Geography of Arkansas

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Physical and human geographic features of Arkansas National-atlas-arkansas.PNG
Physical and human geographic features of Arkansas

The geography of Arkansas varies widely. The state is covered by mountains, river valleys, forests, lakes, and bayous in addition to the cities of Arkansas. Hot Springs National Park features bubbling springs of hot water, formerly sought across the country for their healing properties. [1] [2] Crowley's Ridge is a geological anomaly rising above the surrounding lowlands of the Mississippi embayment.

Arkansas State of the United States of America

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Hot Springs National Park United States National Park in central Arkansas

Hot Springs National Park is an American national park in central Garland County, Arkansas, adjacent to the city of Hot Springs, the county seat. Hot Springs Reservation was initially created by an act of the United States Congress on April 20, 1832 to be preserved for future recreation. Established before the concept of a national park existed, it was the first time that land had been set aside by the federal government to preserve its use as an area for recreation. The hot spring water has been popularly believed for centuries to possess medicinal properties, and was a subject of legend among several Native American tribes. Following federal protection in 1832, the city developed into a successful spa town. Incorporated January 10, 1851, the city has been home to Major League Baseball spring training, illegal gambling, speakeasies and gangsters such as Al Capone, horse racing at Oaklawn Park, the Army and Navy Hospital, and 42nd President Bill Clinton. The area was made a national park on March 4, 1921. Until the redesignation of Jefferson National Expansion Memorial as Gateway Arch National Park in 2018, Hot Springs was the smallest national park by area in the United States. Since Hot Springs National Park is the oldest park maintained by the National Park Service, it was the first to receive its own US quarter in April 2010 as part of the America the Beautiful Quarters coin series.

Crowleys Ridge

Crowley's Ridge is an unusual geological formation that rises 250 to 550 feet (170 m) above the alluvial plain of the Mississippi embayment in a 150-mile (240 km) line from southeastern Missouri to the Mississippi River near Helena, Arkansas. It is the most prominent feature in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain between Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and the Gulf of Mexico.

Contents

The Buffalo National River, as it flows through The Ozarks to the White River, is a popular tourist attraction. It was designated the first national river in 1972 after years of conservation efforts in opposition to a United States Army Corps of Engineers plan to dam the river. The Arkansas River enters the state near Van Buren and flows southeast through Little Rock to empty into the Mississippi River near Arkansas Post. Most of the river serves barge traffic to Tulsa, Oklahoma as the McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System. [3] Through south Arkansas, the Ouachita River and the Saline River run roughly parallel to the Arkansas, and the major rivers in northeast Arkansas are the White River and St. Francis River. The Red River runs through the southwest corner of the state.

Buffalo National River river in northern Arkansas, USA

The Buffalo River, located in Northern Arkansas, was the first National River to be designated in the United States. The Buffalo River is 153 miles (246 km) long. The lower 135 miles (217 km) flow within the boundaries of an area managed by the National Park Service, where the stream is designated the Buffalo National River. The river flows through Newton, Searcy, Marion, and Baxter Counties, from west to east. The river originates in the highest part of Boston Mountains of the Ozarks, flows out onto the Springfield Plateau near the historic community of Erbie, and finally crosses a portion of the Salem Plateau just before joining the White River. The Park is home to the state's only elk herd. The upper section of the river in the Ozark National Forest is managed by the U.S. Forest Service and is designated as a National Scenic River and a National Wild River; that section is not part of the area managed as a park by the Park Service, but is managed as a part of the Ozark National Forest.

United States Army Corps of Engineers federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies. Although generally associated with dams, canals and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works throughout the world. The Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, and provides 24% of U.S. hydropower capacity.

Arkansas River major tributary of the Mississippi River, United States

The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. It then flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas.

Arkansas has many manmade lakes across the state, many are the basis for state parks, wildlife management areas, or other recreation. Bull Shoals Lake, DeGray Lake, Lake Dardanelle, Lake Ouachita all have state parks along their shores, and Beaver Lake, Table Rock Lake, Greers Ferry Lake, Lake Hamilton and Lake Catherine are also major recreation lakes in the state. [4]

Bull Shoals Lake

Bull Shoals Lake is an artificial lake or reservoir in the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri. It has hundreds of miles of lake arms and coves, and common activities include boating, water sports, swimming, and fishing. Nineteen developed parks around the shoreline provide campgrounds, boat launches, swim areas, and marinas.

