World Athletics

Last updated

World Athletics
World Athletics 2019.svg
Formation17 July 1912
Founded at Stockholm, Sweden
Type Sports federation
Headquarters6-8 Quai Antoine 1er, Monaco
Membership
214 member federations
President
Sebastian Coe
Website www.worldathletics.org

World Athletics, formerly known as the International Amateur Athletic Federation and International Association of Athletics Federations (both abbreviated as IAAF), is the international governing body for the sport of athletics, covering track and field, cross country running, road running, racewalking, mountain running and ultrarunning. Included in its charge are the standardization of rules and regulations for the sports, recognition and management of world records, and the organisation and sanctioning of athletics competitions, including the World Athletics Championships. The organisation's president is Sebastian Coe of the United Kingdom, who was elected in 2015 and re-elected unopposed in 2019 for a further four years. [1] [2]

Contents

History

The process to found World Athletics began in Stockholm, Sweden on 17 July 1912 soon after the completion of the 1912 Summer Olympics in that city. At that meeting, 27 representatives from 17 national federations agreed to meet at a congress in Berlin, Germany the following year, overseen by Sigfrid Edström who was to become the fledgling organisation's first president. The 1913 congress formally completed the founding of what was then known as the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF). [3] [4] [5]

It was headquartered in Stockholm from 1912 to 1946, in London from 1946 to 1993, and thereafter moved to its current location in Monaco. Beginning in 1982, the IAAF passed several amendments to its rules to allow athletes to receive compensation for participating in international competitions. However, the organization retained the word amateur in its name until its 2001 congress, at which it changed its name to the International Association of Athletics Federations. In June 2019 the organization chose to rebrand as World Athletics, with a rollout beginning after the 2019 World Championships in Doha. [6]

Following repeated requests, World Athletics became the last body within the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations to make public its financial reports in 2020. It revealed the organisation had revenue of around US$200 million spread over a four-year Olympic cycle, with around a fifth of that revenue coming from Olympic broadcasting rights. The reports showed a deficit in each of the non-Olympic years of 2017 and 2018 of around US$20 million. It also showed heavy dependence on its partnership with Japanese marketing agency Dentsu, which made up half of 2018's revenue. It also highlighted reserves of US$45 million at the end of 2018, which would allow the organisation to remain solvent in the face of delays to the 2020 Summer Olympics due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [7] [8]

Governance

President Sebastian Coe during a media session at the 2015 Doha Diamond League Sebastian Coe 2015.jpg
President Sebastian Coe during a media session at the 2015 Doha Diamond League

World Athletics is headed by a president. The World Athletics Council has a total of 26 elected members, comprising one president, four vice-presidents (one senior), the presidents of the six area associations, two members of the Athletes' Commission and 13 Council members. Each member of the Council is elected for a four-year period by the World Athletics Congress, a biennial gathering of athletics officials that consists of the Council, Honorary Members, and up to three delegates from each of the national member federations. [9] Chairpersons and member of Committees, which manage specialist portfolios, are also elected by the Congress. There are four committees: the Cross Country Committee, the Race Walking Committee, the Technical Committee, and the Women's Committee. [10] A further three committees were launched in 2019: Development, Governance and Competitions. [11] The governance structure is outlined in the World Athletics Constitution, which may be amended by the Congress. [12]

The World Athletics Council appoints a chief executive officer (CEO), who is focused on improving the coverage of the sport and the organisation's commercial interests. This role was created and merged with the General Secretary role that had existed previously. British former athlete and businessman Jon Ridgeon was appointed to the role in December 2018. [13] Olivier Gers was the first person to officially hold the position in 2016, succeeding the interim CEO/General Secretary Jean Gracia. [14]

In order to give active athletes a voice in the governance of the sport, World Athletics created the Athletes' Commission. Athletes are elected to the commission by other athletes, typically held at the Congress attached to the World Athletics Championships. The commission chairperson and one other athlete of the opposite sex are giving voting rights on the Council. The last election was held in October 2019 at the 2019 World Athletics Championships. [15]

