Little Rock, Arkansas

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Little Rock
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Nicknames: 
The Rock, Rock Town, LR
Little Rock, Arkansas
Interactive map of Little Rock
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Little Rock
Location within Arkansas
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Little Rock
Location within the United States
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Little Rock
Little Rock (North America)
Coordinates: 34°44′10″N92°19′52″W / 34.73611°N 92.33111°W / 34.73611; -92.33111
CountryUnited States
State Arkansas
County Pulaski
FoundedJune 1, 1821
Incorporated (town)November 7, 1831
Incorporated (city)November 2, 1835
Named for The Little Rock
Government
  Type Council–manager
  BodyLittle Rock Board of Directors
   Mayor Frank Scott Jr. (D)
Area
[1]
   State capital city 123.00 sq mi (318.58 km2)
  Land120.05 sq mi (310.92 km2)
  Water2.96 sq mi (7.66 km2)
  Metro
4,090.34 sq mi (10,593.94 km2)
Elevation
[2]
335 ft (102 m)
Population
 (2022)
   State capital city 204,405
  RankUS: 118th
  Density1,687.60/sq mi (651.58/km2)
   Urban
461,864 (US: 87th)
  Urban density1,724.6/sq mi (665.9/km2)
   Metro
748,031 (US: 81st)
Demonym Little Rocker
Time zone UTC−06:00 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−05:00 (CDT)
ZIP code(s)
72201-72207, 72209-72212, 72214-72217, 72219, 72221-72223, 72225, 72227, 72231, 72255, 72260, 72295
Area code 501
FIPS code 05-41000
GNIS feature ID83350 [2]
Website www.littlerock.gov

Little Rock (Quapaw : I’i-zhinka, lit.'Little rock' [3] ) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The city's population was 204,405 in 2022. [4] The six-county Little Rock metropolitan area is the 81st-most populous in the United States with 748,031 residents according to the 2020 census. [5]

Contents

As the county seat of Pulaski County, the city was incorporated on November 7, 1831, on the south bank of the Arkansas River close to the state's geographic center in Central Arkansas. The city derived its name from a rock formation along the river, named the "Little Rock" by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe in 1722. The capital of the Arkansas Territory was moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post in 1821.

Little Rock is a cultural, economic, government, and transportation center within Arkansas and the American South. Several cultural institutions are in Little Rock, such as the Arkansas Museum of Fine Arts, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre, the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, and the Mosaic Templars Cultural Center, in addition to hiking, boating, and other outdoor recreational opportunities. Little Rock's history is available through history museums, historic districts or neighborhoods of Little Rock like the Quapaw Quarter, and historic sites such as Little Rock Central High School and West Ninth Street. The city is the headquarters of Dillard's, Windstream Communications, Stephens Inc., University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Heifer International, Winrock International, the Clinton Foundation, and the Rose Law Firm.

History

Perspective map of the city of Little Rock, 1887 1887 Perspective map of the city of Little Rock, Arkansas.jpg
Perspective map of the city of Little Rock, 1887

Archeological artifacts provide evidence of Native Americans inhabiting Central Arkansas for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. The early inhabitants may have been the Folsom people, Bluff Dwellers, and Mississippian culture peoples who built earthwork mounds recorded in 1541 by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. Historical tribes of the area are the Caddo, Quapaw, Osage, Choctaw, and Cherokee.

Little Rock was named for a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River used by early travelers as a landmark, which marked the transition from the flat Mississippi Delta region to the Ouachita Mountain foothills. [6] It was named in 1722 by French explorer and trader Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe. [7] Travelers referred to the area as the "Little Rock". Though there was an effort to officially name the city "Arkopolis" upon its founding in the 1820s, and that name did appear on a few maps made by the US Geological Survey, the name Little Rock is eventually what stuck. [8] [9] [10]

The territorial capitol had been located at Arkansas Post in Southeast Arkansas since 1819, but the site had proven unsuitable as a settlement due to frequent flooding of the Arkansas River. Over the years, the "little rock" was known as a waypoint along the river, but remained unsettled. A land speculator from St. Louis, Missouri who had acquired many acres around the "little rock" began pressuring the Arkansas territorial legislature in February 1820 to move the capital to the site, but the representatives could not decide between Little Rock or Cadron (now Conway), which was the preferred site of Territorial Governor James Miller. The issue was tabled until October 1820, by which time most of the legislators and other influential men had purchased lots around Little Rock. [11] The legislature moved the capital to Little Rock, where it has remained ever since.

