Mount Magazine

Last updated
Mount Magazine
20131026 1521 Mount Magazine.png
Looking west from Mount Magazine's Cameron Bluff (October 2013)
Highest point
Elevation 2,753 ft (839 m)  NAVD 88 [1]
Prominence 2,143 ft (653 m) [2]
Listing
Coordinates 35°10′01″N93°38′41″W / 35.167016203°N 93.644725919°W / 35.167016203; -93.644725919 Coordinates: 35°10′01″N93°38′41″W / 35.167016203°N 93.644725919°W / 35.167016203; -93.644725919 [1]
Geography
USA Arkansas location map.svg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Mount Magazine
Location Logan County, Arkansas, U.S.
Parent range Ouachita Mountains, U.S. Interior Highlands
Topo map USGS Blue Mountain

Mount Magazine, officially named Magazine Mountain, is the highest point of the U.S. Interior Highlands and the U.S. state of Arkansas, and is the site of Mount Magazine State Park. [3] It is a flat-topped mountain or mesa capped by hard rock and rimmed by precipitous cliffs. There are two summits atop the mountain: Signal Hill, which reaches 2,753 feet (839 m), and Mossback Ridge, which reaches 2,700 ft (823.0 m).

Contents

Etymology

Mount Magazine gets its name from French explorers who, while traveling through the area, witnessed a landslide on the mountain. The noise from the landslide was so great that one explorer described it as the sound of an ammunition magazine exploding, hence the name "Magazine".

The U.S. Geological Survey's Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) indicates that the official name of this landform is "Magazine Mountain", not "Mount Magazine". Generally "Mount [Name]" is used for peaks and "[Name] Mountain" is used for ridges, which better describes this landform. Mount Magazine appears in the GNIS as a ridge with Signal Hill as its summit. [4] [5] "Mount Magazine" is the name used by the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, which follows what the locals have used since the area was first settled.

Mount Magazine is often called "the highest point between the Alleghenies and the Rockies", but there are many parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota with higher elevations. [6]

Location

Mount Magazine is located due north of Blue Mountain Lake in Logan County, Arkansas, approximately 45 mi (72 km) east of the Arkansas-Oklahoma border. The most scenic route to the top is a 10 mi (16 km) drive along Highway 309 (also known as the Mount Magazine Scenic Byway) from Havana.

Many consider Mount Magazine to be part of the Ouachita Mountains, though it is really part of the Arkansas River Valley. [7] It lies within a southern extension of the Ozark National Forest despite being much closer to the Ouachita National Forest.

Climate

The climate is very different from the typical climate of the Arkansas state as temperatures remain 10 degrees cooler than normal temperatures in the valleys. The year-round temperature remains at least 56 degrees, Fahrenheit. The park gets 54 inches of rainfall every year, and due to the low clouds, there is fog and limited visibility all year for eight days each month. [8]

Summer (Hottest)

The summer temperature never reaches 100 degrees Fahrenheit on the mountaintop and the hottest average temperature during the summer in the park is 90 degrees Fahrenheit. [8]

Winter (Coldest)

The mountain has limited forest due to the harsh weather during the wintertime. Normal conditions like frost, sleet, hail, snow, and freezing rain can cause the limbs on trees to snap. Higher up on the mountain, frost flowers, ice crystals, hoarfrost, rime ice, and freezing fog can occur. [8]
Climate data for Mount Magazine, Arkansas (1948–1966)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)76
(24)
71
(22)
80
(27)
89
(32)
94
(34)
100
(38)
104
(40)
105
(41)
98
(37)
92
(33)
78
(26)
76
(24)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C)44.8
(7.1)
48.6
(9.2)
54.1
(12.3)
66.6
(19.2)
74.1
(23.4)
82.3
(27.9)
85.3
(29.6)
84.9
(29.4)
78.9
(26.1)
68.8
(20.4)
55.2
(12.9)
47.5
(8.6)
65.9
(18.8)
Average low °F (°C)27.3
(−2.6)
30.1
(−1.1)
34.7
(1.5)
46.7
(8.2)
56.7
(13.7)
63.9
(17.7)
66.9
(19.4)
66.4
(19.1)
59.8
(15.4)
50.5
(10.3)
37.5
(3.1)
30.8
(−0.7)
47.6
(8.7)
Record low °F (°C)−9
(−23)
−7
(−22)
2
(−17)
21
(−6)
28
(−2)
43
(6)
53
(12)
51
(11)
39
(4)
21
(−6)
0
(−18)
−5
(−21)
−9
(−23)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.94
(100)
4.06
(103)
5.38
(137)
5.74
(146)
6.24
(158)
4.53
(115)
6.25
(159)
4.41
(112)
3.85
(98)
3.49
(89)
3.47
(88)
2.56
(65)
53.92
(1,370)
Average snowfall inches (cm)2.2
(5.6)
2.5
(6.4)
0.7
(1.8)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.7
(1.8)
0.7
(1.8)
6.8
(17.4)
Source: WRCC [9]

