Mount Magazine

Last updated
Mount Magazine
20131026 1521 Mount Magazine.png
Looking west from Mount Magazine's Cameron Bluff (October 2013)
Highest point
Elevation 2,753 ft (839 m)  NAVD 88 [1]
Prominence 2,143 ft (653 m) [2]
Listing
Coordinates 35°10′01″N93°38′41″W / 35.167016203°N 93.644725919°W / 35.167016203; -93.644725919 Coordinates: 35°10′01″N93°38′41″W / 35.167016203°N 93.644725919°W / 35.167016203; -93.644725919 [1]
Geography
USA Arkansas location map.svg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Mount Magazine
Location Logan County, Arkansas, U.S.
Parent range Ouachita Mountains, U.S. Interior Highlands
Topo map USGS Blue Mountain

Mount Magazine, officially named Magazine Mountain, is the highest point of the U.S. Interior Highlands and the U.S. state of Arkansas, and is the site of Mount Magazine State Park. [3] It is a flat-topped mountain or mesa capped by hard rock and rimmed by precipitous cliffs. There are two summits atop the mountain: Signal Hill, which reaches 2,753 feet (839 m), and Mossback Ridge, which reaches 2,700 ft (823.0 m).

U.S. Interior Highlands mountainous region in the Central United States

The U.S. Interior Highlands is a mountainous region in the Central United States spanning northern and western Arkansas, southern Missouri, eastern Oklahoma, and extreme southeastern Kansas. The name is designated by the United States Geological Survey to refer to the combined subregions of the Ouachita Mountains and the Ozark Plateaus. The U.S. Interior Highlands is one of few mountainous regions between the Appalachians and Rockies.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Arkansas State of the United States of America

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Contents

Etymology

Mount Magazine gets its name from French explorers who, while traveling through the area, witnessed a landslide on the mountain. The noise from the landslide was so great that one explorer described it as the sound of an ammunition magazine exploding, hence the name "Magazine".

Magazine (artillery) Place of storage for ammunition or other explosive material

Magazine is the name for an item or place within which ammunition or other explosive material is stored. It is taken originally from the Arabic word "makhāzin" (مخازن), meaning storehouses, via Italian and Middle French.

The U.S. Geological Survey's Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) indicates that the official name of this landform is "Magazine Mountain", not "Mount Magazine". Generally "Mount [Name]" is used for peaks and "[Name] Mountain" is used for ridges, which better describes this landform. Mount Magazine appears in the GNIS as a ridge with Signal Hill as its summit. [4] [5] "Mount Magazine" is the name used by the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, which follows what the locals have used since the area was first settled.

Geographic Names Information System geographical database

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names.

The Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism (ADPT) is a department of the U.S. state of Arkansas charged with promoting, protecting, interpreting, and managing the state's natural and cultural resources. The department is also tasked with increasing tourism and promoting individuals, families, and businesses to relocate to Arkansas.

Mount Magazine is often called "the highest point between the Alleghenies and the Rockies", but there are many parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota with higher elevations. [6]

Allegheny Mountains mountain range

The Allegheny Mountain Range, informally the Alleghenies and also spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. The barrier range has a northeast–southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles (640 km) from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia.

Rocky Mountains mountain range in North America

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers (3,000 mi) from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, and the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west.

Location

Mount Magazine is located due north of Blue Mountain Lake in Logan County, Arkansas, approximately 45 mi (72 km) east of the Arkansas-Oklahoma border. The most scenic route to the top is a 10 mi (16 km) drive along Highway 309 (also known as the Mount Magazine Scenic Byway) from Havana.

Blue Mountain Lake (Arkansas)

Blue Mountain Lake is a reservoir in Arkansas, United States. A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lake on the Petit Jean River in west central Arkansas, Blue Mountain Lake has approximately 50 miles of shoreline, located between Mount Magazine and the Ouachita Mountains just west of Havana, Arkansas.

Logan County, Arkansas County in the United States

Logan County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,353. There are two county seats: Booneville and Paris.