Desegregation

Downtown Little Rock pictured in 1958 Downtown Little Rock, Arkansas by Thomas J. O'Halloran, 1958 (LOC).jpg
Downtown Little Rock pictured in 1958

Little Rock Nine were the nine African American students who desegregated Little Rock Central High School in 1957 after the Little Rock School Board voted to begin the area’s desegregation, in compliance Brown v. Board of Education. On September 4, 1957, the first day of school at Central High, a white mob of segregationist protesters physically blocked the nine black students from entering the school. Minnijean Brown, Terrence Roberts, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls, who had been recruited by Daisy Bates and the NAACP, attempted to integrate Central High School, but Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to support the segregationists, and only backed down after Judge Ronald Davies of U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas granted an injunction from the U.S. Department of Justice compelling him to withdraw the Guard. [12] [13] Angry white mobs began rioting when the nine black students began attending Central High School. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, on the request of Woodrow Wilson Mann, Little Rock's mayor, deployed the 101st Airborne Division to the city and federalized the Arkansas National Guard to protect the students and ensure their safe passage to the school. Little Rock's four public high schools were closed in September 1958, and reopened a year later. Integration across all grades was fully achieved in fall 1972. The Little Rock school episode drew international attention to the treatment of African Americans in the United States. [14]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.8 square miles (303 km2), of which 116.2 square miles (301 km2) is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) (0.52%) is water.

Little Rock is on the south bank of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. Fourche Creek and Rock Creek run through the city, and flow into the river. The western part of the city is in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Northwest of the city limits are Pinnacle Mountain and Lake Maumelle, which provides Little Rock's drinking water.

The city of North Little Rock is just across the river from Little Rock, but it is a separate city. North Little Rock was once the 8th ward of Little Rock. An Arkansas Supreme Court decision on February 6, 1904, allowed the ward to merge with the neighboring town of North Little Rock. The merged town quickly renamed itself Argenta (the local name for the former 8th Ward), but returned to its original name in October 1917. [15]

Neighborhoods

Climate

Little Rock lies in the humid subtropical climate zone (Cfa), with hot, humid summers and cool winters with usually little snow. It has experienced temperatures as low as −12 °F (−24 °C), which was recorded on February 12, 1899, and as high as 114 °F (46 °C), which was recorded on August 3, 2011. [16]

