|Sport|| Mountaineering |
The International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, commonly known by its French name Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA, lit. International Union of Alpine Clubs ), was founded in August 1932 in Chamonix, France when 20 mountaineering associations met for an alpine congress. Count Charles Egmond d’Arcis, from Switzerland, was chosen as the first president and it was decided by the founding members that the UIAA would be an international federation which would be in charge of the "study and solution of all problems regarding mountaineering".  The UIAA Safety Label was created in 1960 and was internationally approved in 1965 and currently (2015) has a global presence on five continents with 86 member associations in 62 countries representing over 3 million people. 
After the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the UIAA suspended all UIAA officials from Russia, and delegates from the Russian Mountaineering Federation (RMF) and Russian officials and athletes were excluded from all UIAA-sanctioned activities and events. 
The UIAA is today the international governing body of climbing and mountaineering and represents climbers and mountaineers around the world on a wide range of issues related to mountain safety, sustainability and competition sport.
The International Climbers’ Meet, the goal of these meets is to foster good will and cultural understanding through our shared passion of climbing by hosting a diverse group of climbing abilities from a multitude of countries.
The UIAA Safety Commission develops and maintains safety standards for climbing equipment. These standards are implemented worldwide by the manufacturers who also participate in annual Safety Commission meetings. The Commission works with nearly 60 manufacturers worldwide and has 1,861 products certified.
Dynamic Rope UIAA fall count rating The test to determine the fall count uses a 5.1m rope and drops a weight (80 kg single rope / 55 kg double rope) so that it falls 4.8m before experiencing a reaction force from the rope. This means that the weight is falling below the fixed end and there is minimal rope to stretch and absorb the force. The fall count rating is the number of times the rope can undergo this test before breaking. For the dynamic rope to be UIAA certified it requires a fall count rating of 5 or more. 
This number does not indicate that the rope needs to be discarded after this many falls while climbing, since a fall would usually not have the climber fall beyond the belayer and there is usually more rope to stretch and absorb the fall. There has been no recorded accidents of a UIAA certified dynamic rope breaking without there being damage from a sharp edge or chemical.
Mountain Medicine Diploma Together with the International Society of Mountain Medicine (ISMM) and the International Commission for Alpine Rescue (ICAR), the UIAA Medical Commission has established and developed a joint Diploma in Mountain Medicine that establishes minimal requirements for courses in mountain medicine in August 1997 (Interlaken, Switzerland). Many course organizers adopted these standards and the Diploma in Mountain Medicine (DiMM) has become a widely respected qualification.
The Medical Commission was founded in 1981. Its history dates back to an earlier time when there were only a few doctors representing the largest mountaineering federations. The commission has grown to include 22 delegated doctors from 18 different mountaineering federations, as well as 16 corresponding members from all over the world. The UIAA Medical Commission has worked very closely with the Medical Commission of the International Commission for Alpine Rescue (ICAR). The current presidents of the UIAA Medical commission and the MedCom ICAR are always on the advisory board of the ISMM.
The UIAA is the world governing body for ice climbing competitions. The annual World Cup circuit and the bi annual World Championship and Youth World Championship are organised on different continents with athletes from over 30 countries participating.
Ice climbing The UIAA is the world governing body for ice climbing competitions. The annual UIAA Ice Climbing World Cup circuit and the bi annual World Championship and Youth World Championship are organized in different continents with athletes from over 30 countries participating.
There are two ice climbing disciplines, Speed and Lead. In Speed, athletes race up an ice face for the best time. In Lead competitions the climbers' ability to master a difficult route in a given time is tested.
Anti-Doping Commission The UIAA has adopted the World Anti-Doping Code (2014); this includes the mandatory articles of the Code and all relevant International Standards. The commission also oversees the anti-doping testing of athletes who participate in UIAA ice climbing competitions.
Global Youth Summit The Global Youth Summit is a series of UIAA youth events where young mountaineers from around the world come together to climb, promote peace and cooperation between countries and work on the protection of the environment. First implemented ten years ago, it consists of a series of expeditions and camps offered by UIAA member federations to other UIAA member federations and their members.