Geology

Looking north from Mount Magazine's Cameron Bluff, October 2013 20131026 1523 Mount Magazine.png
Looking north from Mount Magazine's Cameron Bluff, October 2013

As the South American plate collided with the North American plate during the late Paleozoic, a major foreland basin, the Arkoma Basin, developed north of the Ouachita Mountains. [10] Small grains of sediment that had filled the Arkoma Basin were compacted and cemented into sedimentary rock. [10] As the land rose above sea level, small streams developed that eventually merged into the Arkansas River. [11] After millions of years of erosion, synclines like Mount Magazine have become the most positive topographic features; this phenomenon is the result of the rapid weathering of shales once sandstones were breached on the flanks of surrounding anticlines. [12]

Mount Magazine is a broad mesa composed of Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks deposited in various shallow-water environments. [13] Like many mountains in the western Arkansas River Valley, Mount Magazine is capped by the Savanna Formation, a sequence of shale, siltstone, and sandstone; the upper portion of this sequence is missing throughout most of Arkansas. [13] The Savanna Formation is conformable with the underlying McAlester Formation, a sequence of shale, siltstone, sandstone, and a number of coal beds. [13] The McAlester Formation is conformable with the underlying Hartshorne Sandstone, a prominent ledge-former under favorable structural conditions. [13] The Hartshorne Sandstone is unconformable with the underlying Atoka Formation. This unit has the largest areal extent of any of the Paleozoic formations in Arkansas, extending as far north as the Boston Mountains, and is divided into upper, middle, and lower members. [13] [7]


Nature & Attractions

Mount Magazine promotes environment conservation through an Eco-friendly nature attraction which allows visitors to explore nature. [14] It also consists of 18 campsites for nature-lovers. [15] An annual butterfly festival is hosted each June in the Paris town square. [16]

Animals

The park is home to many endangered species including the Shagreen Snail, Black Bear, White-Tailed Deer, Rufous-Crowned Sparrows (rare), and 94 of the 134 butterfly species of Arkansas. The most rare butterfly species is the Diana Fritillary. [17]

Activities

Activities include the following: hiking, biking, bird watching, horseback riding, hang gliding, rappelling, rock climbing, sightseeing, and photography. [14] ATV riding is also allowed as there is a guide to the activity. [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

Boston Mountains

The Boston Mountains is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. states of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Part of the Ozark Mountains, the Boston Mountains are a deeply dissected plateau. The ecoregion is steeper than the adjacent Springfield Plateau to the north, and bordered on the south by the Arkansas Valley. The Oklahoma portion of the range is locally referred to as the Cookson Hills.

Ouachita Mountains

The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the northeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U.S. Interior Highlands. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet.

Tuscarora Sandstone

The Silurian Tuscarora Formation — also known as Tuscarora Sandstone or Tuscarora Quartzite — is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia, USA.

Juniata Formation

The Ordovician Juniata Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania and Maryland. It is a relative slope-former occurring between the two prominent ridge-forming sandstone units: the Tuscarora Formation and the Bald Eagle Formation in the Appalachian Mountains.

Reedsville Formation

The Ordovician Reedsville Formation is a mapped surficial bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee, that extends into the subsurface of Ohio. This rock is a slope-former adjacent to the prominent ridge-forming Bald Eagle sandstone unit in the Appalachian Mountains. It is often abbreviated Or on geologic maps.