Following doping and corruption issues, a Code of Ethics was agreed in 2013 and an Ethics Commission was appointed in 2014. [16] The Council appoints the chairperson from the elected members, and in turn the chairperson appoints a deputy chair. [17] The Ethics Board's scope was limited in 2017 with the creation of the independent Athletics Integrity Unit, headed by Australia's Brett Clothier, to oversee ethical issues and complaints at arm's length. [18]

The International Athletics Foundation is a charity closely associated with World Athletics that engages in projects and programmes to develop the sport. Albert II, Prince of Monaco is the Honorary President and the role of IAF President is held by the World Athletics President. [19] A World Athletics Heritage department was created in 2018 to maintain historic artefacts and display them through a physical gallery in Monaco, a virtual online gallery, and a travelling exhibition. The department also issues World Athletics Heritage Plaques to commemorate locations of historic interest to the sport. [20]

Presidents

The fourth IAAF president, Primo Nebiolo Primo Nebiolo.jpg
The fourth IAAF president, Primo Nebiolo

There have been six presidents since the establishment of World Athletics:

NameCountryPresidency
Sigfrid Edström Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1912–1946
Lord Burghley (later Lord Exeter) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1946–1976
Adriaan Paulen Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1976–1981
Primo Nebiolo Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1981–1999
Lamine Diack Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal 1999–2015
Sebastian Coe Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 2015–present

World Athletics Council

Former athlete and World Athletics Council member Nawal El Moutawakel Nawal El Moutawakel (cropped).JPG
Former athlete and World Athletics Council member Nawal El Moutawakel
NameRoleCountryProfession
Sebastian Coe PresidentFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Former athlete and politician
Sergey Bubka Senior Vice-PresidentFlag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Former athlete
Ximena Restrepo Vice-PresidentFlag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Former athlete
Geoff Gardner Vice-President
Area Association President
Flag of Norfolk Island.svg  Norfolk Island Politician
Nawaf Bin Mohammed Al Saud Vice-PresidentFlag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia Prince and sports administrator
Hiroshi Yokokawa Council MemberFlag of Japan.svg  Japan Businessman
Antti Pihlakoski Council MemberFlag of Finland.svg  Finland Sports administrator
Anna Riccardi Council MemberFlag of Italy.svg  Italy Translator and sports administrator
Nan Wang Council MemberFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Sports administrator
Adille Sumariwalla Council MemberFlag of India.svg  India Former athlete and businessman
Nawal El Moutawakel Council MemberFlag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Former athlete
Abby Hoffman Council MemberFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Former athlete
Sylvia Barlag Council MemberFlag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Former athlete and physicist
Alberto Juantorena Council MemberFlag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Former athlete
Willie Banks Council MemberFlag of the United States.svg  United States Former athlete
Raúl Chapado Council MemberFlag of Spain.svg  Spain Former athlete
Dobromir Karamarinov Council MemberFlag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Former athlete and coach
Beatrice Ayikoru Council MemberFlag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Sports administrator
Víctor López Area Association PresidentFlag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico Track and field coach
Hamad Kalkaba Malboum Area Association PresidentFlag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon Former athlete and military official
Dahlan Jumaan Al Hamad Area Association PresidentFlag of Qatar.svg  Qatar Sports administrator
Svein Arne Hansen Area Association PresidentFlag of Norway.svg  Norway Track meet director
Roberto Gesta de Melo Area Association PresidentFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Sports administrator
Iñaki Gómez Athlete's Commission MemberFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Former athlete
Valerie Adams Athlete's Commission MemberFlag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Athlete

Athletes' Commission

French pole vaulter Renaud Lavillenie was elected to the Athletes' Commission in 2019. Renaud Lavillenie Portland 2016.jpg
French pole vaulter Renaud Lavillenie was elected to the Athletes' Commission in 2019.
Members elected in 2019
Existing members

Chairpersons

Area associations

Map of world with six area associations IAAF map.png
Map of world with six area associations

World Athletics has a total of 214 member federations divided into 6 area associations. [21] [22]

     AAA Asian Athletics Association in Asia
     CAA Confederation of African Athletics in Africa
     CONSUDATLE Confederación Sudamericana de Atletismo in South America
     EAA European Athletic Association in Europe
     NACAC North American, Central American and Caribbean Athletic Association in North America
     OAA Oceania Athletics Association in Oceania

Partner organisations

As of 1 November 2015: [23]

Rules and regulations

Age

To allow athletes of different ages to compete against athletes of similar ability, several age categories are maintained. The open class of competition without age limit is defined as "senior". For younger athletes, World Athletics organises events for under-20 athletes (athletes aged 18 or 19 years on 31 December of the year of the competition) as well as under-18 athletes (athletes aged 16 or 17 years on 31 December of the year of the competition), historically referred to as "junior" and "youth" age groups, respectively. [25] Age-group competitions over the age of 35 are organised by World Masters Athletics and are divided into five-year groupings.

