Ouachita National Forest

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Ouachita National Forest
IUCN category VI (protected area with sustainable use of natural resources)
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Ouachita National Forest
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Location Arkansas / Oklahoma, United States
Nearest city Hot Springs, AR
Coordinates 34°30′N94°15′W / 34.5°N 94.25°W / 34.5; -94.25 Coordinates: 34°30′N94°15′W / 34.5°N 94.25°W / 34.5; -94.25
Area1,784,457 acres (7,221.44 km2)
EstablishedDecember 18, 1907
Governing body U.S. Forest Service
Website Ouachita National Forest

The Ouachita National Forest is a National Forest that lies in the western portion of Arkansas and portions of eastern Oklahoma.

Contents

History

The Ouachita National Forest is the oldest National Forest in the southern United States. The forest encompasses 1,784,457 acres (7,221 km2), including most of the scenic Ouachita Mountains. Six locations in the forest, comprising 65,000 acres (263 km2), have been designated as wilderness areas.

Ouachita is the French spelling of the Indian word Washita, which means "good hunting grounds." The forest was known as Arkansas National Forest on its establishment on December 18, 1907; the name was changed to Ouachita National Forest on April 29, 1926. [1]

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Ouachita National Forest

Rich in history, the rugged and scenic Ouachita Mountains were explored by Europeans in 1541 by Hernando de Soto's party of Spaniards. French explorers followed, flavoring the region with names like Fourche La Fave River.

The area including the forest nearly became a 165,000-acre (670 km2) national park during the 1920s, but a last-minute pocket veto by U.S. President Calvin Coolidge ended the effort. The bill had been pushed by U.S. Senator Joseph T. Robinson and U.S. Representative Otis Wingo, both Democrats, and State Representative Osro Cobb, then the only Republican in the Arkansas legislature. Cobb had been invited to meet with Coolidge before the proposal was killed because of opposition from the National Park Service and the United States Department of Agriculture, [2] presumably because of the nearby location of Hot Springs National Park.

In a magazine article, Cobb describes the area that he had sought to protect for future generations, located approximately midway between Little Rock and Shreveport, Louisiana, as within relatively easy driving distance of 45 million Americans, many of whom could not afford long trips to the national parks in the western states. He compared flora and fauna in the Ouachita forest to those of the southern Alleghenies, a division of the Appalachian Mountains. [3] Cobb continues:

A visitor standing upon one of the many majestic peaks in the area of the proposed park is thrilled by a panoramic view that cannot be had elsewhere in the South Central States. With cheeks flushed by the invigorating mountain breezes, the mountain climber is rewarded by an inspiring view of countless and nameless peaks, mountain groups, dense forests, and inviting valleys, all merging into the distant horizon. ... there are many mountain streams, now moving slowly in narrow but deep pools, then churning with savage ferocity down some water-worn precipice, leaving in its wake snow-white sprays ... Fed by crystal springs and like so much molten silver these streams flow their turbulent courses unappreciated and rarely visited. ... [4]

Features

The Forest contains extensive woodlands of stunted Northern Red Oak, White Oak, post oak, and Blackjack Oak at elevations over 2,500 feet (760 m) and on steep, dry slopes. [5] These woodlands, of little commercial value, were never logged and the extent of old growth forest within them may total nearly 800,000 acres (3,200 km2). [5] There are also old-growth woodlands of Eastern Redcedar, Gum Bumelia, Winged Elm, and Yaupon along some streams. [5]

Two wilderness areas are found in the forest, protecting the sections of the forest that have had the least amount of human intervention. The 13,139-acre (53.2 km2) Black Fork Mountain Wilderness is located in both Arkansas and Oklahoma and contains significant old-growth forests. [5] The 9,754-acre (39.5 km2) Upper Kiamichi River Wilderness is located solely in Oklahoma.

The Talimena Scenic Drive, which is Highway 1 in Oklahoma and Highway 88 in Arkansas, is a National Scenic Byway which meanders through the forest providing amazing vistas and excellent photo opportunities. The Scenic Drive passes through old-growth oak woodlands on Winding Stair and Rich Mountains. [5] Forest headquarters are located in Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Locations of Ouachita Mountains and Ouachita National Forest in the United States Ouachita Mountains topographic v1.svg
Locations of Ouachita Mountains and Ouachita National Forest in the United States

Recreation

The forest contains a number of hiking, mountain biking, and horseback riding trails. The most extensive hiking trail is the Ouachita National Recreation Trail, which traverses 223 miles (359 km) across the region. This is a well-maintained backpacking, hiking trail with overnight shelters in several portions of the trail. Mountain biking is also allowed for some sections of the trail.

Camp Clearfork was originally constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). Managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA),it is on Clearfork Lake, about 20 miles (32 km) west of Hot Springs, Arkansas on U.S. 270. Reservations are required for camping, and may be made through the Womble USDA Office at (870) 867-2101. [6] The campground has 6 dorm/cabins which can hold up to 10 people each; 3 staff cabins that hold 5-6 people each, a dining hall, a recreation hall, and accessible flush toilets and showers. [7]

In the Oklahoma section of the forest the 26,445-acre (107 km2) Winding Stair Mountain National Recreation Area and six other designated areas offer visitors a full range of activities with more than 150 campsites, a 90-acre (36 ha) lake, and an equestrian camp.

