though mature sequoias were not cut.
  12. Red Hill Grove (GSNM / private).
  13. Peyrone Grove (GSNM / TIR).
  14. South Peyrone Grove (GSNM) New discovery by Willard in 1992.
  15. Long Meadow Grove (GSNM), Site of the Trail of 100 Giants and one tree of great size.
  16. Cunningham Grove (GSNM).
  17. Starvation Creek Grove (GSNM).
  18. Packsaddle Grove (GSNM).
  19. Deer Creek Grove (GSNM). The southernmost grove.

Cannabis Cultivation

The forest has been the scene of extensive illegal marijuana cultivation, with recent involvement of Mexican drug cartels. [19] [20]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "Land Areas of the National Forest System" (PDF). U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  2. USFS Ranger Districts by State
  3. Warbington, Ralph; Beardsley, Debby (2002). "2002 Estimates of Old Growth Forests on the 18 National Forests of the Pacific Southwest Region". United States Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. Mountain Project - The Needles
  5. "Proclamation – Adding Lands to the Sequoia National Forest" . Retrieved 2009-12-04.
  6. Davis, Richard C. (September 29, 2005). National Forests of the United States (PDF). The Forest History Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2012.
  7. "SQF Complex". Inciweb. Retrieved 2021-11-13.
  8. 1 2 3 LaPrice, Eric (November 4, 2020). "Castle Fire Impacts on Giant Sequoia National Monument Groves". US Forest Service.
  9. 1 2 "Preliminary Estimates of Sequoia Mortality in the 2020 Castle Fire (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2021-11-08.
  10. Alexander, Kurtis (2021-06-04). "Super-hot California wildfire wiped out 10% of world's sequoia trees. Can they survive climate change?". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  11. "Update on 2020 wildfire in the giant sequoia range". Save the Redwoods League. 2020-11-06. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
  12. 1 2 Cag, Sue (2020-11-18). "Stagg Lives, Waterfall Perishes".
  13. 1 2 3 Cag, Sue (2021-06-25). "Mountain Home Castle Fire Update". Ilovetrees.net.
  14. Cag, Sue (October 28, 2020). "Alder Creek Grove after the SQF Complex / Castle Fire".
  15. Cag, Sue (2020-11-15). "Patriarch Tree Destroyed in the Castle Fire".
  16. "Windy Fire Information". Inciweb. Retrieved 2021-11-13.
  17. 1 2 3 Gabbert, Bill (November 4, 2021). "Officials estimate hundreds of giant sequoias were killed in the Windy Fire". Wildfire Today.
  18. Alonzo, Denise (October 12, 2021). "Work to determine damage from Windy Fire ongoing". US Forest Service.
  19. "Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Continues the Fight Against Illegal Marijuana Production" (PDF). National Park Service. 2008-03-17.
  20. "Mexican cartels running pot farms in U.S. national forest". CNN. 2008-08-08.

Related Research Articles

<i>Sequoiadendron giganteum</i> Species of tree found in North America

Sequoiadendron giganteum is the sole living species in the genus Sequoiadendron, and one of three species of coniferous trees known as redwoods, classified in the family Cupressaceae in the subfamily Sequoioideae, together with Sequoia sempervirens and Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Giant sequoia specimens are the most massive trees on Earth. The common use of the name sequoia usually refers to Sequoiadendron giganteum, which occurs naturally only in groves on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California.

Sequoia National Park National park in the Sierra Nevada mountains, California, U.S.

Sequoia National Park is an American national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California. The park was established on September 25, 1890, to protect 404,064 acres of forested mountainous terrain. Encompassing a vertical relief of nearly 13,000 feet (4,000 m), the park contains the highest point in the contiguous United States, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4,421 m) above sea level. The park is south of, and contiguous with, Kings Canyon National Park; both parks are administered by the National Park Service together as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. UNESCO designated the areas as Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976.

Calaveras Big Trees State Park State park in Calaveras and Tuolumne counties, California, United States

Calaveras Big Trees State Park is a state park of California, United States, preserving two groves of giant sequoia trees. It is located 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of Arnold, California in the middle elevations of the Sierra Nevada. It has been a major tourist attraction since 1852, when the existence of the trees was first widely reported, and is considered the longest continuously operated tourist facility in California.

Giant Sequoia National Monument National monument in the United States

The Giant Sequoia National Monument is a 328,000-acre (1,330 km2) U.S. National Monument located in the southern Sierra Nevada in eastern central California. It is administered by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Sequoia National Forest and includes 38 of the 39 Giant Sequoia groves that are located in the Sequoia National Forest, about half of the sequoia groves currently in existence, including one of the ten largest Giant Sequoias, the Boole Tree, which is 269 feet high with a base circumference of 112 feet. The forest covers 824 square miles.

Kaweah River River in the United States of America

The Kaweah River is a river draining the southern Sierra Nevada in Tulare County, California in the United States. Fed primarily by high elevation snowmelt along the Great Western Divide, the Kaweah begins as four forks in Sequoia National Park, where the watershed is noted for its alpine scenery and its dense concentrations of giant sequoias, the largest trees on Earth. It then flows in a southwest direction to Lake Kaweah – the only major reservoir on the river – and into the San Joaquin Valley, where it diverges into multiple channels across an alluvial plain around Visalia. With its Middle Fork headwaters starting at almost 13,000 feet (4,000 m) above sea level, the river has a vertical drop of nearly two and a half miles (4.0 km) on its short run to the San Joaquin Valley, making it one of the steepest river drainages in the United States. Although the main stem of the Kaweah is only 33.6 miles (54.1 km) long, its total length including headwaters and lower branches is nearly 100 miles (160 km).