Doping

The organisation is a signatory to the World Anti-Doping Agency's World Anti-Doping Code and applies sanctions to athletes, coaches and other sportspeople who breach the code through doping or impeding any anti-doping actions. [26]

Sex

International level athletics competitions are mostly divided by sex and World Athletics applies eligibility rules for the women's category. World Athletics has regulations for intersex and transgender athletes. The differences of sex development (DSD) regulations apply to athletes who are legally female or intersex and have certain physiology. Currently, such DSD limitations only apply to athletes competing in track running events from 400 metres to the mile run, though World Athletics publicly remains open to extending this to other events based on new scientific study. A DSD athlete who is legally female or intersex will be subjected to specific rules if she has XY male chromosomes, testes rather than ovaries, have circulating testosterone within the typical male range (7.7 to 29.4 nmol/L), and are androgen-sensitive so that their body makes use of that testosterone. World Athletics requires that any such athlete must reduce their blood testosterone level to 5 nmol/L or lower for a six-month period before becoming eligible for international competition. World Athletics created these rules as a way to ensure fair competition in the women's category. [27] In October 2019, World Athletics changed the testosterone limit for transgender competitors, setting it at 5 nmol/L, from the previous 10 nmol/L, in order to bring it in line with the DSD regulations. [28] According to regulations from October 2019, in order for a transwoman to compete in the women's category: "3.2.1 she must provide a written and signed declaration, in a form satisfactory to the Medical Manager, that her gender identity is female; 3.2.2 she must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Expert Panel (on the balance of probabilities), in accordance with clause 4, that the concentration of testosterone in her serum has been less than 5 nmol/L3 continuously for a period of at least 12 months; and 3.2.3 she must keep her serum testosterone concentration below 5 nmol/L for so long as she wishes to maintain her eligibility to compete in the female category of competition." [29]

The rules have been challenged by affected athletes in the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS), though no athlete has done so successfully. In May 2019, CAS upheld the rules on the basis that discrimination against the minority of DSD athletes was proportional as a method of preserving access to the female category to a much larger majority of women without DSDs. [30]

Competitions

World Athletics organizes many major athletics competitions worldwide.

World Athletics Series

The World Athletics Championships is the foremost athletics competition held by the governing body. Berlin 2009 - Olympiastadion.JPG
The World Athletics Championships is the foremost athletics competition held by the governing body.
CompetitionSportFrequencyFirst heldLast held
World Athletics ChampionshipsOutdoor athleticsBiennial1983Ongoing
World Athletics Indoor Championships Indoor track and fieldBiennial1985Ongoing
IAAF World Cross Country Championships Cross country runningBiennial1973Ongoing
IAAF World Half Marathon ChampionshipsHalf marathonBiennial1992Ongoing
IAAF World U20 Championships††Outdoor track and fieldBiennial1986Ongoing
IAAF World Race Walking Team Championships†††RacewalkingBiennial1961Ongoing
IAAF World Relays Outdoor track relaysBiennial2014Ongoing
IAAF World Trail and Mountain Running Championships Trail and mountain runningBiennial2021 [31] Ongoing
IAAF Continental Cup††††Outdoor track and fieldQuadrennial19772018
IAAF World U18 Championships in Athletics Outdoor track and fieldBiennial19992017
IAAF World Marathon Cup BiennialMarathon19852011
IAAF World Road Relay Championships Ekiden Biennial19861998
IAAF World Women's Road Race Championships 10K run/15K run Annual19831991
† Formerly IAAF World Championships in Athletics
‡ Known as IAAF World Road Running Championships in 2006 and 2007, with 20 km race in 2006
†† Formerly IAAF World Junior Championships
††† Formerly IAAF World Race Walking Cup
†††† Formerly IAAF World Cup

