The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, and can even be calculated for submarine summits.
The following sortable table lists Earth's 40 most topographically isolated summits.
|Rank||Summit||Landmass||Country||Elevation||Prominence||Isolation||Nearest higher neighbour|
|1||Mount Everest||Eurasia||8848 m|
|2||Aconcagua||South America||6962 m|
|Tirich Mir (Pakistan)|
|3||Denali||North America||6194 m|
|Tirich Mir (Pakistan)|
|5||Puncak Jaya||New Guinea||4884 m|
|Jade Dragon Snow Mountain (China)|
|6||Vinson Massif||Antarctica||4892 m|
|Risco Plateado (Argentina)|
|7||Mont Orohena||Tahiti||2241 m|
|Mount Ngauruhoe (New Zealand)|
|8||Mauna Kea||Hawai'i||4205 m|
|Mount Shasta (California, USA)|
|9||Gunnbjørn Fjeld||Greenland||3694 m|
|The Eiger (Switzerland)|
|10||Aoraki / Mount Cook||South Island||3754 m|
|Mount Adam (Antarctica)|
|11||Thabana Ntlenyana||Africa||3482 m|
|Mount Meru (Tanzania)|
|12||Maunga Terevaka||Rapa Nui||506 m|
|Cerro de Los Inocentes (Chile)|
|13||Mont Blanc||Eurasia||4810 m|
|14||Piton des Neiges||Réunion||3071 m|
|Giant's Castle (South Africa)|
|15||Klyuchevskaya Sopka||Eurasia||4750 m|
|Mount Foraker (Alaska, USA)|
|16||Pico de Orizaba||North America||5636 m|
|Pico Cristóbal Colón (Colombia)|
|17||Queen Mary's Peak||Tristan da Cunha||2060 m|
|Mount Paget (South Georgia Island, UK)|
|18||Mount Whitney||North America||4421 m|
|Nevado de Toluca (Mexico)|
|19||Gunung Kinabalu||Borneo||4095 m|
|20||Mount Elbrus||Eurasia||5642 m|
|21||Pico da Bandeira||South America||2897 m|
|22||Mont Cameroun||Africa||4040 m|
|23||Mount Paget||South Georgia||2915 m|
|24||Mauga Silisili||Savai'i||1858 m|
|25||Nevado Huascarán||South America||6746 m|
|27||Jebel Toubkal||Africa||4167 m|
|Picco Luigi Amedeo|
|28||Mount Fuji||Honshu||3776 m|
|29||Emi Koussi||Africa||3445 m|
|30||Mawson Peak||Heard Island||2745 m|
|31||Mount Mitchell||North America||2037 m|
|32||Gunung Kerinci||Sumatra||3805 m|
|33||Joe's Hill||Kiritimati||13 m|
|Puu Ki (Hawaii)|
|34||Agrihan High Point||Agrihan||965 m|
|35||Mount Kosciuszko||Australia||2228 m|
|36||Olavtoppen||Bouvet Island||780 m|
|37||Mascarin Peak||Marion Island||1230 m|
|38||Green Mountain||Ascension Island||859 m|
|39||Gora Narodnaya||Eurasia||1895 m|
|Peak 4030, China|
The Seven Summits are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents. Climbing to the summit of all of them is regarded as a mountaineering challenge, first achieved on 30 April 1985 by Richard Bass. Completing the Seven Summits and additionally reaching the north and south poles has been dubbed the Explorers Grand Slam.
Musala ; from Arabic through Ottoman Turkish: from Musalla, "near God" or "place for prayer" is the highest peak in Rila Mountain, also in Bulgaria and the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 metres (9,596 ft). With a topographic prominence of 2,473 metres (8,114 ft), Musala is also the 6th highest peak by topographic prominence in mainland Europe. Musala is also the 3rd most topographically isolated major peak in Continental Europe.
In topography, prominence measures the height of a mountain or hill's summit relative to the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various criteria.
Pico da Bandeira, or Bandeira Peak is the third highest mountain in Brazil, situated on the border of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais states. It is the highest point in both states. It was historically considered the highest mountain in Brazil until 1965, when Pico da Neblina and Pico 31 de Março, next to the Venezuelan border, were explored, measured, and both found to be higher. The peak is said to have been so named after Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, ordered a flag to be flown on top of it.
The Seven Second Summits are the second-highest mountains of each of the seven continents. All of these mountain peaks are separate peaks rather than a sub-peak of the continents' high point. The Seven Second Summits are considered by many mountaineers and geographers as a much harder challenge than the traditional Seven Summits.
An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) or more; it is also called a P1500. There are approximately 1,524 such peaks on Earth. Some well-known peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence.
The most isolated major summits of Europe are located in the European subcontinent and its tectonic and geographic boundaries. This includes major mountain peaks of fold and fault-block mountains, and also volcanoes, located not only in the European Mainland, but also those located on lands and islands on the limits of Europe, like the North Atlantic Ocean islands of the Azores and Iceland, the Arctic Ocean islands of Jan Mayen, Svalbard archipelago and Novaya Zemlya archipelago, the Mediterranean island of Sicily, the Ural Mountains, and Mount Elbrus. The last mentioned is HP of the transboundary Caucasus Mountains and Greater Caucasus region, but as a geologically separate stratovolcano, it is entirely laying in Europe, 20 km (12 mi) north of the main ridge of the Greater Caucasus, considered as the one that is forming the limits of Europe. The definition excludes island clearly lying on the African Plate and outside the geographic limits of Europe, like the Canaries and Madeira. The active volcano of Mount Etna is somehow on, or just outside the boundaries of the Eurasian Plate, resting on the subduction boundary where the African tectonic plate is being pushed under the Eurasian plate, but geographically is part of Europe, and is also included in the Top 10 lists.