Arkansas Highway 309 highway in Arkansas

Arkansas Highway 309 is a designation for two state highways in Western Arkansas. One route of 5.11 miles (8.22 km) runs from Yell County Route 28 (CR 28) at Blue Mountain Lake northeast to Highway 10 at Waveland. A second segment begins at Highway 10 in Havana and winds northwest through the Ozark National Forest to Highway 23 at Webb City via Paris. A portion of the second route is designated as the Mount Magazine Scenic Byway, one of eleven Arkansas Scenic Byways maintained by the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department (AHTD).

Many consider Mount Magazine to be part of the Ouachita Mountains, though it is really part of the Arkansas River Valley. [7] It lies within a southern extension of the Ozark National Forest despite being much closer to the Ouachita National Forest.

Ouachita Mountains

The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the southeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U.S. Interior Highlands. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet.

Arkansas River Valley Region in Arkansas, United States

The Arkansas River Valley is a region in Arkansas defined by the Arkansas River in the western part of the state. Generally defined as the area between the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains, the River Valley is characterized by flat lowlands covered in fertile farmland and lakes periodically interrupted by high peaks. Mount Magazine, Mount Nebo, and Petit Jean Mountain compose the Tri-Peaks Region, a further subdivision of the River Valley popular with hikers and outdoors enthusiasts. In addition to the outdoor recreational activities available to residents and visitors of the region, the River Valley contains Arkansas's wine country as well as hundreds of historical sites throughout the area.It is one of six natural divisions of Arkansas.

Ouachita National Forest

The Ouachita National Forest is a National Forest that lies in the western portion of Arkansas and portions of eastern Oklahoma.

Climate

Climate data for Mount Magazine, Arkansas (1948–1966)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)76
(24)
71
(22)
80
(27)
89
(32)
94
(34)
100
(38)
104
(40)
105
(41)
98
(37)
92
(33)
78
(26)
76
(24)
105
(41)
Average high °F (°C)44.8
(7.1)
48.6
(9.2)
54.1
(12.3)
66.6
(19.2)
74.1
(23.4)
82.3
(27.9)
85.3
(29.6)
84.9
(29.4)
78.9
(26.1)
68.8
(20.4)
55.2
(12.9)
47.5
(8.6)
65.9
(18.8)
Average low °F (°C)27.3
(−2.6)
30.1
(−1.1)
34.7
(1.5)
46.7
(8.2)
56.7
(13.7)
63.9
(17.7)
66.9
(19.4)
66.4
(19.1)
59.8
(15.4)
50.5
(10.3)
37.5
(3.1)
30.8
(−0.7)
47.6
(8.7)
Record low °F (°C)−9
(−23)
−7
(−22)
2
(−17)
21
(−6)
28
(−2)
43
(6)
53
(12)
51
(11)
39
(4)
21
(−6)
0
(−18)
−5
(−21)
−9
(−23)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.94
(100)
4.06
(103)
5.38
(137)
5.74
(146)
6.24
(158)
4.53
(115)
6.25
(159)
4.41
(112)
3.85
(98)
3.49
(89)
3.47
(88)
2.56
(65)
53.92
(1,370)
Average snowfall inches (cm)2.2
(6)
2.5
(6)
0.7
(2)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.7
(2)
0.7
(2)
6.8
(18)
Source: WRCC [8]

Geology

Looking north from Mount Magazine's Cameron Bluff, October 2013 20131026 1523 Mount Magazine.png
Looking north from Mount Magazine's Cameron Bluff, October 2013

As the South American plate collided with the North American plate during the late Paleozoic, a major foreland basin, the Arkoma Basin, developed north of the Ouachita Mountains. [9] Small grains of sediment that had filled the Arkoma Basin were compacted and cemented into sedimentary rock. [9] As the land rose above sea level, small streams developed that eventually merged into the Arkansas River. [10] After millions of years of erosion, synclines like Mount Magazine have become the most positive topographic features; this phenomenon is the result of the rapid weathering of shales once sandstones were breached on the flanks of surrounding anticlines. [11]