One-day events

CompetitionSportFirst heldLast held
Diamond League Outdoor track and field2010Ongoing
World Athletics Continental Tour Outdoor track and field2020Ongoing
IAAF World Indoor Tour Indoor track and field2016Ongoing
IAAF Road Race Label Events Road running2008Ongoing
IAAF Cross Country Permit Meetings Cross country1999Ongoing
IAAF Combined Events Challenge Decathlon/heptathlon1998Ongoing
IAAF Race Walking Challenge Racewalking2003Ongoing
IAAF Hammer Throw Challenge Hammer throw2010Ongoing
WMRA World Cup Mountain running1997Ongoing
IAAF World Challenge Outdoor track and field20102019
IAAF Indoor Permit Meetings Indoor track and field19972015
IAAF Race Walking Challenge Final Racewalking20072012
IAAF World Athletics Tour Outdoor track and field20062009
IAAF Golden League Outdoor track and field19982009
IAAF Super Grand Prix Outdoor track and field20032009
IAAF Grand Prix Outdoor track and field19852009
IAAF World Athletics Final Outdoor track and field20032009
IAAF World Outdoor Meetings Outdoor track and field20032006
IAAF Grand Prix Final Outdoor track and field19852002
IAAF World Cross Challenge Cross country19902000
IAAF Golden Events Outdoor track and field19781982

World Athletics became involved in annual one-day meetings as the sport began to professionalise in the late 1970s. Between 1978 and 1982, World Athletics staged twelve Golden Events, all for men and principally in track running, which saw World Athletics offer prizes to encourage competition. Three years later in 1985, an annual track and field circuit was created in the form of the IAAF Grand Prix, which linked existing top-level one-day meetings with a season-ending IAAF Grand Prix Final for a selection of men's and women's events. [32] The IAAF World Cross Challenge followed in 1990 and began an annual series for cross country running. [33] The track and field circuit was expanded in 1993 with the creation of the IAAF Grand Prix II level, and the IAAF Golden League in 1998. World Athletics began recognising annual indoor track meets via the IAAF Indoor Permit Meetings series in 1997, [34] and in 1998 decathletes and heptathletes found seasonal support with the creation of the IAAF Combined Events Challenge. [32] The World Cross Challenge was disbanded in 2000 and cross country reverted to a permit format via the IAAF Cross Country Permit Meetings. [35] The IAAF Race Walking Challenge was initiated in 2003 to provide a seasonal calendar for racewalking. [36]

World Athletics reformed its track and field circuit in 2003, with the IAAF World Outdoor Meetings series grouping five tiers of annual track and field competitions: the Golden League, IAAF Super Grand Prix, Grand Prix, Grand Prix II, and the IAAF World Athletics Final. The new final format was introduced with a new global performance ranking system for qualification and featured an increased programme of track and field events, mirroring the World Championships in Athletics programme bar the road events, combined events, relays, and the 10,000 metres. The final achieved gender parity in events in 2005, with the inclusion of a women's 3000 metres steeplechase. [37] The track and field circuit was rebranded as the IAAF World Athletics Tour in 2006, which removed the global rankings and the IAAF Grand Prix II (replaced with a level of meetings given permit status by continental governing bodies). [38] With World Athletics having recognised the sport of mountain running in 2002, [39] the annual WMRA World Cup meetings received official sanctioning in 2006. [40] The IAAF Race Walking Challenge Final was created in 2007 to serve as a seasonal final for the Race Walking Challenge. World Athletics designed a sanctioning process for the road running competitions in 2008, with races having to meet organisational requirements to achieve Gold or Silver status under the IAAF Road Race Label Events brand. This incorporated the World Marathon Majors (a privately run series for major marathons initiated in 2006) within the Gold Label category. Road running was the last sport governed by World Athletics to receive seasonal sanctioning. [41]