Southeast of Idabel, the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation manages the Red Slough Wildlife Management Area, a 5,814 acres (23.53 km2) wetland area donated to the USFS by The Conservation Fund in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Hunting (no lead shot) and fishing are allowed there. The area is also a destination for birdwatchers from throughout the United States and the United Kingdom as well.

Canoeing and fishing are popular activities on the Mountain Fork River, Caddo River, Little Missouri River, and Ouachita River within the bounds of the forest. The Cossatot River, said to be the most difficult whitewater river between the Smoky and Rocky Mountains, also passes through the forest.

Rockhounds frequent a belt several miles wide containing concentrations of quartz crystals. Visitors and rock collectors are free to pick up loose crystals within the belt for personal use and may dig for quartz with the permission of the district ranger.

Counties

Ouachita National Forest is located in 13 counties in western and central Arkansas and 2 counties in southeastern Oklahoma. They are listed here in descending order of forestland within the county. Also given is their area as of September 30, 2007. [8] About 80% of the forest's area is in Arkansas, with the remaining 20% in Oklahoma. In Arkansas there are local ranger district offices located in Booneville, Danville, Glenwood, Jessieville, Mena, Mount Ida, Oden, Perryville, and Waldron. In Oklahoma they are located in Hodgen, Talihina, and north of Broken Bow. Even though the Ouachita National Forest is far from being the largest, its twelve ranger districts are the most of any in the National Forest system. The giant Tongass National Forest in Alaska is second with nine ranger district divisions. [9]

  1. Scott County, Arkansas 369,618 acres (1,495.79 km2)
  2. Montgomery County, Arkansas 335,846 acres (1,359.12 km2)
  3. Le Flore County, Oklahoma 221,546 acres (896.56 km2)
  4. Polk County, Arkansas 206,400 acres (835 km2)
  5. Yell County, Arkansas 188,835 acres (764.19 km2)
  6. McCurtain County, Oklahoma 132,936 acres (537.97 km2)
  7. Garland County, Arkansas 120,553 acres (487.86 km2)
  8. Perry County, Arkansas 99,171 acres (401.33 km2)
  9. Saline County, Arkansas 58,950 acres (238.6 km2)
  10. Sebastian County, Arkansas 18,956 acres (76.71 km2)
  11. Logan County, Arkansas 18,585 acres (75.21 km2)
  12. Pike County, Arkansas 9,535 acres (38.59 km2)
  13. Ashley County, Arkansas 1,675 acres (6.78 km2)
  14. Howard County, Arkansas 1,531 acres (6.20 km2)
  15. Hot Spring County, Arkansas 320 acres (1.3 km2)

Points of interest

Wilderness areas

There are six officially designated wilderness areas lying within Ouachita National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Ouachita Mountains

The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the northeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U.S. Interior Highlands. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet.

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Upper Kiamichi River Wilderness

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Ouachita National Recreation Trail jaylawsom

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Winding Stair Mountain National Recreation Area

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Womble Trail, located in the Ouachita National Forest in western Arkansas, United States, is a singletrack path running more than 37 miles from North Fork Lake to the Ouachita National Recreation Trail. The U.S. Forest Service trail is open for use by mountain bikers and hikers. Horses are not allowed. The nearest towns are Mount Ida and Oden.

Flatside Wilderness

The Flatside Wilderness is a rugged 9,507-acre protected area in the U.S. state of Arkansas. It is one of six wilderness areas in the Ouachita National Forest and also the easternmost. Outdoor enthusiasts can enjoy the area in a number of ways, including an 8.9-mile hike of the Ouachita National Recreation Trail.

Indian Nations National Wildlife and Scenic Area

Indian Nations National Scenic and Wildlife Area is a federally designated National Scenic Area within Ouachita National Forest 11 miles (18 km) south of Heavener, in Le Flore County, Oklahoma USA. The 41,051-acre (16,613 ha) scenic area is administered by the U.S. Forest Service. The scenic area includes the Homer L. Johnson Wildlife Management Area. There is also a 15-acre (6.1 ha) fishing lake atop Post Mountain,developed by the U. S. Forest Service during the 1930s, is included within the scenic area.

Talimena State Park

Talimena State Park is an Oklahoma state park located in LeFlore County in eastern Oklahoma. The 20 acres (8.1 ha) park is at the Oklahoma entrance to Talimena Scenic Drive, about 7 miles (11 km) north of Talihina, Oklahoma. and 20 miles (32 km) south of Wister. It offers opportunities for camping, hiking, biking, and wildlife watching.

The Winding Stair Mountains is a mountain ridge located within the state of Oklahoma in Le Flore County, north of Talihina.

References

  1. Davis, Richard C. (September 29, 2005). "National Forests of the United States" (PDF). The Forest History Society.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. Osro Cobb, Osro Cobb of Arkansas (Little Rock, Arkansas: Rose Publishing Company, 1989), pp. 41–44
  3. Cobb, p. 282
  4. Cobb, p. 285
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Mary Byrd Davis (23 January 2008). "Old Growth in the East: A Survey. Arkansas" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2009.
  6. "Camp Clearfork." USDA Forest Service. Undated Accessed June 17, 2018.
  7. "Camp Clearfork Group Camp." Explore the Ozarks. Accessed June 17, 2018.
  8. "Table 6 - NFS Acreage by State, Congressional District and County". fs.fed.us. 10 October 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  9. USFS Ranger Districts by State