All UIAA Global Youth Summit events are organised and undertaken in strict accordance with the relevant Federation's regulations and UIAA Youth Commission Handbook & UIAA Youth Commission criteria and recommendations governing such events. Once approved the National Federation or event organiser and their designated leaders have responsibility for the event. The UIAA Youth Commission and UIAA Office may on occasion appoint other responsible persons such as trainers, event organisers and partners.
|Andorra||Federacio Andorrana de Muntanyisme (FAM)||1982|
|Argentina||Federación Argentina de Ski y Andinismo (FASA)||1951|
|Azerbaijan||Mountaineering Federation of Azerbaijan Republic (AAF)||2011|
|Azerbaijan||Azerbaijan Air and Extreme Sports Federation (FAIREX)||2011|
|Belgium||Climbing & Mountaineering Belgium (CMBEL)||1932|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Mountaineering Union of Bosnia - Herzegovina (PSBH)||1997|
|Brazil||Confederação Brasileira de Montanhismo e Escalada (CBME)||2005|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (BCMF)||1935|
|Canada||Alpine Club of Canada (ACC)||1947|
|Canada||Ecole Nationale d'Escalade du Québec (ENEQ)||2002|
|Canada||Fédération Québécoise de la Montagne et de l'Escalade (FQME)||1975|
|Chile||Federación de Andinismo de Chile (FEACH)||1955|
|China||Chinese Mountaineering Association (CMA)||1985|
|China||China Hong Kong Mountaineering and Climbing Union (CHKMCU)||1988|
|Cyprus||Mountaineering and Climbing Federation of Cyprus (KOMOA)||2007|
|South Korea||Corean Alpine Club (CAC)||1969|
|South Korea||Korean Alpine Federation (KAF)||1969|
|Croatia||Hrvatski planinarski savez (HPS)||1991|
|Denmark||Dansk Bjergklub (DB)||1977|
|Denmark||Dansk Klatreforbund (DCF)||1998|
|Finland||Finnish Climbing Association (FCA)||1994|
|France||Fédération Française des clubs alpins et de montagne (FFCAM)||1932|
|Georgia||Mountaineering and Climbing Association of Georgia (MCAG)||1993|
|Japan||Japan Mountaineering Association (JMA)||1967|
|Greece||Hellenic Federation of Mountaineering and Climbing (EOOA)||1936|
|India||Indian Mountaineering Foundation (IMF)||1981|
|India||Himalayan Mountaineering Institute (HMI)||2011|
|India||Nehru Institute for Mountaineering (NIM)||2011|
|Iran||I.R. Iran Mountaineering and Sport Climbing Federation (I.R.IMSCF)||1972|
|Ireland||Mountaineering Ireland (MCI)||2004|
|Israel||The Israeli Alpine Club (ILAC)||2009|
|Italy||Alpenverein Südtirol (AVS)||1974|
|Italy||Club Alpino Italiano (CAI)||1932|
|Italy||International Skyrunning Federation (ISF)||2011|
|Kosovo||Kosovo Mountaineering and Alpinist Federation (KMAF)||2011|
|Latvia||Latvijas Alpinistu Savieniba (LAA)||1992|
|Liechtenstein||Liechtensteiner Alpenverein (LAV)||1959|
|Lithuania||Lithuanian Mountaineering Association (LMA)||1991|
|Luxembourg||Fédération Luxembourgeoise d'Escalade, de Rendonnée Sportive et d'Alpinisme (FLERA)||1960|
|North Macedonia||FYR Macedonian Mountain Sport Federation (MMSF)||1999|
|Mexico||Federación Mexicana de Deportes de Montaña y Escalada AC (FMDME)||1947|
|Monaco||Club Alpin Monégasque (CAM)||1994|
|Mongolia||National Mountaineering Federation of Mongolia (NMF)||2010|
|Nepal||Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA)||1975|
|Norway||Norges Klatreforbund (NK)||1993|
|Norway||Norsk Tindeklub (NTK)||1965|
|New Zealand||New Zealand Alpine Club (NZAC)||1932|
|Netherlands||Royal Dutch Mountaineering and Climbing Club (NKBV)||1932|
|Pakistan||Alpine Club of Pakistan (ACP)||1979|
|Poland||Polish Mountaineering Association (PZA)||1932|
|Portugal||Clube Nacional de Montanhismo (CNM)||1955|