The 2010 season saw several changes to World Athletics' one-day governance. The World Athletics Tour was made defunct and replaced with three separate series: the 14-meet Diamond League as the top level of track meetings, the IAAF World Challenge as a second tier of track meetings, and the IAAF Hammer Throw Challenge as the top level of hammer throwing contests (as hammer was not included in the Diamond League). The Road Race Label grouping was also expanded that year with the creation of a Bronze label status. [42] The Race Walking Challenge Final was removed from the racewalking schedule after 2012, as the series focused on international championship performances. [43] In 2016, the IAAF World Indoor Tour was introduced as a replacement of the Indoor Permit Meetings series. [44]

The track and field circuit is due for further changes in 2020, including an increase in the number of Diamond League meetings, the reduction of Diamond League events from 32 to 24, reduction of the Diamond League television running time to 90 minutes, the creation of a one-day Diamond League final, and the relaunch of the World Challenge series as the World Athletics Continental Tour. [45] [46]

Awards

The organisation hosts the annual World Athletics Awards, formerly the World Athletics Gala until 2017, at the end of each year to recognise the achievements of athletes and other people involved in the sport. Members may also be inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame as part of the ceremony. The following awards are given: [47] [48]

Doping controversy

In 2015, a whistleblower leaked World Athletics' blood test records from major competitions. The records revealed that, between 2001 and 2012, athletes with suspicious drug test results won a third of the medals in endurance events at the Olympics and World Championships—a total of 146 medals including 55 golds—but the World Athletics caught none of them. [49] After reviewing the results, Robin Parisotto, a scientist and leading "anti-doping" expert, said, "Never have I seen such an alarmingly abnormal set of blood values. So many athletes appear to have doped with impunity, and it is damning that the IAAF appears to have idly sat by and let this happen." [49] Craig Reedie, president of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), said his organisation was "very disturbed by these new allegations ... which will, once again, shake the foundation of clean athletes worldwide", and that its "independent commission will investigate the claims". [49]

Around the same time, the University of Tübingen in Germany claimed that World Athletics suppressed publication of a 2011 report in which "[h]undreds of athletes", as many as a third of the world's top athletes, "admitted violating anti-doping rules". [50]

On 1 November 2015, former World Athletics president Lamine Diack was arrested in France and is under investigation on suspicion of corruption and money laundering. [51] [52] Diack allegedly accepted "$1.2 million from the Russian athletics federation to cover up the positive doping tests of at least six Russian athletes in 2011." [51]

In November 2015, WADA published its report, which found "systemic failures" in the World Athletics had prevented an "effective" anti-doping programme and concluded that Russia should be banned from competing in international competitions because of its athletes' test results. [53] The report continued that "the World Athletics allowed the conduct to occur and must accept its responsibility" and that "corruption was embedded" in the organization. [54]

In January 2016, as a result of the doping scandal and WADA's report, the World Athletics' biggest sponsor, Adidas, announced that it was ending its sponsorship deal with the World Athletics four years early. The BBC reported that as a result World Athletics would lose $33 million (£23 million) worth of revenue. The 11-year sponsorship deal with Adidas was due to run until 2019. [55] World-record holding sprinter Michael Johnson described the scandal as more serious than that faced by FIFA. [54] In February 2016, Nestlé announced that it was ending its World Athletics sponsorship. [56]

In June 2016, following a meeting of the IAAF's ruling council, World Athletics upheld its ban on Russia's track and field team from entering the Rio de Janeiro Olympics. [57] In February 2017, All-Russia Athletic Federation was disqualified by decision of the World Athletics Council for 8 years for the creation of a doping system.

World Athletics has since resisted demands that Russia be re-instated, on the basis that the country repeatedly failed to satisfy all the agreed criteria. The decision was supported by Sean Ingle of The Guardian who wrote in a column that World Athletics should maintain their ban on Russia through the 2016 Olympics in Rio. [58] That meant Russian athletes could compete at all major events in the following years, including the 2017 IAAF World Championships in London [59] and the 2018 European Championships in Berlin only as neutral athletes. In September 2018, World Athletics faced a legal challenge by Russia to overturn the suspension after the reinstatement of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency, but Hugo Lowell of the i newspaper reported the country's status would not change. [60] The legal case was later dropped.

See also

Related Research Articles

Sport of athletics Sports involving running, jumping, throwing, and walking

Athletics is a group of sporting events that involves competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and race walking.

