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The term liquid chalk, or sharkchalk, refers to several different kinds of chalk:
Despite the term, some forms of "liquid chalk" contain no actual chalk.
Liquid gym chalk is a form of chalk that is applied to the hands in liquid form. It is designed to improve grip and reduce the amount of chalk dust created during use. Some benefits of liquid gym chalk include:
Liquid chalk can be a variation of normal chalk (see: magnesium carbonate) used to improve grip for sports, such as rock climbing, weight lifting, or gymnastics.
Rock climbers use liquid chalk to prevent their hands from sweating. It may be used by climbers in situations where powdered chalk is restricted. It is preferred by athletes because it remains effective longer and leaves less residue on rocks  and equipment.  Liquid chalk for rock climbers is made from magnesium carbonate. Since liquid chalk does not leave a white residue, it is an environmentally friendly alternative. In five forms of climbing, liquid chalk may prove more useful than powdered chalk.
In other sports, liquid chalk is less beneficial to the athlete, because re-chalking can be done more easily between sets or rounds. However, some gyms require liquid chalk because it leaves less residue on gym equipment. Liquid chalk adheres to the hand better, reducing the need to re-chalk.  
Some liquid-chalk mixtures for climbing are made with magnesium carbonate, colophony, and ethanol or an alcohol that dissolves the colophony and quickly evaporates from the solution (as isopropyl alcohol or ethanol). Sometimes, an additive for aroma is included because of the bad smell of spirit.
Sports liquid chalk is sold in bottles. The user takes a small amount into their palms, spreading the chalk onto areas that require grip. The liquid evaporates when it comes into contact with the warmth of a user's hand, leaving behind chalk. Alcohol disrupts the bonds between water molecules, reducing the energy needed to cause evaporation. 
Bouldering is a form of free climbing that is performed on small rock formations or artificial rock walls without the use of ropes or harnesses. While bouldering can be done without any equipment, most climbers use climbing shoes to help secure footholds, chalk to keep their hands dry and to provide a firmer grip, and bouldering mats to prevent injuries from falls. Unlike free solo climbing, which is also performed without ropes, bouldering problems are usually less than six metres (20 ft) tall. Traverses, which are a form of boulder problem, require the climber to climb horizontally from one end to another. Artificial climbing walls allow boulderers to climb indoors in areas without natural boulders. In addition, bouldering competitions take place in both indoor and outdoor settings.
Limestone is a type of carbonate sedimentary rock which is the main source of the material lime. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of CaCO3. Limestone forms when these minerals precipitate out of water containing dissolved calcium. This can take place through both biological and nonbiological processes, though biological processes, such as the accumulation of corals and shells in the sea, have likely been more important for the last 540 million years. Limestone often contains fossils which provide scientists with information on ancient environments and on the evolution of life.
Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, color, or provide texture. Paint can be made in many colors—and in many different types. Paint is typically stored, sold, and applied as a liquid, but most types dry into a solid. Most paints are either oil-based or water-based and each has distinct characteristics. For one, it is illegal in most municipalities to discard oil-based paint down household drains or sewers. Clean-up solvents are also different for water-based paint than they are for oil-based paint. Water-based paints and oil-based paints will cure differently based on the outside ambient temperature of the object being painted Usually, the object being painted must be over 10 °C (50 °F), although some manufacturers of external paints/primers claim they can be applied when temperatures are as low as 2 °C (35 °F).
A climbing wall is an artificially constructed wall with grips for hands and feet, usually used for indoor climbing, but sometimes located outdoors. Some are brick or wooden constructions, but on most modern walls, the material most often used is a thick multiplex board with holes drilled into it. Recently, manufactured steel and aluminum have also been used. The wall may have places to attach belay ropes, but may also be used to practice lead climbing or bouldering.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock. It is a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite and originally formed deep under the sea by the compression of microscopic plankton that had settled to the sea floor. Chalk is common throughout Western Europe, where deposits underlie parts of France, and steep cliffs are often seen where they meet the sea in places such as the Dover cliffs on the Kent coast of the English Channel.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt in water. In diverse contexts, brine may refer to the salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% up to about 26%. Brine forms naturally due to evaporation of ground saline water but it is also generated in the mining of sodium chloride. Brine is used for food processing and cooking, for de-icing of roads and other structures, and in a number of technological processes. It is also a by-product of many industrial processes, such as desalination, so it requires wastewater treatment for proper disposal or further utilization.