|Portugal||Federação de Campismo e Montanhismo de Portugal (FCMP)||1992|
|Portugal||Federação Portuguesa de Montanhismo e Escalada (FPME)||2004|
|Czech Republic||Cesky Horolezecky Svaz (CMA)||1932|
|Dominican Republic||Associación Dominicana De Escalada y Montañismo (ADEM)||2010|
|United Kingdom||British Mountaineering Council (BMC)||1947-  |
|United Kingdom||The Alpine Club (TAC)||1934 (1932-1947  or 1934-1947  and 2003-)|
|Romania||Clubul Alpin Român (CAR)||1937|
|Romania||Federația Română de Alpinism și Escaladă (FRAE)||1990|
|Russia||Climbing Federation of Russia (CFR) (athletes and officials excluded) ||2004|
|Russia||Russian Mountaineering Federation (RMF) (athletes and officials excluded) ||2007|
|Serbia||Mountaineering Association of Serbia (PSS)||2002|
|Slovakia||Slovensky Horolezecky Spolok JAMES (SMU JAMES)||1932|
|Slovenia||Alpine Association of Slovenia (PZS)||1991|
|United States||Alaskan Alpine Club (ALAC)||1985|
|United States||American Alpine Club (AAC)||1932|
|South Africa||The Mountain Club of South Africa (MCSA)||1992|
|Spain||Centre Excursionista de Catalunya (CEC)||1932|
|Spain||Euskal Mendizale Federazioa (EMF)||2002|
|Spain||Federació d'Entitats Excursionistes de Catalunya (FEEC)||2000|
|Spain||Federación Española de Deportes de Montaña y Escalada (FEDME)||1932|
|Sweden||Svenska Klätterförbundet (SKF)||1973|
|Switzerland||Schweizer Alpen-Club (SAC)||1932|
|Switzerland||Vereinigung Akademischer Alpenclubs der Schweiz (VAACS)||1985|
|Chinese Taipei||Chinese Taipei Alpine Association (CTAA)||1989|
|Chinese Taipei||Chinese Taipei Mountaineering Association (CTMA)||1993|
|Turkey||Turkiye Dagcilik Federasyonu (TDF)||1967|
|Ukraine||Ukrainian Mountaineering Federation (UMF)||1991|
|Hungary||Magyar Hegy- és Sportmászó Szövetség (MHSSZ)||1932|
|Hungary||Magyar Sportturisztikai Szövetség (MSTSZ)||2003|
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or other parts of the body to ascend a steep topographical object that can range from the world's tallest mountains to small boulders. Climbing is done for locomotion, for sporting recreation, for competition, and is also done in trades that rely on ascension; such as rescue and military operations. Climbing is done indoors and outdoors, on natural surfaces, and on artificial surfaces.
Mountaineering, mountain climbing, or alpinism, is a set of outdoor activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, skiing, and traversing via ferratas that have become sports in their own right. Indoor climbing, sport climbing, and bouldering are also considered variants of mountaineering by some, but are part of a wide group of mountain sports.
Climbing protection are mechanical man-made devices employed to reduce the risk and effect of a fall to climbers while on rock or ice. It includes such items as nylon webbing and metal nuts, cams, bolts, and pitons.
An ice axe is a multi-purpose hiking and climbing tool used by mountaineers in both the ascent and descent of routes that involve snow, ice, or frozen conditions. Its use depends on the terrain: in its simplest role it is used like a walking stick, with the mountaineer holding the head in the center of their uphill hand. On steep terrain it is swung by its handle and embedded in snow or ice for security and an aid to traction. It can also be buried pick down, the rope tied around the shaft to form a secure anchor on which to bring up a second climber, or buried vertically to form a stomp belay. The adze is used to cut footholds, as well as scoop out compacted snow to bury the axe as a belay anchor.
Glossary of climbing terms relates to rock climbing, mountaineering, and to ice climbing.