Track and field Sport involving running, jumping and throwing disciplines

Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived from where the sport takes place, a running track and a grass field for the throwing and some of the jumping events. Track and field is categorized under the umbrella sport of athletics, which also includes road running, cross country running, and racewalking.

Sex verification in sports

Sex verification in sports occurs because eligibility of athletes to compete is restricted whenever sporting events are limited to a single sex, which is generally the case, as well as when events are limited to mixed-sex teams of defined composition. Practice has varied tremendously over time, across borders and by competitive level. Issues have arisen multiple times in the Olympic games and other high-profile sporting competitions, for example allegations that certain male athletes attempted to compete as women or that certain female athletes had intersex conditions that gave unfair advantage.

Court of Arbitration for Sport International arbitral body for sports disputes

The Court of Arbitration for Sport is an international quasi-judicial body established to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration. Its headquarters are in Lausanne (Switzerland) and its courts are located in New York City, Sydney and Lausanne. Temporary courts are established in current Olympic host cities.

Racewalking athletic discipline

Racewalking, or race walking, is a long-distance discipline within the sport of athletics. Although it is a foot race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times. This is assessed by race judges. Typically held on either roads or on running tracks, common distances range from 3,000 metres (1.9 mi) up to 100 kilometres (62.1 mi).

The IAAF World Race Walking Team Championships is a racewalking event organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations. It has been held since 1961, and generally on a biennial basis. Women first entered the 1979 edition. It was formerly known as the Lugano Cup after the city that hosted the first event, then became the IAAF World Race Walking Cup until 2016. In 2004, a junior division was added, consisting of men and women aged under 20. Since 2008 it has been a constituent meeting of the IAAF Race Walking Challenge.

The IAAF Combined Events Challenge is an annual series of combined track and field events meetings, organised since 1998 by the International Association of Athletics Federations, with heptathlon for women and decathlon for men. The winners are decided by totalling the number of points that the athletes have scored in each of three combined events competitions during the season. Points scored are determined by the IAAF combined events scoring tables. The series includes annual independent combined events meetings as well as championship level combined events competitions, such as the World Athletics Championships and Olympic Games. It is the premier seasonal competition for decathletes and heptathletes, as combined events are not held for the IAAF Diamond League.

The IAAF World Cross Challenge was an annual global series of cross country running competitions organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). Athletes accumulated points in the series' cross country meets during the season, which typically began in December and finished in March prior to the annual IAAF World Cross Country Championships. The series was based upon the IAAF Grand Prix track and field circuit and the IAAF hoped to similarly boost the sport of cross country running. The last series was held in 1999–2000, after which point it was replaced by the IAAF Cross Country Permit Meetings series which featured similar races but did not have a point scoring format.

Valeriy Borchin race walker from Russia

Valeriy Viktorovich Borchin is a race walker from Russia who won the 2008 Olympic gold medal and was World champion over the 20 km distance.

An athlete biological passport is an individual electronic record for professional athletes, in which profiles of biological markers of doping and results of doping tests are collated over a period of time. Doping violations can be detected by noting variances from an athlete's established levels outside permissible limits, rather than testing for and identifying illegal substances.

Caster Semenya South African middle-distance runner

Mokgadi Caster Semenya OIB is a South African middle-distance runner and 2016 Olympic gold medalist. She won gold in the women's 800 metres at the 2009 World Championships with a time of 1:55.45, the 2016 Summer Olympics, and the 2017 World Championships in her new personal best, 1:55.16. After the doping disqualification of Mariya Savinova, she also was awarded gold medals at the 2011 World Championships and the 2012 Summer Olympics, all in the 800 metres.

The World Long Distance Mountain Running Championships, is an annual international mountain running competition organised by the World Mountain Running Association (WMRA).

Francine Niyonsaba Burundian distance runner

Francine Niyonsaba is a Burundian runner who specializes in the 800 metres. She is a 2016 Olympic silver medalist in the 800 metres. Her silver medal was the first Olympic medal for Burundi since 1996. Niyonsaba finished second in 800 meters 7 race series of 2016 Diamond League. She improved her personal best to 1:56.24 at 2016 Herculis meet.

The sports under the umbrella of athletics, particularly track and field, use a variety of statistics. In order to report that information efficiently, numerous abbreviations have grown to be common in the sport.

