Garland County, Arkansas

Last updated
Garland County, Arkansas
Garland County Courthouse 003.jpg
Garland County Courthouse
Map of Arkansas highlighting Garland County.svg
Location in the U.S. state of Arkansas
Map of USA AR.svg
Arkansas's location in the U.S.
FoundedApril 5, 1873
Named for Augustus Hill Garland
Seat Hot Springs
Largest cityHot Springs
Area
  Total735 sq mi (1,904 km2)
  Land678 sq mi (1,756 km2)
  Water57 sq mi (148 km2), 7.7%
Population (est.)
  (2016)97,477
  Density142/sq mi (55/km2)
Congressional district 4th
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5
Website www.garlandcounty.org

Garland County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 96,024. [1] The county seat is Hot Springs. [2]

County (United States) Subdivision used by most states in the United States of America

In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 U.S. states, while Louisiana and Alaska have functionally equivalent subdivisions called parishes and boroughs respectively.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Arkansas State of the United States of America

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Contents

Garland County comprises the Hot Springs, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county includes Hot Springs National Park, the only national park in the state of Arkansas as well as the first property to be protected under federal legislation; a law was passed in 1832 supported by President Andrew Jackson to preserve this area, even before Arkansas was admitted as a state.

Hot Springs National Park United States National Park in central Arkansas

Hot Springs National Park is an American national park in central Garland County, Arkansas, adjacent to the city of Hot Springs, the county seat. Hot Springs Reservation was initially created by an act of the United States Congress on April 20, 1832 to be preserved for future recreation. Established before the concept of a national park existed, it was the first time that land had been set aside by the federal government to preserve its use as an area for recreation. The hot spring water has been popularly believed for centuries to possess medicinal properties, and was a subject of legend among several Native American tribes. Following federal protection in 1832, the city developed into a successful spa town. Incorporated January 10, 1851, the city has been home to Major League Baseball spring training, illegal gambling, speakeasies and gangsters such as Al Capone, horse racing at Oaklawn Park, the Army and Navy Hospital, and 42nd President Bill Clinton. The area was made a national park on March 4, 1921. Until the redesignation of Jefferson National Expansion Memorial as Gateway Arch National Park in 2018, Hot Springs was the smallest national park by area in the United States. Since Hot Springs National Park is the oldest park maintained by the National Park Service, it was the first to receive its own US quarter in April 2010 as part of the America the Beautiful Quarters coin series.

Andrew Jackson 7th president of the United States

Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress. As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union.

Hot Springs National Park, located in Garland County Hot Springs National Park, AR.jpg
Hot Springs National Park, located in Garland County

History

This area was occupied by the historic Natchitoches people, who frequented the hot springs for their healing powers. Their ancestors among regional indigenous peoples had been coming to this area for thousands of years.

The Natchitoches are a Native American tribe from Louisiana.

President Thomas Jefferson requested William Dunbar, a planter and amateur scientist of Natchez, to explore this area. Dunbar led small group of a dozen soldiers and friend George Hunter, a chemist, to the Ouachita Mountains to report on the Indian tribes, minerals, and springs. They reached Hot Springs in December 1804, where they found a basic cabin used by visitors to the springs.

Thomas Jefferson 3rd president of the United States

Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.

Ouachita Mountains

The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the southeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U.S. Interior Highlands. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet.

The first European-American settler was Jean Pierre Emanuel Prudhomme, a descendant of French colonists. An owner of a plantation at Red River, Prudhomme was suffering from illness and sought relief from the springs. In 1807 He built the first permanent European house by the springs, living here for two years. Isaac Cates and John Percival, two trappers from Alabama, joined him. Percival foresaw a great potential for the area and built log cabins in order to rent to visitors to the springs. [3]

In 1828, Ludovicus Belding came with wife and children to visit the hot springs. After a few months they built a small hotel for the visitors of the springs. [4]

In 1832 President Andrew Jackson signed legislation to protect the hot springs area for recreational use by American citizens as Hot Springs Reservation, the first time such action was taken. This was four years before Arkansas became a state, on June 15, 1836. A dispute among original settlers and their descendants over control of the property was settled by the US Supreme Court in 1877 in favor of the federal government. [3] Hot Springs National Park was established in 1921 and is managed by the National Park Service. [5] Garland County is Arkansas' 68th county, formed on April 5, 1873, from portions of Hot Spring, Montgomery, and Saline counties. [6] It was named for Augustus H. Garland, eleventh governor of Arkansas. [7] [8] It is the only county in the United States with this name.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 735 square miles (1,900 km2), of which 678 square miles (1,760 km2) is land and 57 square miles (150 km2) (7.7%) is water. [9]

Major highways

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1880 9,023
1890 15,32869.9%
1900 18,77322.5%
1910 27,27145.3%
1920 25,785−5.4%
1930 36,03139.7%
1940 41,66415.6%
1950 47,10213.1%
1960 46,697−0.9%
1970 54,13115.9%
1980 70,53130.3%
1990 73,3974.1%
2000 88,06820.0%
2010 96,0249.0%
Est. 201697,477 [10] 1.5%
U.S. Decennial Census [11]
1790–1960 [12] 1900–1990 [13]
1990–2000 [14] 2010–2016 [1]
Age pyramid Garland County USA Garland County, Arkansas age pyramid.svg
Age pyramid Garland County

As of the 2000 United States Census, [16] there were 88,068 people, 37,813 households, and 25,259 families residing in the county. The population density was 130 people per square mile (50/km²). There were 44,953 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile (26/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 88.85% White, 7.80% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, and 1.49% from two or more races. 2.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 37,813 households out of which 25.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.20% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.20% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.78.