Mount Magazine is a broad mesa composed of Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks deposited in various shallow-water environments. [12] Like many mountains in the western Arkansas River Valley, Mount Magazine is capped by the Savanna Formation, a sequence of shale, siltstone, and sandstone; the upper portion of this sequence is missing throughout most of Arkansas. [12] The Savanna Formation is conformable with the underlying McAlester Formation, a sequence of shale, siltstone, sandstone, and a number of coal beds. [12] The McAlester Formation is conformable with the underlying Hartshorne Sandstone, a prominent ledge-former under favorable structural conditions. [12] The Hartshorne Sandstone is unconformable with the underlying Atoka Formation. This unit has the largest areal extent of any of the Paleozoic formations in Arkansas, extending as far north as the Boston Mountains, and is divided into upper, middle, and lower members. [12] [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Perth Basin is a thick, elongated sedimentary basin in Western Australia. It lies beneath the Swan Coastal Plain west of the Darling Scarp, representing the western limit of the much older Yilgarn Craton, and extends further west offshore. Cities and towns including Perth, Busselton, Bunbury, Mandurah and Geraldton are built over the Perth Basin.

San Juan Basin geologic structural basin

The San Juan Basin is a geologic structural basin located near the Four Corners region of the Southwestern United States. The basin covers 7,500 square miles and resides in northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado, and parts of Utah and Arizona. Specifically, the basin occupies space in the San Juan, Rio Arriba, Sandoval, and McKinley counties in New Mexico, and La Plata and Archuleta counties in Colorado. The basin extends roughly 100 miles N-S and 90 miles E-W.

Juniata Formation

The Ordovician Juniata Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania and Maryland. It is a relative slope-former occurring between the two prominent ridge-forming sandstone units: the Tuscarora Formation and the Bald Eagle Formation in the Appalachian Mountains.

Reedsville Formation

The Ordovician Reedsville Formation is a mapped surficial bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee, that extends into the subsurface of Ohio. This rock is a slope-former adjacent to the prominent ridge-forming Bald Eagle sandstone unit in the Appalachian Mountains. It is often abbreviated Or on geologic maps.

Hamilton Group

The Devonian Hamilton Group is a mapped bedrock unit in the United States. The unit is present in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio and West Virginia. In Virginia, it is known as the laterally equivalent Millboro Shale. The group is named for the village of Hamilton, New York. Details of stratigraphic nomenclature for this unit as used by the U.S. Geological Survey are available on-line from the National Geologic Map Database. These rocks are the oldest strata of the Devonian gas shale sequence.

The Devonian Mahantango Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland. It is named for the North branch of the Mahantango Creek in Perry and Juniata counties in Pennsylvania. It is a member of the Hamilton Group, along with the underlying the Marcellus Formation Shale. South of Tuscarora Mountain in south central Pennsylvania, the lower members of this unit were also mapped as the Montebello Formation. Details of the type section and of stratigraphic nomenclature for this unit as used by the U.S. Geological Survey are available on-line at the National Geologic Map Database.

Pottsville Formation

The Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation is a mapped bedrock unit in Pennsylvania, western Maryland, West Virginia, and Ohio. The formation is also recognized in Alabama. It is a major ridge-former in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians of the eastern United States. The Pottsville Formation is conspicuous at many sites along the Allegheny Front, the eastern escarpment of the Allegheny or Appalachian Plateau.

Bullhead Group is a stratigraphic unit of Lower Cretaceous age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin of northeastern British Columbia and western Alberta. It was first defined by F.H. McLearn in 1918 as the Bullhead Mountain Formation, but later was upgraded to group status. It consists of the Cadomin and Gething Formations, although some early workers included the Bluesky Formation and others in the group.

Spirit River Formation

The Spirit River Formation is a stratigraphical unit of middle Albian age in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin.

Dunvegan Formation

The Dunvegan Formation is a stratigraphical unit of Cenomanian age in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin.

The Joli Fou Formation is a stratigraphical unit of middle Albian age in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. It takes the name from the Joli Fou Rapids on the Athabasca River, and was first described in an outcrop along the river, 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) downstream from Joli Fou Rapids, by RTD Wickenden in 1949.

The Mist Mountain Formation is a latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous geologic formation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin of southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta. It was named for outcrops along a western spur of Mist Mountain in the Canadian Rockies of Alberta. It contains economically important coal reserves that are mined in southeastern British Columbia.