2019 World Athletics Championships Athletics competition

The 2019 IAAF World Athletics Championships was the seventeenth edition of the biennial, global athletics competition organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), since renamed World Athletics. It was held between 27 September and 6 October 2019 in Doha, Qatar, at the renovated multi-purpose Khalifa International Stadium, but reduced to 21,000 available seats. 1,772 athletes from 206 teams competed in 49 athletics events over the ten-day competition, comprising 24 events each for men and women, plus a mixed relay. There were 43 track and field events, 4 racewalking events, and 2 marathon road running events. The racewalking and marathon events were held in Doha Corniche.

IAAF Golden Events

The IAAF Golden Events were a sporadic series of twelve athletics events organised by the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) from 1978 to 1982. Aside from the inaugural event in Tokyo, the contests were held in Europe and were attached to independent track and field meetings. The purpose of the events was to raise the profile of the sport outside of Olympic competition. Marking the growing professionalism in athletics, a significant prize pot was given to the winner of the event – a move designed to attract the sport's top athletes to compete against each other at the same meeting. The inaugural prize was an 18-carat gold trophy worth 9,500 US dollars. All twelve events were for men, reflecting their position as the most prominent sex during that period.

The WMRA World Cup is an annual series of mountain running competitions organised by the World Mountain Running Association (WMRA) that runs from around May to October. Athletes are awarded points for each performance on the tour. Its predecessor was the Alpine Grand Prix, a 1997 formation including four European races in the Alps region. It formally became the WMRA Grand Prix in 1999 and subsequently expanded to six races in 2001. It reverted to four races in 2007 and from 2008 onwards began to vary between five and seven races. The competition took its current title World Cup in 2014.

For the athletics competitions at the 2016 Summer Olympics, the following qualification systems were in place. Qualification ended on 11 July 2016.

The participation of transgender and transsexual individuals in competitive sports is a controversial issue. Opposition to transgender or transsexual women competing in sporting events generally focuses on hormonal factors—such as higher testosterone levels among trans women—pre-transition and physiological factors such as height and weight. Access regulations requiring that trans athletes compete against athletes of the same assigned sex at birth and requiring sex verification testing have been used. Proponents of such regulations regard them as necessary to ensure fair competition while opponents regard them as discriminatory.

