Little Rock, Arkansas

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Little Rock, Arkansas
City of Little Rock
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Clockwise from top: Little Rock skyline, William J. Clinton Presidential Library, War Memorial Stadium, the River Market District, and the Arkansas State Capitol
Flag of Little Rock.svg
Flag
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Seal
Nickname(s): 
The Rock, Rock Town, LR
Pulaski County Arkansas Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Little Rock Highlighted 0541000.svg
Location within Pulaski County
USA Arkansas location map.svg
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Little Rock
Location within Arkansas
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Little Rock
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 34°44′10″N92°19′52″W / 34.73611°N 92.33111°W / 34.73611; -92.33111 Coordinates: 34°44′10″N92°19′52″W / 34.73611°N 92.33111°W / 34.73611; -92.33111
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas
County Pulaski
Township Big Rock
FoundedJune 1, 1821
Incorporated (town)November 7, 1831
Incorporated (city)November 2, 1835
Named for French: La Petite Roche
(The "Little Rock")
Government
  Type Council-manager
   Mayor Frank Scott Jr. (D)
   Council Little Rock Board of Directors
Area
[1]
   State capital and city 122.02 sq mi (316.03 km2)
  Land119.22 sq mi (308.77 km2)
  Water2.80 sq mi (7.26 km2)
  Metro
4,090.34 sq mi (10,593.94 km2)
Elevation
335 ft (102 m)
Population
 (2010) [2]
   State capital and city 193,524
  Estimate 
(2017) [3]
198,606
  RankUS: 117th
  Density1,665.93/sq mi (643.22/km2)
   Urban
431,388 (US: 88th)
   Metro
738,344 (US: 78th)
Demonym(s) Little Rocker
Time zone UTC-6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code(s)
72002, 72103, 72201, 72202, 72204, 72205, 72206, 72207, 72209, 72210, 72211, 72212, 72223, 72227
Area code(s) 501
FIPS code 05-41000
GNIS feature ID0083350
Major airport Clinton National Airport/Adams Field (LIT)
Interstate Highways I-30, I-40, I-430, I-440, I-530, I-630
Other major highways US 65, US 67, US 70, US 167, AR 107
Website www.littlerock.gov

Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. As the county seat of Pulaski County, the city was incorporated on November 7, 1831, on the south bank of the Arkansas River close to the state's geographic center. The city derives its name from a rock formation along the river, named the "Little Rock" (French: La Petite Roche) by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe in the 1720s. The capital of the Arkansas Territory was moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post in 1821. The city's population was 198,541 in 2016 according to the United States Census Bureau. The six-county Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is ranked 78th in terms of population in the United States with 738,344 residents according to the 2017 estimate by the United States Census Bureau. [4] [5]

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Arkansas State of the United States of America

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.

Contents

Little Rock is a cultural, economic, government, and transportation center within Arkansas and the South. Several cultural institutions are in Little Rock, such as the Arkansas Arts Center, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre, and the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, in addition to hiking, boating, and other outdoor recreational opportunities. Little Rock's history is available through history museums, historic districts or neighborhoods like the Quapaw Quarter, and historic sites such as Little Rock Central High School. The city is the headquarters of Dillard's, Windstream Communications, Acxiom, Stephens Inc., University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Heifer International, the Clinton Foundation, the Rose Law Firm, and Arkansas Blue Cross and Blue Shield. Other corporations, such as Dassault Falcon Jet, LM Wind Power, Simmons Bank, Euronet Worldwide, AT&T, and Entergy have large operations in the city. State government is a large employer, with many offices downtown. Two major Interstate highways, Interstate 30 and Interstate 40, meet in Little Rock, with the Port of Little Rock serving as a shipping hub.

Southern United States Cultural region of the United States

The southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. It is located between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwestern United States and northeastern United States to its north and the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico to its south.