In the county, the population was spread out with 21.30% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, and 21.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,724, and the median income for a family was $38,079. Males had a median income of $28,117 versus $20,421 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,631. About 10.50% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Presidential elections results
Garland County vote
by party in presidential elections [17]
Year GOP Dem Others
2016 63.93%26,08730.17% 12,3115.90% 2,407
2012 63.87%26,01433.89% 13,8042.23% 910
2008 61.36%26,82536.37% 15,8992.28% 995
2004 54.13%21,73444.93% 18,0400.95% 380
2000 53.15%19,09844.08% 15,8402.78% 997
1996 37.73% 13,66253.06%19,2119.21% 3,333
1992 35.80% 12,88652.26%18,81111.94% 4,298
1988 60.93%19,28136.05% 11,4063.02% 955
1984 62.47%21,21333.82% 11,4843.71% 1,261
1980 52.96%15,73942.11% 12,5154.93% 1,463
1976 39.72% 10,39460.02%15,7070.26% 69
1972 73.90%15,60224.66% 5,2071.44% 303
1968 37.83%7,67427.88% 5,65534.29% 6,955
1964 46.01% 9,95253.59%11,5910.40% 86
1960 51.66%7,20445.42% 6,3332.92% 407
1956 62.53%9,42736.06% 5,4371.41% 212
1952 60.07%7,84839.53% 5,1650.40% 52
1948 31.95% 2,28652.61%3,76415.43% 1,104
1944 36.50% 2,06963.43%3,5960.07% 4
1940 29.84% 1,42469.89%3,3350.27% 13
1936 29.09% 1,21770.07%2,9310.84% 35
1932 16.38% 83383.60%4,2520.02% 1
1928 48.94% 2,72050.79%2,8230.27% 15
1924 37.50% 1,06452.91%1,5019.59% 272
1920 45.45% 1,42351.71%1,6192.84% 89
1916 38.65% 1,05761.35%1,6780.00% 0
1912 14.80% 30051.60%1,04633.60% 681
1908 42.91% 1,10552.04%1,3405.05% 130
1904 50.92%85447.94% 8041.13% 19
1900 42.62% 70856.59%9400.78% 13
1896 31.33% 70365.29%1,4653.39% 76

Communities

Cities

Towns

Census-designated places

Unincorporated communities

Townships

Townships in Garland County, Arkansas as of 2010 Garland County Arkansas 2010 Township Map large.jpg
Townships in Garland County, Arkansas as of 2010

Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas; some may have incorporated cities or towns within part of their boundaries. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships (sometimes referred to as "county subdivisions" or "minor civil divisions"). Townships are also of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Garland County are listed below; listed in parentheses are the cities, towns, and/or census-designated place s that are fully or partially inside the township. [18] [19]

Township FIPS  code ANSI  code
(GNIS  ID)
Population
center(s)
Pop.
(2010)
Pop.
density
(/mi²)
Pop.
density
(/km²)
Total area
(mi²)
Total area
(km²)
Land area
(mi²)
Land area
(km²)
Water area
(mi²)
Water area
(km²)
Geographic coordinates
Hale 05-91581 00066591 Mountain Pine, most of CDP Hot Springs Village, small part of CDP Rockwell 16,14241.9916.21428.9791,111384.389995.644.590115.5 34°38′02″N93°11′55″W / 34.633909°N 93.198598°W / 34.633909; -93.198598
Hot Springs 05-91773 00066592 most of Hot Springs 41,479801.70309.5454.073140.051.739134.02.3346.045 34°29′40″N93°02′52″W / 34.494338°N 93.047883°W / 34.494338; -93.047883
Lake Hamilton 05-92100 00066594 CDP Lake Hamilton, most of CDP Rockwell 20,534260.45100.5686.717224.678.839204.27.87820.40 34°25′52″N93°05′11″W / 34.431040°N 93.086323°W / 34.431040; -93.086323
Whittington 05-94047 00066602 Fountain Lake, Lonsdale, CDP Piney, part of CDP Hot Springs Village, small part of Hot Springs 17,599108.0941.73164.852427.0162.814421.72.0385.278 34°34′08″N92°59′59″W / 34.568990°N 92.999676°W / 34.568990; -92.999676
Source: "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: County Subdivisions in Arkansas". U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31.

Source: "Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files". U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division.

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. 1 2 "Garland County: History", Rootsweb
  4. on, Best Books (27 April 2018). "Arkansas: A Guide to the State". Best Books on. Retrieved 27 April 2018 via Google Books.
  5. "The National Parks: Index 2009–2011". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
  6. "Garland County - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved 2015-08-27.
  7. "Profile for Baxter County, Arkansas, AR". ePodunk. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  8. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 134.
  9. "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  10. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  11. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  12. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  13. Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  14. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  15. Based on 2000 census data
  16. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
  17. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections" . Retrieved November 18, 2016.
  18. 2011 Boundary and Annexation Survey (BAS): Garland County, AR (PDF) (Map). U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  19. "Arkansas: 2010 Census Block Maps - County Subdivision". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved June 28, 2014.

Coordinates: 34°35′01″N93°07′39″W / 34.58361°N 93.12750°W / 34.58361; -93.12750