Clinton Group Lithostratigraphic unit

The Clinton Group is a mapped unit of sedimentary rock found throughout eastern North America. The interval was first defined by the geologist Lardner Vanuxem, who derived the name from the village of Clinton in Oneida County, New York where several well exposed outcrops of these strata can be found. The Clinton Group and its lateral equivalents extend throughout much of the Appalachian Foreland Basin, a major structural and depositional province extending from New York to Alabama. The term has been employed in Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, though in many of these areas the same interval is referred to as the Rose Hill, Rockwood, or Red Mountain Formations. Historically the term "Clinton" has also been assigned to several lower Silurian stratigraphic units in Ohio and Kentucky which are now known to be significantly older than the Clinton Group as it was originally defined. Many parts of this succession are richly fossiliferous, making the Clinton Group an important record of marine life during the early Silurian. Several economically valuable rock-types are found within this interval, though it is perhaps best known as a significant source of iron ore

The Devonian Mahantango Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland. It is named for the North branch of the Mahantango Creek in Perry and Juniata counties in Pennsylvania. It is a member of the Hamilton Group, along with the underlying the Marcellus Formation Shale. South of Tuscarora Mountain in south central Pennsylvania, the lower members of this unit were also mapped as the Montebello Formation. Details of the type section and of stratigraphic nomenclature for this unit as used by the U.S. Geological Survey are available on-line at the National Geologic Map Database.

Nikanassin Formation

The Nikanassin Formation is a stratigraphic unit of Late Jurassic (Portlandian) to Early Cretaceous (Barremian) age. It is present along the western edge of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin in western Alberta and northeastern British Columbia. Its name was first proposed by D.B. Dowling in 1909 (Coal Fields South of Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountain, Alberta Page 140 paragraph 4 " to this it is proposed to give the name Nikanassin, from the Cree word meaning outer range" Also it is noted on the map by D.B. Dowling.(Geological Survey of Canada. Incorrect info follows: It was named by B.R. MacKay in 1929 for the Nikanassin Range of the front-central ranges of the Canadian Rockies. Mackay did not designate a type locality for the formation, although he described outcrops near the hamlet of Brûlé, north of the Yellowhead Highway outside of Jasper National Park.

Dunvegan Formation

The Dunvegan Formation is a stratigraphical unit of Cenomanian age in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin.

The Alberta Group is a stratigraphical unit of Cenomanian to early Campanian age in the Lewis overthrust in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin.

Flatside Wilderness

The Flatside Wilderness is a rugged 9,507-acre protected area in the U.S. state of Arkansas. It is one of six wilderness areas in the Ouachita National Forest and also the easternmost. Outdoor enthusiasts can enjoy the area in a number of ways, including an 8.9-mile hike of the Ouachita National Recreation Trail.

Named after Atoka County, Oklahoma, the Atoka Formation is a geologic formation in central and western Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma, central and western Texas, and eastern New Mexico. It is the surface rock of the Boston Mountains and dominates exposures in the Frontal Ouachita Mountains of the Arkansas River Valley.

The Mount Whyte Formation is a stratigraphic unit that is present on the western edge of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin in the southern Canadian Rockies and the adjacent southwestern Alberta plains. It was deposited during Middle Cambrian time and consists of shale interbedded with other siliciclastic rock types and limestones. It was named for Mount Whyte in Banff National Park by Charles Doolittle Walcott, the discoverer of the Burgess shale fossils, and it includes several genera of fossil trilobites.

Monteith Formation

The Monteith Formation is a geologic formation of Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin that consists primarily of sandstone. It is present in the northern foothills of the Canadian Rockies and the adjacent plains in northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta.

Pinnacle Mountain (Arkansas) Mountain in Pulaski County, Arkansas

Pinnacle Mountain is the second highest natural point in Pulaski County, Arkansas and main attraction of the 2,356-acre Pinnacle Mountain State Park. It is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains just outside of Little Rock, the capital and most populous city of Arkansas.

The Stanley Shale, or Stanley Group, is a Mississippian stratigraphic unit in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma. First described in Arkansas in 1892, this unit was not named until 1902 by J.A. Taff in his study of the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma. Taff assigned the town of Stanley in Pushmataha County, Oklahoma as the type locality, but did not designate a stratotype. After introduction into Arkansas in 1909 by Albert Homer Purdue, the unit was redefined in 1918, when the formation known as the Fork Mountain Slate was abandoned and partially combined into the Stanley Shale. As of 2017, a reference section for the Stanley Shale has yet to be designated.