DeGray Lake

DeGray Lake is a reservoir on the Caddo River in Arkansas, 8 miles (13 km) from Arkadelphia. Arkansas Scenic Byway 7 is located on the eastern shore of the lake, and provides views of the lake, and also places to stay. DeGray Lake Resort State Park was opened in 1974 to encourage tourism and recreation on DeGray Lake.

Lake Dardanelle lake of the United States of America

Lake Dardanelle is a major reservoir on the Arkansas River in Arkansas, USA. and is an integral part of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System (MKARNS), which allows barge transportation from the Mississippi River to the Tulsa Port of Catoosa in northeastern Oklahoma. MKARNS went into service along its full length in 1971.

The Ozarks is a broad term for many mountainous counties in northwest Arkansas. This region is usually referred to the Ozarks because the term Northwest Arkansas is the colloquial name for the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area, including Benton, Madison, Washington counties in Arkansas and McDonald County, Missouri. [5] The Ozark, however, span from the Arkansas River in the south through north central Arkansas. The Boston Mountains subset contain highest peaks in the Ozarks. [6]

Benton County, Arkansas County in the United States

Benton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 221,339, making it the second-most populous county in Arkansas. The county seat is Bentonville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836 and was named after Thomas Hart Benton, a U.S. Senator from Missouri. In 2012, Benton County voters elected to make the county wet, or a non-alcohol prohibition location.

Madison County, Arkansas County in the United States

Madison County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,717. The county seat is Huntsville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836, and named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States.

Washington County, Arkansas County in the United States

Washington County is a county located in the northwest part of the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 203,065, making it the third-most populous county in Arkansas. The county seat is Fayetteville. It is Arkansas's 17th county, formed on October 17, 1828, and named for George Washington, the first President of the United States. Washington County is part of the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Location and size

Location of Arkansas in the United States Map of USA AR.svg
Location of Arkansas in the United States

Arkansas is located in the southeastern United States, in the West South Central Census Bureau division. Arkansas covers an area of 53,179 square miles (137,733 km²) and ranks as the 29th largest state by size. [7] The state borders six U.S. states: Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi across the Mississippi River to the east, Louisiana to the south, Oklahoma to the west, and Texas to the southwest.

United States Census Bureau Bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Missouri State of the United States of America

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border.

First added to the United States of America as part of the Louisiana Territory of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, Arkansas later became part of the Missouri Territory upon its establishment in 1812. [8] This was further divided into the Arkansaw Territory on March 2, 1819 as everything south of Parallel 36°30′ north (except the Missouri Bootheel) to the Louisiana state line. This new territory also included most of present-day Oklahoma until gaining its current boundaries in the 1840s. The slight oddity in Arkansas's western boundary results from a dispute with the Choctaw Nation in 1824. The Choctaws wanted the western boundary of Arkansas to start 100 paces east of Fort Smith and run south to the Red River, claiming the land had little timber and poor soil. Despite protests from Henry Conway, President James Monroe signed the bill into law on January 20, 1825. [9]

Louisiana Territory

The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.

Louisiana Purchase Acquisition by the United States of America of Frances claim to the territory of Louisiana

The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory of New France by the United States from France in 1803. The U.S. paid fifty million francs ($11,250,000) and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs ($3,750,000) for a total of sixty-eight million francs. The Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. The territory contained land that forms Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska; the portion of Minnesota west of the Mississippi River; a large portion of North Dakota; a large portion of South Dakota; the northeastern section of New Mexico; the northern portion of Texas; the area of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide; Louisiana west of the Mississippi River ; and small portions of land within the present Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants, of whom half were African slaves.

Missouri Territory territory of the USA between 1812-1820

The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821. In 1819, the Territory of Arkansas was created from a portion of its southern area. In 1821, a southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Missouri, and the rest became unorganized territory for several years.

Regions

Arkansas's regions are defined using many different criteria. Distinct natural regions of Arkansas include The Ozarks, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, Arkansas Timberlands, and Central Arkansas. Arkansans usually identify as being from one of five regions: northwest, southwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas. These directional regions are not specifically defined by county.