The Arkansas Arts Center is on the corner of 9th and Commerce streets in MacArthur Park, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA. The Arkansas Arts Center was founded in 1960, but the idea began in 1914 when the Fine Arts Club of Arkansas formed. The group included supporters and volunteers who contributed to the realization of the Museum of Fine Arts in 1937 in Little Rock's MacArthur Park. The center features a permanent collection of art along with occasional special exhibitions. Other parts of the center include a research library and rooms for several art education classes for a variety of age groups. The center also includes the restaurant Canvas and a gift shop. Many of the facilities such as the main atrium and the lecture hall can be rented for special events.

Arkansas Repertory Theatre theatre in Little Rock, Arkansas

Arkansas Repertory Theatre(The Rep) is the state's longest-running nonprofit resident theatre. Along with Northwest Arkansas's TheatreSquared, it is one of only two producing theatres in Arkansas affiliated with Actors' Equity Association and offering a year-round season.

Etymology

Little Rock derives its name from a small rock formation on the south bank of the Arkansas River called the "Little Rock" (French: La Petite Roche). The Little Rock was used by early river traffic as a landmark and became a well-known river crossing. The Little Rock is across the river from The Big Rock, a large bluff at the edge of the river, which was once used as a rock quarry. [6]

Arkansas River major tributary of the Mississippi River, United States

The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges. It then flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, and finally into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas.

History

Prehistory

Archeological artifacts provide evidence of Native Americans inhabiting Central Arkansas for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. The early inhabitants may have been the Folsom people, Bluff Dwellers, and Mississippian culture peoples who built earthwork mounds recorded in 1541 by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. Historical tribes of the area were the Caddo, Quapaw, Osage, Choctaw, and Cherokee.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North, Central and South America and their descendants

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

Folsom tradition Paleo-Indian archaeological culture that occupied much of central North America

The Folsom Complex is a name given by archaeologists to a specific Paleo-Indian archaeological culture that occupied much of central North America. The term was first used in 1927 by Jesse Dade Figgins, director of the Colorado Museum of Natural History.

Mississippian culture Mound-building Native American culture in Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States

The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1600, varying regionally. It was composed of a series of urban settlements and satellite villages (suburbs) linked together by loose trading networks. The largest city was Cahokia, believed to be a major religious center.

Little Rock was named for a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River used by early travelers as a landmark. [7] It was named in 1722 by French explorer and trader Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, marked the transition from the flat Mississippi Delta region to the Ouachita Mountain foothills. Travelers referred to the area as the "Little Rock." Though there was an effort to officially name the city "Arkopolis" upon its founding in the 1820s, and that name did appear on a few maps made by the US Geological Survey, the name Little Rock is eventually what stuck. [8] [9] [10]

Merchant businessperson who trades in commodities that were produced by others

A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people. Historically, a merchant is anyone who is involved in business or trade. Merchants have operated for as long as industry, commerce, and trade have existed. During the 16th-century, in Europe, two different terms for merchants emerged: One term, meerseniers, described local traders such as bakers, grocers, etc.; while a new term, koopman (Dutch: koopman, described merchants who operated on a global stage, importing and exporting goods over vast distances, and offering added-value services such as credit and finance.

Mississippi Delta northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers

The Mississippi Delta, also known as the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi which lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. The region has been called "The Most Southern Place on Earth", because of its unique racial, cultural, and economic history. It is 200 miles (320 km) long and 87 miles (140 km) across at its widest point, encompassing about 4,415,000 acres (17,870 km2), or, almost 7,000 square miles of alluvial floodplain. Originally covered in hardwood forest across the bottomlands, it was developed as one of the richest cotton-growing areas in the nation before the American Civil War (1861–1865). The region attracted many speculators who developed land along the riverfronts for cotton plantations; they became wealthy planters dependent on the labor of black slaves, who comprised the vast majority of the population in these counties well before the Civil War, often twice the number of whites.

Ouachita Mountains

The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the southeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U.S. Interior Highlands. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet.