Coldwater Sandstone

The Coldwater Sandstone is a sedimentary geologic unit of Eocene age found in Southern California, primarily in and south of the Santa Ynez Mountains of Santa Barbara County, and east into Ventura County. It consists primarily of massive arkosic sandstone with some siltstone and shale. Being exceptionally resistant to erosion, outcrops of the Coldwater form some of the most dramatic terrain on the south slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains, with immense white sculpted slabs forming peaks, hogback ridges, and sheer cliff faces.

Morrissey Formation

The Morrissey Formation is a stratigraphic unit of Late Jurassic (Portlandian) age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. It is named for outcrops on Morrissey Ridge, 16 kilometres (10 mi) southeast of Fernie, British Columbia, and is present in southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta.

Named after Atoka County, Oklahoma, the Atoka Formation is a geologic formation in central and western Arkansas, eastern Oklahoma, central and western Texas, and eastern New Mexico. It is the surface rock of the Boston Mountains and dominates exposures in the Frontal Ouachita Mountains of the Arkansas River Valley.

Monteith Formation

The Monteith Formation is a geologic formation of Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin that consists primarily of sandstone. It is present in the northern foothills of the Canadian Rockies and the adjacent plains in northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta.

Pinnacle Mountain (Arkansas)

Pinnacle Mountain is the second highest natural point in Pulaski County, Arkansas and main attraction of the 2,356-acre Pinnacle Mountain State Park. It is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains just outside of Little Rock, the capital and most populous city of Arkansas.

The McAlester Formation is a Pennsylvanian geologic formation in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Early descriptions of this unit considered it to be part of the Coal Measures, part of the Upper or Western Coal Bearing Division, the Spadra Stage and part of the Sebastian Stage, and part of the Cavaniol Group. In 1899, J.A. Taff introduced the McAlester Formation name in his study of the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma. The name was introduced into Arkansas in 1907 as the McAlester Group, where it consisted of the formations known as the Spadra Shale, the Fort Smith Formation, and the Paris Shale. These formations was redefined and replaced in 1960, when the McAlester Shale replaced the Spadra Shale and the lower Fort Smith Formation. The McAlester Formation is informally recognized with three sub-units in Arkansas: the Lower and Upper Hartshorne coal beds, and the McAlester coal bed. Taff assigned the type locality near the town of McAlester in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, however he did not state whether the town is the origin of the name. Taff did not designate a stratotype and, as of 2017, a reference section for the McAlester Formation has not been designated.

The Savanna Sandstone or Savanna Formation is a Pennsylvanian geologic formation in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Early descriptions of this unit have considered it to be part of the Coal Measures, part of the Upper or Western Coal Bearing Division, part of the Sebastian Stage, and part of the Cavaniol Group. In 1899, J.A. Taff introduced the Savanna Formation name in his study of the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma. The name was introduced into Arkansas in 1907, although in 1950, the interval was renamed the Boggy Formation, while the name "Savanna Formation" replaced the underlying interval consisting of the upper Fort Smith Formation and the lower Paris Shale. The Savanna Formation is informally recognized with two named sub-units in Arkansas: the Charleston and Paris coal beds. Taff assigned the type area to the towns of McAlester and Savanna in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, however he did not state whether the town of Savanna is the origin of the name. Taff did not designate a stratotype, however, a reference section was designated in 1995 in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma.

References

  1. 1 2 "MAG". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey . Retrieved 2008-12-16.
  2. "Magazine Mountain, Arkansas". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2012-10-17.
  3. "Mount Magazine State Park". Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  4. "Magazine Mountain". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  5. "Signal Hill". Geographic Names Information System . United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  6. "Arkansas's Highpoint Information" (PDF). Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism . Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  7. 1 2 "Geologic Map of Arkansas" (PDF). Arkansas Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-10-22.
  8. "Western Regional Climate Center" . Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  9. 1 2 Morris, R.C. (1974). "Sedimentary and Tectonic History of the Ouachita Mountains". The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publications. 22.
  10. "The Geologic History of Mount Magazine" (pdf). Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism. Retrieved 2017-10-24.
  11. "Stratigraphic Summary of the Arkansas River Valley and Ouachita Mountains" (website). Arkansas Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 "Geologic Map of Mount Magazine State Park and Vicinity" (PDF). Arkansas Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-10-22.

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