Northwest Arkansas

View from scenic overlook in Carroll County in the heart of the Ozarks. View from scenic outlook on US 62, Carroll County, Arkansas.jpg
View from scenic overlook in Carroll County in the heart of the Ozarks.

Northwest Arkansas contains the southern half of the Ozarks, including the steeper Boston Mountains and the more gentle Springfield Plateau. These mountains are heavily forested by an oak-hickory ecosystem and less than 25% has been cleared for agriculture. [10] The Ozark National Forest, administered by the National Forest Service, preserves 1,200,000 acres (490,000 ha) of land in northwest Arkansas, including Arkansas's highest point, Mount Magazine in Mount Magazine State Park. Also within northwest Arkansas is the Arkansas River Valley including the tri-peaks tourist region of Mount Nebo, Mount Magazine, Petit Jean Mountain, and Lake Dardanelle. [11] Federal and state protected areas such as the Buffalo National River, Buffalo National River Wilderness, Bull Shoals–White River State Park, and Hobbs State Park – Conservation Area preserve the northwest Arkansas Ozarks in their natural state.

Population is anchored by the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, with sparsely populated mountainous areas defining the remainder of the region. The Ozark culture, such as Ozark Folk Festival held annually in Mountain View, defines much of the rural parts of northwest Arkansas. The Ozark Folk Center in Mountain View is dedicated to preserving northwest Arkansas's folk heritage. [12] Other cultural centers are Bentonville, home to Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, and Fayetteville, home to the University of Arkansas and Walton Arts Center. [13]

Northeast Arkansas

Lake Frierson State Park is atop Crowley's Ridge in northeast Arkansas Lake Frierson State Park Paragould AR 11.jpg
Lake Frierson State Park is atop Crowley's Ridge in northeast Arkansas

Northeast Arkansas is generally characterized as the area east of the Ozark Mountains and north of Interstate 40. The land is adjacent to the Mississippi River and generally flat, fertile, swampy lands sometimes called the Arkansas delta. The exception is Crowley's Ridge, a geological remnant from the Pleistocene era that raises around 200 feet (61 m) above the surrounding delta lowlands. [14] Crowley's Ridge is more populated than the sparsely populated delta, including larger cities Jonesboro, Paragould, Forrest City, and Wynne. Primary waterways in the region include the Cache River, St. Francis River, and the Black River. Protected areas of northeast Arkansas include Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Bald Knob National Wildlife Refuge, Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Charles State Park, and Lake Poinsett State Park.

Tourists can explore some of the local Native American culture at the Nodena Site, Parkin Archaeological State Park, and Hampson Museum State Park. Following settlement, most of the area relied on cotton as the primary cash crop, and was home to many powerful plantation owners in the antebellum period. After the Civil War, agriculture became based on sharecropping and tenant farming, allowing plantation owners to keep their workers in poverty and maintain their political power. Much of this history is alive today at museums like the Southern Tenant Farmers Union Museum in Tyronza. The rivers served as highways for commerce and communication in the early days, and steamboat towns of days past have been restored for visitors to enjoy, including Jacksonport State Park and Powhatan Historic State Park along the Black River. Davidsonville Historic State Park preserves one of the state's first settlements as a frontier town, also located on the Black River. The primary population center of the region is the Jonesboro metropolitan area, with Jonesboro serving as the principal city.

Southeast Arkansas

Flat land in cultivation, such as this in Desha County, is typical of Southeast Arkansas Rohwer War Relocation Center 002.jpg
Flat land in cultivation, such as this in Desha County, is typical of Southeast Arkansas

Southeast Arkansas is generally characterized as the area east of Little Rock and south of Interstate 40. The land is adjacent to the Mississippi River and generally flat, fertile, swampy lands sometimes called the Arkansas delta. This region is sparsely populated, with an economy primarily driven by agriculture. The western side of Southeast Arkansas includes the Piney Woods, a region known for dense pine and cypress forests. Silviculture and agriculture are prominent in this section of the region. Population centers include Pine Bluff, Stuttgart, Monticello, Warren and Crossett. Primary waterways in the region include the Arkansas River, Bayou Bartholomew, Mississippi River and the White River. Protected areas of southeast Arkansas include Cane Creek State Park, Delta Heritage Trail State Park, Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Chicot State Park, Mississippi River State Park, Overflow National Wildlife Refuge and White River National Wildlife Refuge.