The McAlester Formation is a Pennsylvanian geologic formation in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Early descriptions of this unit considered it to be part of the Coal Measures, part of the Upper or Western Coal Bearing Division, the Spadra Stage and part of the Sebastian Stage, and part of the Cavaniol Group. In 1899, J.A. Taff introduced the McAlester Formation name in his study of the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma. The name was introduced into Arkansas in 1907 as the McAlester Group, where it consisted of the formations known as the Spadra Shale, the Fort Smith Formation, and the Paris Shale. These formations was redefined and replaced in 1960, when the McAlester Shale replaced the Spadra Shale and the lower Fort Smith Formation. The McAlester Formation is informally recognized with three sub-units in Arkansas: the Lower and Upper Hartshorne coal beds, and the McAlester coal bed. Taff assigned the type locality near the town of McAlester in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, however he did not state whether the town is the origin of the name. Taff did not designate a stratotype and, as of 2017, a reference section for the McAlester Formation has not been designated.

The Savanna Sandstone or Savanna Formation is a Pennsylvanian geologic formation in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Early descriptions of this unit have considered it to be part of the Coal Measures, part of the Upper or Western Coal Bearing Division, part of the Sebastian Stage, and part of the Cavaniol Group. In 1899, J.A. Taff introduced the Savanna Formation name in his study of the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma. The name was introduced into Arkansas in 1907, although in 1950, the interval was renamed the Boggy Formation, while the name "Savanna Formation" replaced the underlying interval consisting of the upper Fort Smith Formation and the lower Paris Shale. The Savanna Formation is informally recognized with two named sub-units in Arkansas: the Charleston and Paris coal beds. Taff assigned the type area to the towns of McAlester and Savanna in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, however he did not state whether the town of Savanna is the origin of the name. Taff did not designate a stratotype, however, a reference section was designated in 1995 in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma.

Arkansas Valley (ecoregion)

The Arkansas Valley is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. states of Arkansas and Oklahoma. It parallels the Arkansas River between the flat plains of western Oklahoma and the Arkansas Delta, dividing the Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains with the broad valleys created by the river's floodplain, occasionally interrupted by low hills, scattered ridges, and mountains. In Arkansas, the region is often known as the Arkansas River Valley, especially when describing the history and culture of the region.

Eldon Formation Geologic formation in Canada

The Eldon Formation is a stratigraphic unit that is present on the western edge of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin in the southern Canadian Rockies of southwestern Alberta and southeastern British Columbia. It is a thick sequence of massive, cliff-forming limestones and dolomites that was named for Eldon Switch on the Canadian Pacific Railway near Castle Mountain in Banff National Park by Charles Doolittle Walcott, who discovered the Burgess Shale fossils. The Eldon Formation was deposited during Middle Cambrian time, and it includes fossil stromatolites. The Eldon forms the scenic cliffs at the top of Castle Mountain, and can also be seen at Mount Yamnuska and other mountains in Banff and Yoho National Parks.

References

  1. 1 2 "MAG". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey . Retrieved 2008-12-16.
  2. "Magazine Mountain, Arkansas". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2012-10-17.
  3. "Mount Magazine State Park". Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  4. "Magazine Mountain". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  5. "Signal Hill". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  6. "Arkansas's Highpoint Information" (PDF). Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-06. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  7. 1 2 "Geologic Map of Arkansas" (PDF). Arkansas Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-10-22.
  8. 1 2 3 "Mount Magazine Weather | Arkansas State Parks". www.arkansasstateparks.com. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  9. "Western Regional Climate Center" . Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  10. 1 2 Morris, R.C. (1974). "Sedimentary and Tectonic History of the Ouachita Mountains". The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publications. 22.
  11. "The Geologic History of Mount Magazine" (pdf). Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Retrieved 2017-10-24.
  12. "Stratigraphic Summary of the Arkansas River Valley and Ouachita Mountains". Arkansas Geological Survey. Archived from the original (website) on 2018-05-29. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 "Geologic Map of Mount Magazine State Park and Vicinity" (PDF). Arkansas Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-10-22.
  14. 1 2 "Mount Magazine Birding & Wildlife | Arkansas State Parks". www.arkansasstateparks.com. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  15. 1 2 "Mt Magazine State Park of Arkansas | Explore the Ozarks". www.exploretheozarksonline.com. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  16. "Encyclopedia of Arkansas". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  17. "Encyclopedia of Arkansas". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved 2020-03-17.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Mount Magazine at Wikimedia Commons