References

  1. "Athletics: Sebastian Coe Elected IAAF President". BBC Sport: Athletics. 19 August 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  2. Reprint (page 226) at Google Books UK (books.google.co.uk).
     The 1912 Stockholm Olympics: Essays on the Competitions, the People, the City, eds. Leif Yttergren and Hans Bolling, Jefferson NC and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2012. ISBN   978-0-7864-7131-7.
      Translated from the Swedish: Stockholmsolympiaden 1912 (Stockholm: Stockholmia, 2012).
  3. "IAAF Presidential Election History". Jesse Squire, Daily Relay, 18 August 2015.
  4. "The Beginning of the IAAF: A study of its background and foundation". Dr. Hans Bolling, (adviser: Prof. em. Jan Lindroth), Stockholm/Sweden 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  5. Associated Press (9 June 2019). "Track body IAAF to rebrand as World Athletics". ESPN . Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  6. Owen, David (2020-06-06). World Athletics deficits revealed as sport’s long trudge to transparency accelerates. Inside the Games. Retrieved 2020-06-17.
  7. Owen, David (2020-06-14). Dentsu income accounted for more than half of World Athletics revenue in 2018. Inside the Games. Retrieved 2020-06-17.
  8. Congress. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  9. Committees. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  10. IAAF seeking nominations for positions on three newly-established commissions. IAAF (2019-10-10). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  11. Constitution. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  12. Former international athlete and businessman Jon Ridgeon announced as new IAAF Chief Executive Officer . IAAF (2018-12-03). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  13. IAAF announces new Chief Executive Officer. IAAF (2016-10-12). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  14. New IAAF Athletes' Commission members announced . IAAF (2019-10-06). Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  15. IAAF Ethics Commission members are appointed. IAAF (2013-03-13). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  16. What is the Ethics Board. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  17. Know Us. Athletics Integrity Unit. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  18. International Athletics Foundation. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  19. IAAF Heritage Concept. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  20. "IAAF National Member Federations". IAAF.org. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  21. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). IAAF.
  22. "IAAF Competition Rules 2016-2017" (PDF). International Association of Athletics Federations. 1 November 2015. p. 315. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  23. "IAAF: Official IAAF world rankings first step in fundamental changes in athletics| News | iaaf.org". iaaf.org. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  24. "Basic Information Guide: 2011 IAAF World Cross Country Championships, Punta Umbria, Spain". IAAF. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  25. IAAF Anti-Doping Rules. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  26. IAAF publishes briefing notes and Q&A on Female Eligibility Regulations. IAAF (2019-05-07). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  27. "IAAF rules on trans athletes' testosterone levels". Canadian Running Magazine. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  28. https://www.iaaf.org/download/download?filename=63067c17-1ab4-4a08-a132-5e36bda5fc61.pdf&urlslug=Eligibility%20Regulations%20for%20Transgender%20Athletes%2C%20in%20force%20from%201%20October%202019
  29. Bull, Andy (2019-05-01). Cas tried to provide a clear verdict on Caster Semenya but left a tangled mess. The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  30. IAAF, ITRA and WMRA forge new partnership to host combined trail and mountain running world championships. IAAF (2018-08-28). Retrieved 2019-09-25.
  31. 1 2 Grand Prix. GBR Athletics. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  32. World Cross Challenge. GBR Athletics. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  33. Indoor Permit Meetings 1997. IAAF (archived). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  34. 1999 IAAF Cross Country Permit Meetings. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  35. IAAF World Race Walking Challenge. IAAF (archived). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  36. World Athletics Final. GBR Athletics. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  37. Turner, Chris (2005). IAAF - World Athletics Tour. International Sports Press Association. Retrieved on 2009-09-11.
  38. Mountain Running. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  39. WMRA Grand Prix 2006. WMRA. Retrieved on 2015-03-24.
  40. "IAAF Road Race Labels: Regulations 2014" (PDF). International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  41. "Calendar: 2010". IAAF. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  42. 2013 IAAF Race Walking Challenge. IAAF. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  43. "IAAF to launch World Indoor Tour". IAAF. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  44. Rowbottom, Mike (2019-10-07). Mike Rowbottom: New arguments for an ancient event - discus makes a throw for IAAF Diamond League survival. Inside the Games. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  45. IAAF announces Wanda Group in landmark title sponsorship of Diamond League. IAAF (2019-09-25). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  46. IAAF Athletics Awards 2018: Ready, set, go!. IAAF (2018-12-01). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  47. Athletics world focuses on Monaco for the coming week. IAAF (2014-11-17). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  48. 1 2 3 Roan, Dan (2 August 2015). "Leaked IAAF Doping Files: WADA 'Very Alarmed' by Allegations". BBC Sport: Athletics. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  49. "IAAF Accused of Suppressing Athletes' Doping Study". BBC Sport: Athletics. 16 August 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  50. 1 2 "Former IAAF President Under Criminal Investigation for Doping Cover-Up". Sports Illustrated. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  51. "Athletics doping: Interpol to co-ordinate probe". BBC News. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  52. "Athletics Doping: WADA Report Calls for Russia Ban". BBC Sport: Athletics. 9 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  53. 1 2 "IAAF scandal worse than Fifa's, says US great Michael Johnson". 10 December 2017 via www.bbc.co.uk.
  54. Mark Daly and Dan Roan (24 January 2016). "Adidas to end IAAF sponsorship deal early in wake of doping crisis". BBC Sport: Athletics. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  55. "Nestle ends IAAF sponsorship deal". 10 February 2016 via www.bbc.com.
  56. Nesha Starcevic and Stephen Wilson (17 June 2016). "IAAF upholds bans on Russian athletes for Rio Games" . Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  57. Ingle, Sean (6 March 2016). "Why the IAAF must ensure Russia remains banned for Rio Olympics". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  58. Ingle, Sean (1 March 2018). "Sebastian Coe tells Russia: IAAF will still play hardball despite IOC decision". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  59. Lowell, Hugo (20 September 2018). "Russian athletics to remain in wilderness despite Wada ruling". inews.co.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2019.