Redwood Mountain Grove

Redwood Mountain Grove is the largest grove of giant sequoia trees on earth. It is located in Kings Canyon National Park and Giant Sequoia National Monument on the western slope of California's Sierra Nevada. The grove contains the world's tallest giant sequoia. The Hart Tree and Roosevelt Tree grow in the grove and are two of the 25 largest trees by volume in the world. The largest tree is the General Sherman Tree in the Giant Forest grove to the southeast.

Giant Forest Giant Forest, Sequoiadendron giganteum, most accessible of all giant sequoia groves

The Giant Forest, famed for its giant sequoia trees, is within the United States' Sequoia National Park. This montane forest, situated at over 6,000 ft (1,800 m) above mean sea level in the western Sierra Nevada of California, covers an area of 1,880 acres (7.6 km2). The Giant Forest is the most accessible of all giant sequoia groves, as it has over 40 mi (64 km) of hiking trails.

Freeman Creek Grove Giant sequoia grove in Tulare County, California, United States

Freeman Creek Grove is a grove of giant sequoias located in Giant Sequoia National Monument in the Sierra Nevada in eastern California. The area is a botanical reserve under administration by the Sequoia National Forest, except for one small inholding. The largest unlogged grove outside of a national park, it covers about 1,425 acres (5.77 km2) in the Freeman Creek Watershed, mainly south of Freeman Creek. Freeman Creek itself is a tributary of the Kern River.

Alder Creek Grove Giant sequoia grove in Tulare County, California, United States

Alder Creek Grove is a giant sequoia grove located both on private land and within the Giant Sequoia National Monument in the western Sierra Nevada of California. The grove is spread out over approximately 785 acres (318 ha) of land and contains 483 giant sequoias that are at least 25.5 feet in diameter, including the Stagg Tree, the 5th largest tree in the world and one of the oldest known living giant sequoias. Though on private land, the Rouch family made part of their land accessible to the public.

Mountain Home Grove Giant sequoia grove in Tulare County, California, United States

Mountain Home Grove is a grove of giant sequoia trees located in the southern part of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, and includes some of the largest trees in the world.

Black Mountain Grove Giant sequoia grove in Tulare County, California, United States

Black Mountain Grove is a large sequoia grove containing more than 500 large trees, on the slopes of Black Mountain located between the Middle and South Forks of Tule River. It lies partly in the Tule River Indian Reservation. Black Mountain Grove is 19.3 miles long and is the sixth largest specimens in the world of all groves. It is dry and hot during summer time which is potentially negative to the forest because it is a higher risk for wildfires. During the winter time, it is cold and fresh. The Black Mountain Grove was a highlight in history because it was the conventional point to stop logging in groves. It played a significant role in the creation of Giant Sequoia National Monument.

Boole (tree) Giant sequoia in California, United States

The Boole Tree is a giant sequoia in the Converse Basin Grove of Giant Sequoia National Monument, in the Sierra Nevada, in Fresno County, California.

Stagg (tree)

The Stagg Tree, officially the Amos Alonzo Stagg Tree and formerly known as the Day Tree, is a giant sequoia in Alder Creek Grove in California's Sierra Nevada mountains. It is the fifth largest tree in the world and the tallest giant sequoia south of Lincoln in Sequoia National Park. Stagg features the second largest footprint of any living giant sequoia, measuring 109 ft (33 m) in circumference at ground level, and second only to Boole. The tree is believed to be over 3,000 years old, making it one of the oldest living giant sequoias.

Genesis (tree)

The Genesis Tree is a giant sequoia that is the seventh largest tree in the world. It is located within the Mountain Home Grove, a giant sequoia grove located in Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest in the Sierra Nevada of eastern California. The Genesis Tree was heavily damaged by the Castle Fire in 2020.

Franklin (tree)

Franklin is a giant sequoia in Giant Forest, a sequoia grove where the largest tree in the world lives - the General Sherman. The Franklin tree is the eighth largest giant sequoia in the world. It was named by Wendell Flint after Benjamin Franklin. Nearby trees include the Washington Tree which was once the second largest tree in the world, but since it lost half its trunk in 2005 many sequoias are now larger.

Adam (tree)

The Adam Tree is a giant sequoia located in Mountain Home Grove, a sequoia grove in Giant Sequoia National Monument in the Sierra Nevada of California. It is the 21st largest giant sequoia in the world, and could be considered the 20th largest depending on how badly Ishi Giant atrophied during the Rough Fire in 2015.

Sequoia Crest, California census-designated place in California, United States

Sequoia Crest is a census-designated place (CDP) in Tulare County, California.The community of Sequoia Crest contains more than 150 Giant Sequoias scattered throughout the subdivision. Sequoia Crest sits at an elevation of 7,008 feet (2,136 m). The 2010 United States census reported Sequoia Crest's population was 10. Sequoia Crest can be reached from Porterville by 41 curvy miles most on California State Route 190 with an elevation gain of 6,549 feet.

Hercules (tree)

The Hercules Tree in the Mountain Home Grove of California is a living giant sequoia tree that has a room carved into the center of it. It is also known as the "Room Tree".

References