Climate data for Little Rock (Clinton National Airport), 1991−2020 normals, [lower-alpha 1] extremes 1879−present [lower-alpha 2]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)83
(28)
87
(31)
91
(33)
95
(35)
98
(37)
107
(42)
112
(44)
114
(46)
106
(41)
98
(37)
86
(30)
81
(27)
114
(46)
Mean maximum °F (°C)72.0
(22.2)
75.8
(24.3)
82.2
(27.9)
86.2
(30.1)
91.3
(32.9)
96.2
(35.7)
100.2
(37.9)
101.1
(38.4)
96.2
(35.7)
89.2
(31.8)
79.6
(26.4)
72.8
(22.7)
102.4
(39.1)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C)50.5
(10.3)
55.2
(12.9)
63.7
(17.6)
72.8
(22.7)
80.5
(26.9)
88.2
(31.2)
91.7
(33.2)
91.5
(33.1)
85.1
(29.5)
74.2
(23.4)
61.9
(16.6)
52.6
(11.4)
72.3
(22.4)
Daily mean °F (°C)40.7
(4.8)
44.7
(7.1)
52.7
(11.5)
61.4
(16.3)
69.9
(21.1)
78.0
(25.6)
81.4
(27.4)
80.8
(27.1)
74.0
(23.3)
62.6
(17.0)
51.1
(10.6)
43.0
(6.1)
61.7
(16.5)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C)30.9
(−0.6)
34.2
(1.2)
41.8
(5.4)
50.1
(10.1)
59.3
(15.2)
67.7
(19.8)
71.2
(21.8)
70.1
(21.2)
62.9
(17.2)
50.9
(10.5)
40.2
(4.6)
33.3
(0.7)
51.0
(10.6)
Mean minimum °F (°C)16.4
(−8.7)
20.5
(−6.4)
26.6
(−3.0)
36.9
(2.7)
47.2
(8.4)
59.8
(15.4)
65.6
(18.7)
63.8
(17.7)
50.4
(10.2)
37.1
(2.8)
26.4
(−3.1)
20.3
(−6.5)
13.6
(−10.2)
Record low °F (°C)−8
(−22)
−12
(−24)
11
(−12)
28
(−2)
38
(3)
46
(8)
54
(12)
52
(11)
37
(3)
27
(−3)
10
(−12)
−1
(−18)
−12
(−24)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.50
(89)
3.97
(101)
4.96
(126)
5.59
(142)
5.08
(129)
3.55
(90)
3.33
(85)
3.16
(80)
3.01
(76)
4.47
(114)
4.72
(120)
5.08
(129)
50.42
(1,281)
Average snowfall inches (cm)1.1
(2.8)
1.6
(4.1)
0.5
(1.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.6
(1.5)
3.8
(9.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)9.29.310.59.410.98.08.77.26.68.18.59.5105.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)0.50.90.40.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.10.32.2
Average relative humidity (%)70.268.365.466.771.170.071.671.773.570.471.070.970.1
Average dew point °F (°C)28.9
(−1.7)
32.4
(0.2)
40.3
(4.6)
49.6
(9.8)
59.2
(15.1)
66.2
(19.0)
70.2
(21.2)
68.5
(20.3)
63.1
(17.3)
51.1
(10.6)
41.7
(5.4)
32.7
(0.4)
50.3
(10.2)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 180.9188.2244.5276.7325.3346.2351.0323.0271.9251.0176.9166.23,101.8
Percent possible sunshine 58626671758080787372575470
Average ultraviolet index 2.53.85.77.68.99.69.88.97.24.93.02.36.1
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and dew point 1961-1990, sun 1961−1990 at North Little Rock Airport) [17] [18] [19] [20] [21]
Source 2: UV Index Today (1995 to 2022) [22]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1850 2,167
1860 3,72772.0%
1870 12,380232.2%
1880 13,1386.1%
1890 25,87496.9%
1900 38,30748.1%
1910 45,94119.9%
1920 65,14241.8%
1930 81,67925.4%
1940 88,0397.8%
1950 102,21316.1%
1960 107,8135.5%
1970 132,48322.9%
1980 159,15120.1%
1990 175,79510.5%
2000 183,1334.2%
2010 193,5245.7%
2020 202,5914.7%
2022 (est.)204,405 [23] 0.9%
U.S. Decennial Census [24]

2020 census

Little Rock city, Arkansas – Racial and Ethnic Composition
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / EthnicityPop 2000 [25] Pop 2010 [26] Pop 2020 [27] % 2000% 2010% 2020
White alone (NH)98,90490,29785,40154.01%46.66%42.15%
Black or African American alone (NH)73,67981,57281,33940.23%42.15%40.15%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH)4505194970.25%0.27%0.25%
Asian alone (NH)2,9925,0987,0991.63%2.63%3.50%
Pacific Islander alone (NH)4354690.02%0.03%0.03%
Some Other Race alone (NH)1502777610.08%0.14%0.38%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH)2,0262,6316,9581.11%1.36%3.43%
Hispanic or Latino (any race)4,88913,07620,4672.67%6.76%10.10%
Total183,133193,524202,591100.00%100.00%100.00%

As of the 2020 United States Census, there were 202,591 people, 80,063 households, and 45,577 families residing in the city.