Ice climbing involves ascending routes that consist only of frozen water. To ascend the route, the ice climber uses specialist equipment, particularly double ice axes and rigid crampons. To protect the route, the ice climber uses steel ice screws that require skill to employ safely and rely on the ice holding firm in any fall. Ice climbing routes can vary significantly by type, and include seasonally frozen waterfalls, high permanently frozen alpine couloirs, and large hanging icicles.
Abseiling, also known as rappelling, is the controlled descent of a steep slope, such as a rock face, by moving down a rope. When abseiling, the person descending controls their own movement down the rope, in contrast to lowering off, in which the rope attached to the person descending is paid out by their belayer.
Ski mountaineering is a skiing discipline that involves climbing mountains either on skis or carrying them, depending on the steepness of the ascent, and then descending on skis. There are two major categories of equipment used, free-heel Telemark skis and skis based on Alpine skis, where the heel is free for ascents, but is fixed during descent. The discipline may be practiced recreationally or as a competitive sport.
The British Mountaineering Council (BMC) is the national representative body for England and Wales that exists to protect the freedoms and promote the interests of climbers, hill walkers and mountaineers, including ski-mountaineers. The BMC are also recognised by government as the national governing body for competition climbing.
Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, across, or down natural rock formations. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climber's strength, endurance, agility and balance along with mental control. Knowledge of proper climbing techniques and the use of specialized climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes.
Ian McNaught-Davis was a British television presenter best known for presenting the BBC television series The Computer Programme, Making the Most of the Micro and Micro Live in the 1980s. He was also a mountaineer and alpinist. He was managing director of the British subsidiary of Comshare Inc.
Competition climbing is a type of rock climbing held indoors on purpose-built artificial climbing walls, although earlier versions were held on external natural rock surfaces. The three standalone competition climbing disciplines are: lead climbing, bouldering, and speed climbing. A fourth discipline of "combined" is based on combinations of results in the three main disciplines. Competition climbing is sometimes called "sport climbing", which is the type of lead climbing performed in competition climbing.
A dynamic rope is a specially constructed, somewhat elastic rope used primarily in rock climbing, ice climbing, and mountaineering. This elasticity, or stretch, is the property that makes the rope dynamic—in contrast to a static rope that has only slight elongation under load. Greater elasticity allows a dynamic rope to more slowly absorb the energy of a sudden load, such from arresting a climber's fall, by reducing the peak force on the rope and thus the probability of the rope's catastrophic failure. A kernmantle rope is the most common type of dynamic rope now used. Since 1945, nylon has, because of its superior durability and strength, replaced all natural materials in climbing rope.
An ice screw is a threaded tubular screw used as a running belay or anchor by climbers on steep ice surface such as steep waterfall ice or alpine ice during ice climbing or crevasse rescue, to hold the climber in the event of a fall, and at belays as anchor points.
The Alpine Club of Pakistan (ACP) is a non governmental sports organisation for the promotion of mountaineering, climbing and other mountain-related adventure activities in Pakistan. In addition to this, the club serves as the national sports governing body for the sport of mountaineering and climbing in Pakistan.
Artimes Farshad Yeganeh is an Iranian rock climber who has been climbing for 30 years of experiences as a professional climber, members of Iran sport climbing National Team for many years, as route setter in many national, continental and world cups and championships, and head coach of Iran Sport Climbing National Team for 6 years. He also participates in sport climbing and bouldering competitions and is one of the most famous Iranian climbers.
Alpine climbing is a type of mountaineering that involves using any of a broad range of advanced climbing skills, including rock climbing, ice climbing, and/or mixed climbing, to summit typically large routes in an alpine environment. While alpine climbing began in the European Alps, it is used to refer to climbing in any remote mountainous area, including in the Himalayas and in Patagonia. The derived term "alpine style" refers to the fashion of alpine climbing to be in small lightly-equipped teams who carry all of their own equipment, and do all of the climbing.
Pit Schubert is a German non-fiction author, climber and mountaineer. He is the founder and former head of the safety commission of the German Alpine Club (DAV).
The Ice Climbing World Cup is an annual ice climbing competition organized by the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA), who has regulated and governed the sport of competition ice climbing since the first IWC in 2002.
The Ice Climbing World Youth Championships is an annual international competition of ice climbing. The competition is organized by the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, who regulate and govern competition ice climbing and consists of two events: lead and speed climbing.