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The skyline of Little Rock, viewed from the north bank of the Arkansas River

Geography

Little Rock is located at 34°44′10″N92°19′52″W / 34.73611°N 92.33111°W / 34.73611; -92.33111 (34.736009, −92.331122). [11]

2011 astronaut photograph of Little Rock, Arkansas taken from the International Space Station (ISS) Little Rock Arkansas.jpg
2011 astronaut photograph of Little Rock, Arkansas taken from the International Space Station (ISS)

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.8 square miles (303 km2), of which 116.2 square miles (301 km2) is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) (0.52%) is water.

Little Rock is located on the south bank of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. Fourche Creek and Rock Creek run through the city, and flow into the river. The western part of the city is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Northwest of the city limits are Pinnacle Mountain and Lake Maumelle, which provides Little Rock's drinking water.

The city of North Little Rock is located just across the river from Little Rock, but it is a separate city. North Little Rock was once the 8th ward of Little Rock. An Arkansas Supreme Court decision on February 6, 1904, allowed the ward to merge with the neighboring town of North Little Rock. The merged town quickly renamed itself Argenta (the local name for the former 8th Ward), but returned to its original name in October 1917. [12]

Neighborhoods

Hillary Rodham and Bill Clinton lived in this 980 square foot (91 m) house in the Hillcrest neighborhood of Little Rock from 1977 to 1979 while he was Arkansas Attorney General. HillaryRodhamBillClintonLittleRockHouse1adjusted.jpg
Hillary Rodham and Bill Clinton lived in this 980 square foot (91 m) house in the Hillcrest neighborhood of Little Rock from 1977 to 1979 while he was Arkansas Attorney General.

Metropolitan area

The 2017 U.S. Census population estimate for the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area was 738,344. The MSA covers the following counties: Pulaski, Faulkner, Grant, Lonoke, Perry, and Saline. The largest cities are Little Rock, North Little Rock, Conway, Jacksonville, Benton, Sherwood, Cabot, Maumelle, and Bryant.

Climate

Little Rock lies in the humid subtropical climate zone, with hot, humid summers and cool winters, with usually little snow. It has experienced temperatures as low as −12 °F (−24 °C), which was recorded on February 12, 1899, and as high as 114 °F (46 °C), which was recorded on August 3, 2011. [14]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 2,167
1860 3,72772.0%
1870 12,380232.2%
1880 13,1386.1%
1890 25,87496.9%
1900 38,30748.1%
1910 45,94119.9%
1920 65,14241.8%
1930 81,67925.4%
1940 88,0397.8%
1950 102,21316.1%
1960 107,8135.5%
1970 132,48322.9%
1980 159,15120.1%
1990 175,79510.5%
2000 183,1334.2%
2010 193,5245.7%
Est. 2018200,655 [19] 3.7%
U.S. Decennial Census [20]

As of the 2005–2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 52.7% of Little Rock's population; of which 49.4% were non-Hispanic whites, down from 74.1% in 1970. [21] Blacks or African Americans made up 42.1% of Little Rock's population, with 42.0% being non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.4% of Little Rock's population while Asian Americans made up 2.1% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 1.2% of the city's population; of which 0.2% were non-Hispanic. Individuals from two or more races made up 1.4% of the city's population; of which 1.1% were non-Hispanic. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 4.7% of Little Rock's population.

Map of racial distribution in Little Rock, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) Race and ethnicity 2010- Little Rock (5560426642).png
Map of racial distribution in Little Rock, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

As of the 2010 census, there were 193,524 people, 82,018 households, and 47,799 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,576.0 people per square mile (608.5/km²). There were 91,288 housing units at an average density of 769.1 per square mile (296.95/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 48.9% White, 42.3% Black, 0.4% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from other races, and 1.7% from two or more races. 6.8% of the population is Hispanic or Latino.

There were 82,018 households, out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.7% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,572, and the median income for a family was $47,446. Males had a median income of $35,689 versus $26,802 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,209[ citation needed ]. 14.3% of the population is below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.9% of those under the age of 18 and 9.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Crime

In the late 1980s, Little Rock experienced a 51% increase in murder arrests of children under 17, and a 40% increase in among 18- to 24-year-olds. From 1988 to 1992, murder arrests of youths under 18 increased by 256%. [22] By the end of 1992, Little Rock reached a record of 61 homicides, [23] but in 1993 surpassed it with 76. [24] It was one of the highest per-capita homicide rates in the country, placing Little Rock fifth in Money Magazine's 1994 list of most dangerous cities. [22] In July 2017, a shootout occurred at the Power Ultra Lounge nightclub in downtown Little Rock. Although there were no deaths, twenty-eight people were injured and one hospitalized.