2010 census

Map of racial distribution in Little Rock, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
 White
 Black
 Asian
 Hispanic
 Other Race and ethnicity 2010- Little Rock (5560426642).png
Map of racial distribution in Little Rock, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:  White Black Asian Hispanic Other

As of the 2010 census, there were 193,524 people, 82,018 households, and 47,799 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,576.0 inhabitants per square mile (608.5/km2). There were 91,288 housing units at an average density of 769.1 per square mile (297.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 48.9% White, 42.3% Black, 0.4% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, and 1.7% from two or more races. 6.8% of the population is Hispanic or Latino.

There were 82,018 households, of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.7% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 24.7% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,572, and the median income for a family was $47,446. Males had a median income of $35,689 versus $26,802 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,209[ citation needed ]. 14.3% of the population is below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.9% of those under the age of 18 and 9.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Metropolitan area

The 2020 U.S. Census population estimate for the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area was 748,031. The MSA covers the following counties: Pulaski, Faulkner, Grant, Lonoke, Perry, and Saline. The largest cities are Little Rock, North Little Rock, Conway, Jacksonville, Benton, Sherwood, Cabot, Maumelle, and Bryant.

Crime

In the late 1980s, Little Rock experienced a 51% increase in murder arrests of children under 17, and a 40% increase among 18- to 24-year-olds. From 1988 to 1992, murder arrests of youths under 18 increased by 256%. [28] By the end of 1992, Little Rock reached a record of 61 homicides, [29] but in 1993 surpassed it with 76. [30] It was one of the highest per-capita homicide rates in the country, placing Little Rock fifth in Money Magazine's 1994 list of most dangerous cities. [28] In July 2017, a shootout occurred at the Power Ultra Lounge nightclub in downtown Little Rock; although there were no deaths, 28 people were injured and one hospitalized. In 2021, Little Rock saw a decrease in most violent crime, but a 24% increase in homicides from 2020. [31] The 65 homicides were the third-most on record in the city. Little Rock set a new record of 81 homicides in 2022. [32]

Economy

Downtown Little Rock Downtown Little Rock.jpg
Downtown Little Rock

Dillard's Department Stores, Windstream Communications and Acxiom, Simmons Bank, Bank of the Ozarks, Rose Law Firm, Westrock Coffee, Central Flying Service, and large brokerage Stephens Inc. are headquartered in Little Rock. Large companies headquartered in other cities but with a large presence in Little Rock are Dassault Falcon Jet (near Little Rock National Airport in the eastern part of the city), Fidelity National Information Services (in northwestern Little Rock), and Welspun Corp (in Southeast Little Rock). Little Rock and its surroundings are home to headquarters for large nonprofit organizations, such as Winrock International, Heifer International, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, Clinton Foundation, Lions World Services for the Blind, Clinton Presidential Center, Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation, FamilyLife, Audubon Arkansas, and The Nature Conservancy. Little Rock is also home to the American Taekwondo Association and Arkansas Hospital Association. Arkansas Blue Cross Blue Shield, Baptist Health Medical Center, Entergy, Dassault Falcon Jet, Siemens, AT&T Mobility, Kroger, Euronet Worldwide, L'Oréal, Timex, and UAMS are employers throughout Little Rock.

One of the state's largest public employers, with over 10,552 employees, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) and its healthcare partners—Arkansas Children's Hospital and the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System—have a total annual economic impact in Arkansas of about $5 billion. UAMS receives less than 11% of its funding from the state; it is funded by payments for clinical services (64%), grants and contracts (18%), philanthropy and other (5%), and tuition and fees (2%).

The Little Rock port is an inter-modal river port with a large industrial business complex. It is designated as Foreign Trade Zone 14. International corporations such as Danish manufacturer LM Glasfiber have established new facilities adjacent to the port.

Along with Louisville and Memphis, Little Rock has a branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. [33]

Arts and culture

The Clinton Presidential Center in downtown Little Rock opened in 2004. William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, Arkansas (exterior view - 2007).jpg
The Clinton Presidential Center in downtown Little Rock opened in 2004.