The flat topography and fertile soils of Southeast Arkansas have been important to the region throughout its history, first to the Native American that inhabited the region. This history is available today at museums like the Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Historical Museum. The area was one of the first explored and settled in Arkansas; including the territorial capital at Arkansas Post. Following widespread settlement, most of the area was put into cotton cultivation due to the region's fertile soils. The staple's high market value made many plantation owners wealthy in the antebellum period; this history is available to visitors at museums such as the Lakeport Plantation. After the Civil War, agriculture became based on sharecropping and tenant farming, allowing plantation owners to keep their workers in poverty and maintain their political power and social dominance. In the 1950s, mechanization reduced the need for laborers on the farm, driving much of the region's population elsewhere in order to find jobs. Throughout much of Southeast Arkansas, population has continued to decline and economies have continued to shrink ever since. The primary population center of the region is the Pine Bluff metropolitan area, with Pine Bluff serving as the principal city.

Southwest Arkansas

Southwest Arkansas is largely covered in a think pine, hickory, and oak forest known as the Piney Woods, with much of the land being preserved in the Ouachita National Forest. Manmade lakes dot the region, including Lake Ouachita, Lake Hamilton, Millwood Lake, and DeGray Lake. Population centers include Hot Springs, a popular tourist destination known for the natural hot springs protected within Hot Springs National Park, Oaklawn Park, and historic buildings, and Texarkana, which straddles the Texas state line in the southwest corner of Arkansas. Most of Southwest Arkansas is sparsely populated, with small towns separated by long roadways through stands of pine trees.

Hydrology

Rainfall in Arkansas is split almost in half along a northeast/southwest dividing line by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, with the northeast being characterized as arid-semiarid climate and the southwest being a Gulf-influenced humid-subhumid climate. [15] The area that receives the most rain in the state is the area south of the Ouachita Mountains, which forms an orographic effect (commonly known as rain shadow) when storms move north from the Gulf.

The Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) also describes Arkansas's water resources using six ecoregions. Of the six, the Boston Mountain, Ouachita Mountain and Ozark Highlands ecoregions generally contain waterways with "exceptionally high quality water", including many of the state's extraordinary resources waters (ERWs). The Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal and Delta ecoregions have seen water quality impacts from agriculture and silviculture but are generally compliant with the goals of the Clean Water Act. [16]

Surface water

Arkansas contains approximately 515,000 acres (208,000 ha) of surface waters, including 28,408 miles (45,718 km) of perennial streams and 87,618 miles (141,008 km) of total streams. ADEQ uses six ultimate receiving streams to subdivide the state into primary watersheds: Arkansas River, Mississippi River, Ouachita River, Red River, St. Francis River, and White River. This six basins collect water from over 1600 smaller watersheds throughout the state via tributary streams, as described below. [16]

Groundwater

Groundwater accounts for over 60% of water use in Arkansas, and shallow aquifers providing high quality groundwater can be found throughout the state. In many upland regions of Arkansas, surface water interacts with groundwater via karst topography common to the Ozarks and Ouachitas. Groundwater monitoring is subdivided into twelve areas. Of the twelve, the Athens Plateau (Hempstead County), Frontal Ouachita, Hardy, Omaha, Ouachita, North Central, and Pine Bluff monitoring areas have a water quality described as "generally good".

[16]

Protected areas

View from Mather Lodge at Petit Jean State Park Petit Jean State Park view.jpg
View from Mather Lodge at Petit Jean State Park

Arkansas has many protected natural areas administered by several different organizations. The Ozark Mountain forests have been subdivided into the Ozark National Forest, St. Francis National Forest, and the Ouachita National Forest, maintained by the United States Forest Service. [17] [18] The Forest Service also maintains the Black Fork Mountain Wilderness, Blanchard Springs Caverns, and several other recreational areas within the forests.