This glossary of climbing terms is a list of definitions of terms and jargon related to rock climbing and mountaineering. The specific terms used can vary considerably between different English-speaking countries; many of the phrases described here are particular to the United States and the United Kingdom.
Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch, is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components. It is semi-transparent and varies in color from yellow to black. At room temperature rosin is brittle, but it melts at stove-top temperature. It chiefly consists of various resin acids, especially abietic acid. The term colophony comes from colophonia resina, Latin for "resin from Colophon", an ancient Ionic city.
Rock-climbing equipment requires a range of specialized sports equipment, for training, for aid climbing, and for free climbing. Developments in rock-climbing equipment played an important role in the history of rock climbing, enabling climbers to ascend more difficult climbing routes safely, and materially improving the strength, conditioning, and ability of climbers.
Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is an inorganic salt that is a colourless or white solid. Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals.
In metallurgy, a flux is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent. Fluxes may have more than one function at a time. They are used in both extractive metallurgy and metal joining.
Magnesium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula MgCl2. It forms hydrates MgCl2·nH2O, where n can range from 1 to 12. These salts are colorless or white solids that are highly soluble in water. These compounds and their solutions, both of which occur in nature, have a variety of practical uses. Anhydrous magnesium chloride is the principal precursor to magnesium metal, which is produced on a large scale. Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form most readily available.
Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up, across, or down natural rock formations. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climber's strength, endurance, agility and balance along with mental control. Knowledge of proper climbing techniques and the use of specialized climbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes.
Dolomite (also known as dolomite rock, dolostone or dolomitic rock) is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2. It occurs widely, often in association with limestone and evaporites, though it is less abundant than limestone and rare in Cenozoic rock beds (beds less than about 66 million years in age). The first geologist to distinguish dolomite rock from limestone was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778.
Chalk is a type of sedimentary rock, composed predominantly of calcium carbonate.
Boiler water is liquid water within a boiler, or in associated piping, pumps and other equipment, that is intended for evaporation into steam. The term may also be applied to raw water intended for use in boilers, treated boiler feedwater, steam condensate being returned to a boiler, or boiler blowdown being removed from a boiler.
Grips are devices that are worn on the hands of artistic gymnasts when performing on various apparatus. They are worn by female gymnasts on the uneven bars, and by male gymnasts on the high bar and still rings; it is rare to wear them on the parallel bars. Grips are used to enhance the gymnast's grip on the apparatus and to reduce friction, which can cause painful blisters and rips, in which outer layers of skin separate and tear away from the hand.
An evaporator is a device used to turn the liquid form of a chemical substance, such as water, into a vapor.
Injuries in rock climbing may occur due to falls, or due to overuse. Injuries due to falls are relatively uncommon; the vast majority of injuries result from overuse, most often occurring in the fingers, elbows, and shoulders. Such injuries are often no worse than torn calluses, cuts, burns and bruises. However, overuse symptoms, if ignored, may lead to permanent damage.
Mesoporous magnesium carbonates (MMCs) constitute a family of magnesium carbonate materials with high specific surface areas. It was first reported in July 2013 by a group of researchers in nanotechnology at Uppsala University. The highest reported surface area of any MMC is 800 m² per gram, which is the highest surface area ever measured for an alkali earth metal carbonate. The average pore size of MMCs can be adjusted by tuning the synthesis conditions. So far, all reported forms of MMCs are anhydrous and X-ray amorphous.