Cultural sites in Little Rock include:

Museums

Music and theater

Founded in 1976, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre is the state's largest nonprofit professional theatre company. A member of the League of Resident Theatres (LORT D), The Rep has produced more than 300 productions, including 40 world premieres, in its building in downtown Little Rock. Producing Artistic Director John Miller-Stephany leads a resident staff of designers, technicians and administrators in eight to ten productions for an annual audience in excess of 70,000 for MainStage productions, educational programming and touring. The Rep produces works from contemporary comedies and dramas to world premiers and the classics of dramatic literature.

The Community Theatre of Little Rock, founded in 1956, is the area's oldest performance art company.[ citation needed ]

The Arkansas Symphony Orchestra [34] performs over 30 concerts a year and many events. [ citation needed ] The Robinson Center Music Hall is the main performance center of the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra. The Wildwood Park for the Arts is the largest park dedicated to the performing arts in the South; it features seasonal festivals and cultural events.

Restaurants

Lassis Inn was a meeting place for civil rights leaders in the 1950s and '60s, including Daisy Bates, while they were planning efforts such as the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School. [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] In 2017 it was among the three inaugural inductees into the Arkansas Food Hall of Fame, along with Rhoda's Famous Hot Tamales and Jones Bar-B-Q Diner. [35] [40] In 2020, it was named an America's Classic by the James Beard Foundation. [35] [41]

Sports

ClubLeagueVenueEstablishedChampionships
Arkansas Travelers Texas League Dickey-Stephens Park 1963 (played as the Little Rock Travelers from 1887 to 1961)7
Little Rock Rangers USL League Two War Memorial Stadium 20160
Little Rock Trojans NCAA Division I (Ohio Valley Conference) Jack Stephens Center and Gary Hogan Field 19273
Arkansas Wolves FCNational Premier Soccer LeagueScott Field20210
Dickey Stephens Park Dickey Stephens Park.jpg
Dickey Stephens Park

Little Rock is home to the Arkansas Travelers. They are the AA professional Minor League Baseball affiliate of the Seattle Mariners in the Texas League. The Travelers played their last game in Little Rock at Ray Winder Field on September 3, 2006, and moved into Dickey-Stephens Park in nearby North Little Rock in April 2007.

The Little Rock Rangers soccer club of the National Premier Soccer League played their inaugural seasons in 2016 & 2017 for the men's and women's teams respectively. Home games are played at War Memorial Stadium.

Little Rock was also home to the Arkansas Twisters (later Arkansas Diamonds) of Arena Football 2 and Indoor Football League and the Arkansas RimRockers of the American Basketball Association and NBA Development League. Both of these teams played at Verizon Arena in North Little Rock.

The city is also home to the Little Rock Trojans, the athletic program of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The majority of the school's athletic teams are housed in the Jack Stephens Center, which opened in 2005. As of 2022, the Trojans play in the Ohio Valley Conference.

Little Rock's War Memorial Stadium hosts at least one University of Arkansas Razorback football game each year. The stadium is known for being in the middle of a golf course. Each fall, the city closes the golf course on Razorback football weekends to allow the estimated 80,000 people who attend take part in tailgating activities. War Memorial also hosts the Arkansas High School football state championships, and starting in the fall of 2006 hosts one game apiece for the University of Central Arkansas and the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Arkansas State University also plays at the stadium from time to time.

Little Rock was a host of the First and Second Rounds of the 2008 NCAA men's basketball tournament. It has also been a host of the SEC women's basketball tournament.

The now defunct Arkansas RiverBlades and Arkansas GlacierCats, both minor-league hockey teams, were in the Little Rock area. The GlacierCats of the now defunct Western Professional Hockey League (WPHL) played in Little Rock at Barton Coliseum while the RiverBlades of the ECHL played at the Verizon Arena.

Little Rock is home to the Grande Maumelle Sailing Club. Established in 1959, the club hosts multiple regattas during the year on both Lake Maumelle and the Arkansas River.