Administered by the National Park Service (NPS), Hot Springs National Park was the nation's first national park. The park includes Bathhouse Row, a formerly bustling avenue of Gilded Age architecture bathhouses which used the spring water to cure dozens of ailments. The NPS also maintains three National Historic Sites in Arkansas: Fort Smith National Historic Site, Little Rock Central High School, and the President Clinton Birthplace. Pea Ridge National Military Park is the only National Military Park, and Arkansas Post National Memorial is the lone National Memorial in the state.

The Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism maintains 52 state parks in Arkansas as well as Poison Springs State Forest. [4] Parks range from large forested areas for hiking enthusiasts, to lakes and rivers for watersports, to interpretive historical sites, to cemeteries celebrating historically significant Arkansans. Some of the most frequently visited parks include Mount Magazine State Park, DeGray Lake Resort State Park, Crater of Diamonds State Park, Pinnacle Mountain State Park, Petit Jean State Park, Devil's Den State Park, Crowley's Ridge State Park, and Lake Ouachita State Park.

See also

Arkansas Geological Survey

Flag of Arkansas.svg Arkansasportal

Related Research Articles

Ozarks Highland region in central-southern United States

The Ozarks, also called the Ozark Mountains or Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U.S. states of Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and extreme southeastern Kansas. The Ozarks cover a significant portion of northern Arkansas and most of the southern half of Missouri, extending from Interstate 40 in Arkansas to the Interstate 70 in central Missouri.

Ouachita National Forest

The Ouachita National Forest is a National Forest that lies in the western portion of Arkansas and portions of eastern Oklahoma.

White River (Arkansas–Missouri) river in Arkansas and Missouri, United States

The White River is a 722-mile (1,162 km) long river that flows through the U.S. states of Arkansas and Missouri. Originating in the Boston Mountains of northwest Arkansas, it flows northwards into southern Missouri, and then turns back into Arkansas, flowing southeast to its mouth at the Mississippi River.

Ozark–St. Francis National Forest

The Ozark – St. Francis National Forest is a United States National Forest that is located in the state of Arkansas. It is composed of two separate forests, Ozark National Forest in the Ozark Mountains; and St. Francis National Forest on Crowley's Ridge. Each forest has distinct biological, topographical, and geological differences.

Ouachita Mountains

The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the southeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U.S. Interior Highlands. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet.

Ouachita River river in the United States of America

The Ouachita River is a 605-mile-long (974 km) river that runs south and east through the U.S. states of Arkansas and Louisiana, joining the Tensas River to form the Black River near Jonesville, Louisiana. It is the 25th-longest river in the United States.

Ouachita National Recreation Trail

Ouachita National Recreation Trail is a 223-mile (359 km) long, continuous hiking trail through the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas. It is the longest backpacking trail in the Ouachita National Forest, spanning 192 miles across its length. Approximately 177 miles of the trail is in Arkansas and 46 miles of the trail is in Oklahoma. The trail is used by hikers, backpackers, hunters, and mountain bikers. It is a non-motorized single track trail open only to foot traffic and partially open to mountain bicycles. Segments opened to mountain bikes are from the western terminus of the Ouachita Trail at Talimena State Park to the Big Cedar trailhead on US Highway 259 at approximately Mile Marker (MM) 30.5 in Oklahoma, and from the Talimena Scenic Drive Trailhead at MM 54.1, east to Highway 7 at mile 160.4, north of Jessieville, Arkansas.

Arkansas Timberlands forested region

The Arkansas Timberlands is a region of the U.S. state of Arkansas generally encompassing the area south of the Ouachita Mountains, south of Central Arkansas and west of the Arkansas Delta. With several different definitions in use by various state agencies, the Arkansas Timberlands is essentially a region known for dense pine and cypress forests covering hilly terrain and lining numerous rivers. Modern settlement created a significant logging industry and subsequent clearance agriculture which provided the basis of the local economy until the discovery of petroleum. Local tourism is largely based on the popularity of deer hunting and bass fishing. Attractions there include Marks' Mills Battleground Historical Monument, Jenkins' Ferry Battleground Historical Monument, Overflow National Wildlife Refuge, Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge, South Arkansas Arboretum, Arkansas Museum of Natural Resources, White Oak Lake State Park, Poison Springs Battleground State Park, Millwood State Park, and Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge. The Arkansas Timberlands is the birthplace of former President of the United States Bill Clinton.

