Summit

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Climbers from the Dominican Republic on the world's highest summit, Mount Everest. Ivan Ernesto Gomez Carrasco en la cima del Monte Everest.jpg
Climbers from the Dominican Republic on the world's highest summit, Mount Everest.
View from the summit of Switzerland's highest, Monte Rosa Monte Rosa summit.jpg
View from the summit of Switzerland's highest, Monte Rosa

A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex, peak (mountain peak), and zenith are synonymous.

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The term top (mountain top) is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock then to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may also refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route.

The highest summit in the world is Mount Everest with a height of 8844.43 m above sea level (29,029 ft). The first official ascent was made by Tenzing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hillary. They reached the mountain's peak in 1953. [1] [2]

Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective. The UIAA definition of a peak is that it has a prominence of 30 metre s (98  ft ) or more; it is a mountain summit if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres (980 ft). Otherwise, it's a subpeak.

Siskiyou Mountain Summit sign along Interstate 5, marking the highest point along the highway at 4,310 ft (1,310 m) SiskiyouSummit.jpg
Siskiyou Mountain Summit sign along Interstate 5, marking the highest point along the highway at 4,310 ft (1,310 m)

In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit.

The summit of Mount Damavand, Iran Damavand-Iran-2018.jpg
The summit of Mount Damavand, Iran
Doso Doyabi, one of the highest peaks entirely within Nevada, United States View of Doso Doyabi from Wheeler Peak.jpg
Doso Doyabi, one of the highest peaks entirely within Nevada, United States
Mount Elbrus and its two peaks (Caucasus, Russia) Mt Elbrus Caucasus.jpg
Mount Elbrus and its two peaks (Caucasus, Russia)

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Mountain A large landform that rises fairly steeply above the surrounding land over a limited area

A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges.

Mount Everest Earths highest mountain, part of the Himalaya between Nepal and Tibet

Mount Everest is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between Nepal and China runs across its summit point.

Cho Oyu mountain in Asia

Cho Oyu is the sixth-highest mountain in the world at 8,188 metres (26,864 ft) above sea level. Cho Oyu means "Turquoise Goddess" in Tibetan. The mountain is the westernmost major peak of the Khumbu sub-section of the Mahalangur Himalaya 20 km west of Mount Everest. The mountain stands on the China–Nepal border.

Kamet mountain

Kamet is the second highest mountain in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India, after Nanda Devi. It lies in the Chamoli District of Uttarakhand. Its appearance resembles a giant pyramid topped by a flat summit area with two peaks.

Topographic prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hills summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it; it is a measure of the independence of a summit

In topography, prominence measures the height of a mountain or hill's summit relative to the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various criteria.

Highest unclimbed mountain A summit never reached by mountaineers

An unclimbed mountain is a mountain peak that has yet to be climbed to the top. Determining which unclimbed peak is highest is often a matter of controversy. In some parts of the world, surveying and mapping are still unreliable. There are no comprehensive records of the routes of explorers, mountaineers, and local inhabitants. In some cases, even modern ascents by larger parties have been poorly documented and, with no universally recognized listing, the best that can be achieved in determining the world's highest unclimbed peaks is somewhat speculative. Most sources indicate that Gangkhar Puensum in Bhutan or on the Bhutan–China border is the tallest mountain in the world that has yet to be fully summited. Gangkhar Puensum has been off limits to climbers since 1994 when Bhutan prohibited all mountaineering above 6,000 m (20,000 ft) due to spiritual/religious beliefs.

Ultra-prominent peak

An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) or more; it is also called a P1500. There are approximately 1,524 such peaks on Earth. Some well-known peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence.

Topographic isolation

The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, and can even be calculated for submarine summits.

Anna Czerwińska Polish mountain climber

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Khartaphu mountain in Peoples Republic of China

Khartaphu is a mountain in the Himalayas of Asia at the head of the Kharta valley. At 7,213 m (23,665 ft) above sea level, it is the 102nd highest mountain in the world. The peak is located in Tibet Autonomous Region, China about 7 km (4.3 mi) northeast of Mount Everest.

Lingtren Himalayan mountain

Lingtren, 6,749 metres (22,142 ft), is a mountain in the Mahalangur Himal area of Himalaya, about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) distant in a direct line from Mount Everest. It lies on the international border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China and it was first climbed in 1935. A mountain nearby to the west was originally named Lingtrennup but is now more commonly called Xi Lingchain.

South Summit (Mount Everest) The second-highest peak on Earth, and a subsidiary peak to the primary peak of Mount Everest.

The South Summit of Mount Everest in the Himalayas is the second-highest peak on Earth, and is a subsidiary peak to the primary peak of Mount Everest. Although its elevation above sea level of 8,749 metres (28,704 ft) is higher than the second-highest mountain on Earth, K2, it is only considered a separate peak and not a separate mountain as its prominence is only 11 meters.

References

  1. Lyons, Kate (2017-05-21). "Mount Everest's Hillary Step has collapsed, mountaineer confirms". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 2017-12-10.
  2. "Everest". National Geographic . Retrieved 2017-12-10.