Little Rock is also home to the Little Rock Marathon, held on the first Saturday of March every year since 2003. The marathon features the world's largest medal given to marathon participants. [42]

Parks and recreation

Pinnacle Mountain Pinnacle Mountain 20171118 1632.jpg
Pinnacle Mountain

Little Rock has 48 parks in its park system. [43]

The region's largest park is Pinnacle Mountain State Park, a 2,000 acres (810 ha) park surrounding Pinnacle Mountain in the Ouachita Mountains. [44] The Arkansas Arboretum at the park features flora and tree plantings correspond to Arkansas's six geographical regions. [45]

The Arkansas River Trail runs 17 miles (27 km) along both sides of the Arkansas River through a portion of Little Rock, including over the Big Dam Bridge, the longest pedestrian/bicycle bridge in North America that has never been used by trains or motor vehicles at 4,226 feet (1,288 m).

Little Rock Zoo, founded in 1926, consists of at least 725 animals and over 200 species. [46]

Government

Pulaski County Courthouse, built in 1887 Pulaski County Courthouse, Little Rock, Arkansas.jpg
Pulaski County Courthouse, built in 1887

The city has operated under the city manager form of government since November 1957. In 1993, voters approved changes from seven at-large city directors (who rated the position of mayor among themselves) to a popularly elected mayor, seven ward directors and three at-large directors. The position of mayor remained a part-time position until August 2007. At that point, voters approved making the mayor's position a full-time position with veto power, while a vice mayor is selected by and among members of the city board. The current mayor, elected in November 2018, is Frank Scott Jr., a former assistant bank executive, pastor and state highway commissioner. The city manager is Bruce T. Moore, the longest-serving city manager in Little Rock history. [47] The city employs over 2,500 people in 14 different departments, including the police department, the fire department, parks and recreation, and the zoo.

Most Pulaski County government offices are in Little Rock, including the Quorum, Circuit, District, and Juvenile Courts; and the Assessor, County Judge, County Attorney, and Public Defender's offices.

Both the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas and the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit have judicial facilities in Little Rock. The city is served by the Little Rock Police Department.

Education

Primary and secondary

President Bill Clinton led celebrations of the 40th anniversary of desegregation at Little Rock Central High School AR LR Central High.jpg
President Bill Clinton led celebrations of the 40th anniversary of desegregation at Little Rock Central High School

The Little Rock School District (LRSD) operates the city's comprehensive public school system. As of 2012, the district has 64 schools with more schools being built. As of the 2009–2010 school year, the district's enrollment is 25,685. It has 5 high schools, 8 middle schools, 31 elementary schools, 1 early childhood (pre-kindergarten) center, 2 alternative schools, 1 adult education center, 1 accelerated learning center, 1 career-technical center, and about 3,800 employees. The public high schools in Little Rock are Little Rock Central High School, Little Rock Southwest High School, Little Rock West High School, Hall STEAM Magnet High School and Parkview Arts and Science Magnet High School.

The Pulaski County Special School District (PCSSD) serves parts of Little Rock. PCSSD high schools are in the city such as Mills University Studies High School and Joe T. Robinson High School.

Little Rock is home to both the Arkansas School for the Blind (ASB) and the Arkansas School for the Deaf (ASD), which are state-run schools operated by the Board of Trustees of the ASB–ASD. In addition, eStem Public Charter High School and LISA Academy provide tuition-free public education as charter schools.

Various private schools are in Little Rock, such as: Arkansas Baptist School System, Central Arkansas Christian Schools, Episcopal Collegiate School, Little Rock Catholic High School, Little Rock Christian Academy, Mount Saint Mary Academy and Pulaski Academy. Little Rock's Catholic high school for African-Americans, St. Bartholomew High School, closed in 1964. The Catholic grade school St. Bartholomew School, also established for African-Americans, closed in 1974. [48] The Our Lady of Good Counsel School closed in 2006. [49]

Higher education

Little Rock is home to two universities that are part of the University of Arkansas System: the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. [50] UAMS consists of six colleges, seven institutes, several research centers, and the UAMS Medical Center. [51]