Arkansas Scenic Byways highway system

The Arkansas Scenic Byways Program is a list of highways, mainly state highways, that have been designated by the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department (AHTD) as scenic highways. The Arkansas General Assembly designates routes for scenic byway status upon successful nomination. For a highway to be declared scenic, a group interested in preserving the scenic, cultural, recreational, and historic qualities of the route must be created. Mayors of all communities along the route and county judges from each affected county must be included in the organization. Scenic highways are marked with a circular shield in addition to regular route markers.

Bayou Bartholomew bayou in Arkansas and Louisiana, United States of America

Bayou Bartholomew is the longest bayou in the world meandering approximately 364 miles (586 km) between the U.S. states of Arkansas and Louisiana. It contains over 100 aquatic species making it the second most diverse stream in North America. Known for its excellent bream, catfish, and crappie fishing, portions of the bayou are considered some of the best kept secrets of Arkansas anglers. It starts northwest of the city of Pine Bluff, Arkansas, in the Hardin community, winds through parts of Jefferson, Lincoln, Desha, Drew, Chicot, and Ashley counties in Arkansas, and Morehouse Parish, Louisiana, and eventually dumps into the Ouachita River after passing by the northernmost tip of Ouachita Parish, near Sterlington, Louisiana. The bayou serves as the primary border separating the Arkansas Delta from the Arkansas Timberlands.

Geography of Oklahoma

The Geography of Oklahoma encompasses terrain and ecosystems ranging from arid plains to subtropical forests and mountains. Oklahoma contains 10 distinct ecological regions, more per square mile than in any other state by a wide margin. It is situated in the Great Plains and U.S. Interior Highlands region near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. Usually considered part of the South Central United States, Oklahoma is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, and on the south and near-west by Texas.

DArbonne National Wildlife Refuge

D'Arbonne National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States located north of West Monroe, Louisiana. It is in Ouachita and Union Parishes on either side of Bayou D'Arbonne near its confluence with the Ouachita River. It lies on the western edge of the Mississippi River alluvial valley. It was established in 1975 to protect bottomland hardwoods and provide wintering habitat for migratory waterfowl. D'Arbonne is one of four refuges managed in the North Louisiana Refuges Complex.

Ozark Highlands (ecoregion)

The Ozark Highlands is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in four U.S. states. Most of the region is within Missouri, with a part in Arkansas and small sections in Oklahoma and Kansas. It is the largest subdivision of the region known as the Ozark Mountains, flatter in comparison to the Boston Mountains in Arkansas, the steepest part of the Ozarks.

Outline of Arkansas Overview of and topical guide to Arkansas

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S. state of Arkansas:

Arkansas River Valley Region in Arkansas, United States

The Arkansas River Valley is a region in Arkansas defined by the Arkansas River in the western part of the state. Generally defined as the area between the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains, the River Valley is characterized by flat lowlands covered in fertile farmland and lakes periodically interrupted by high peaks. Mount Magazine, Mount Nebo, and Petit Jean Mountain compose the Tri-Peaks Region, a further subdivision of the River Valley popular with hikers and outdoors enthusiasts. In addition to the outdoor recreational activities available to residents and visitors of the region, the River Valley contains Arkansas's wine country as well as hundreds of historical sites throughout the area.It is one of six natural divisions of Arkansas.

Arkansas Valley (ecoregion)

The Arkansas Valley is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the U.S. states of Arkansas and Oklahoma. It parallels the Arkansas River between the flat plains of western Oklahoma and the Arkansas Delta, dividing the Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains with the broad valleys created by the river's floodplain, occasionally interrupted by low hills, scattered ridges, and mountains. In Arkansas, the region is often known as the Arkansas River Valley, especially when describing the history and culture of the region.

References

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  11. "Arkansas River Valley Tri-Peaks Region". Arkansas River Valley Tri-Peaks Association. 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
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  17. "About the Ozark – St. Francis National Forests". United States Department of Agriculture - United States Forest Service . Retrieved February 18, 2012.
  18. "About the Ouachita National Forest". United States Department of Agriculture - United States Forest Service. Retrieved February 18, 2012.