A pair of smaller, historically black colleges, Arkansas Baptist College and Philander Smith College, affiliated with the United Methodist Church, are also in Little Rock. Located in downtown is the Clinton School of Public Service, a branch of the University of Arkansas System, which offers master's degrees in public service. Pulaski Technical College has two locations in Little Rock. The Pulaski Technical College Little Rock-South site houses programs in automotive technology, collision repair technology, commercial driver training, diesel technology, small engine repair technology and motorcycle/all-terrain vehicle repair technology. The Pulaski Technical College Culinary Arts and Hospitality Management Institute and The Finish Line Cafe are also in Little Rock-South. There is a Missionary Baptist Seminary in Little Rock associated with the American Baptist Association. The school began as Missionary Baptist College in Sheridan in Grant County.

Libraries

The Central Arkansas Library System comprises the main building downtown and numerous branches throughout the city, Jacksonville, Maumelle, Perryville, Sherwood and Wrightsville. The Pulaski County Law Library is at the William H. Bowen School of Law.

Media

Print

The Arkansas Democrat Gazette is the largest newspaper in the city, as well as the state. As of March 31, 2006, Sunday circulation is 275,991 copies, while daily (Monday-Saturday) circulation is 180,662, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations. The monthly magazine Arkansas Life, part of the newspaper's niche publications division, began publication in September 2008. From 2007 to 2015, the newspaper also published the free tabloid Sync Weekly. Beginning in 2020, the ADG ceased weekday publication of the newspaper and moved to an exclusive online version. The only physical newspaper the Democrat-Gazette now publishes is a Sunday edition. [52]

The Daily Record provides daily legal and real estate news each weekday. Healthcare news covered by Healthcare Journal of Little Rock. Entertainment and political coverage is provided weekly in Arkansas Times . Business and economics news is published weekly in Arkansas Business. Entertainment, Political, Business, and Economics news is published Monthly in "Arkansas Talks".

In addition to area newspapers, the Little Rock market is served by a variety of magazines covering diverse interests. The publications are:

  • At Home in Arkansas
  • AY Magazine
  • Inviting Arkansas
  • Little Rock Family
  • Little Rock Soiree
  • RealLIVING

Television

Many television networks have local affiliates in Little Rock, in addition to numerous independent stations. As for cable TV services, Comcast has a monopoly over Little Rock and much of Pulaski County. Some suburbs have the option of having Comcast, Charter or other cable companies.

Television stations in the Little Rock area include:

Call lettersNumberNetwork
KETS/AETN 2 PBS
KETS-22.2 Create
Arkansas Information Reading Service (audio only, only on SAP; radio reading service)
KETS-32.3 PBS Kids
KETS-42.4 World
KARK 4 NBC
Laff4.2 Laff
Grit4.3 Grit
Antenna TV4.4 Antenna TV
KATV 7 ABC
KATV-DT27.2 Comet TV
Charge!7.3 Charge!
TBD7.4 TBD
KTHV 11 CBS
THV211.2 Court TV
Justice11.3 Justice Network
Quest11.4 Quest (U.S. TV network)
Circle11.5 Circle (TV network)
Twist11.6 Twist
KLRT 16 Fox
16.2 Escape
KVTN25VTN: Your Arkansas Christian Connection
KASN 38 The CW
KKAP 36 Daystar
KARZ 42 MyNetworkTV
42.2 Bounce TV
42.3 Ion Television
KMYA-DT 49.1 Me-TV

Infrastructure

Transportation

The Metro Streetcar heritage streetcar system River Rail Streetcar, downtown Little Rock, Arkansas (November 2008).jpg
The Metro Streetcar heritage streetcar system

Two primary Interstate Highways and four auxiliary Interstates serve Little Rock. Interstate 40 (I-40) passes through North Little Rock to the north, and I-30 enters the city from the south, ending at I-40 in the north of the Arkansas River. Shorter routes designed to accommodate the flow of urban traffic across town include I-430, which bypasses the city to the west, I-440, which serves the eastern part of Little Rock including Clinton National Airport, and I-630 which runs east–west through the city, connecting west Little Rock with the central business district. I-530 runs southeast to Pine Bluff as a spur route. [53] U.S. Route 70 parallels I-40 into North Little Rock before multiplexing with I-30. US 67 and US 167 share the same route from the northeast before splitting. US 67 and US 70 multiplex with I-30 to the southwest. US 167 multiplexes with US 65 and I-530 to the southeast.

Map of Little Rock Railway and Electric Company c. 1907 Map of Little Rock Railway and Electric Company c 1907.png
Map of Little Rock Railway and Electric Company c.1907

Rock Region Metro, which until 2015 was named the Central Arkansas Transit Authority (CATA), provide public bus service within the city. As of January 2010, CATA operated 23 regular fixed routes, 3 express routes, as well as special events shuttle buses and paratransit service for disabled persons.[ citation needed ] Of the 23 fixed-route services, 16 offer daily service, 6 offer weekday service with limited service on Saturday, and one route runs exclusively on weekdays. The three express routes run on weekday mornings and afternoons. Since November 2004, Rock Region Metro's Metro Streetcar system (formerly the River Rail Electric Streetcar) has served downtown Little Rock and North Little Rock. The Streetcar is a 3.4-mile (5.5 km)-long heritage streetcar system that runs from the North Little Rock City Hall and throughout downtown Little Rock before it crosses over to the William J. Clinton Presidential Library. The streetcar line has fourteen stops and a fleet of five cars with a daily ridership of around 350.

Greyhound Lines serves Dallas and Memphis, as well as intermediate points, with numerous connections to other cities and towns. Jefferson Lines serves Fort Smith, Kansas City, and Oklahoma City, as well as intermediate points, with numerous connections to other cities and towns. These carriers operate out of the North Little Rock bus station.

Amtrak serves the city twice daily via the Texas Eagle, with northbound service to Chicago and southbound service to San Antonio, as well as numerous intermediate points. Through service to Los Angeles and intermediate points operates three times a week. The train carries coaches, a sleeping car, a dining car, and a Sightseer Lounge car. Reservations are required.

Six airlines serve 16 national gateway cities from Clinton National Airport. In 2006 they carried approximately 2.1 million passengers on approximately 116 daily flights to and from Little Rock.

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 82.9 percent of working Little Rock residents commuted by driving alone, 8.9 percent carpooled, 1.1 percent used public transportation, and 1.8 percent walked. About 1.3 percent commuted by all other means of transportation, including taxi, bicycle, and motorcycle. About 4 percent worked out of the home. [54]

In 2015, 8.2 percent of city of Little Rock households were without a car, which increased slightly to 8.9 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Little Rock averaged 1.58 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household. [55]

Healthcare

Hospitals in Little Rock include:

  • Arkansas State Hospital – Psychiatric Division
  • Arkansas Children's Hospital
  • Arkansas Heart Hospital
  • Baptist Health Medical Center
  • Central Arkansas Veteran's Health care System (CAVHS)
  • Pinnacle Pointe Hospital
  • St. Vincent Health System
  • UAMS Medical Center

Emergency services

The City of Little Rock and the surrounding area are serviced by Metropolitan Emergency Medical Services (MEMS), a public, non-profit, public utility model [56] ambulance service. [57]

In the early years of EMS, the city of Little Rock was serviced by multiple ambulance services. Subsequently, patient care was overshadowed by profit. A walk-out of one of the two services, Medic Vac, led to the creation of the Little Rock Ambulance Authority and MEMS in 1984. [58] [59]

Notable people

Sister cities

Little Rock's sister cities are: [60]

See also

Notes

  1. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. Official records for Little Rock began on 1 July 1879 at the State Capitol and maintained there until 30 April 1942. The next day, and until 7 August 1942, temperature and precipitation were recorded separately at two different locations in and around Little Rock, and the official climatology station has been Adams Field since 8 August 1942. For more information, see Threadex

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Little Rock, Arkansas, US.

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Further reading