Economy

Downtown Little Rock Little Rock.jpg
Downtown Little Rock

Dillard's Department Stores, Windstream Communications and Acxiom, Simmons Bank, Bank of the Ozarks, Rose Law Firm, Central Flying Service and large brokerage Stephens Inc. are headquartered in Little Rock.

Large companies headquartered in other cities but with a large presence in Little Rock are Dassault Falcon Jet near Little Rock National Airport in the eastern part of the city, Fidelity National Information Services in northwestern Little Rock, and Welspun Corp in Southeast Little Rock.

Little Rock and its surroundings are the headquarters for some of the largest non-profit organizations in the world, such as Winrock International, Heifer International, the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, Clinton Foundation, Lions World Services for the Blind, Clinton Presidential Center, Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation, FamilyLife, Audubon Arkansas, and The Nature Conservancy.

Associations, such as the American Taekwondo Association, Arkansas Hospital Association, and the Quapaw Quarter Association.

Arkansas Blue Cross and Blue Shield, Baptist Health Medical Center, Entergy, Dassault Falcon Jet, Siemens, AT&T Mobility, Kroger, Euronet Worldwide, L'Oréal Paris, Timex, and UAMS are employers throughout Little Rock.

One of the largest public employers in the state with over 10,552 employees, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) and its healthcare partners—Arkansas Children's Hospital and the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System—have a total economic impact in Arkansas of about $5 billion per year. UAMS receives less than 11% of its funding from the state. Its operation is funded by payments for clinical services (64%), grants and contracts (18%), philanthropy and other (5%), and tuition and fees (2%).

The Little Rock port is an intermodal river port with a large industrial business complex. It is designated as Foreign Trade Zone 14. International corporations such as Danish manufacturer LM Glasfiber have established new facilities adjacent to the port.

Along with Louisville and Memphis, Little Rock has a branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. [25]

Arts and culture

Many cultural sites are in Little Rock, including:

Museums

William J. Clinton Presidential Library, in downtown Little Rock William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, Arkansas (exterior view - 2007).jpg
William J. Clinton Presidential Library, in downtown Little Rock

Theatre

Founded in 1976, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre is the state's largest nonprofit professional theatre company. A member of the League of Resident Theatres (LORT D), The Rep has produced more than 300 productions, such as 40 world premieres, in its building located in downtown Little Rock. Producing Artistic Director John Miller-Stephany leads a resident staff of designers, technicians and administrators in eight to ten productions for an annual audience in excess of 70,000 for MainStage productions, educational programming and touring. The Rep produces works from contemporary comedies and dramas to world premiers and the classics of dramatic literature.

Outside magazine named Little Rock one of its 2013 Best Towns.[ citation needed ] Dozens of parks such as Pinnacle Mountain State Park are in Little Rock.

Government

The Pulaski County Courthouse is located in Little Rock Pulaski County Courthouse, Little Rock, Arkansas (roses).jpg
The Pulaski County Courthouse is located in Little Rock

The city has operated under the city manager form of government since November 1957. In 1993, voters approved changes from seven at-large city directors (who rated the position of mayor among themselves) to a popularly elected mayor, seven ward directors and three at-large directors. The position of mayor remained a part-time position until August 2007. At that point, voters approved making the mayor's position a full-time position with veto power, while a vice mayor is selected by and among members of the city board. The current mayor, elected in November 2018, is Frank Scott Jr., a former bank executive, pastor and state highway commissioner. The current city manager is Bruce T. Moore, who is the longest-serving city manager in Little Rock history. [ citation needed ] The city employs over 2,500 individuals in 14 different departments, including the Police Department, the Fire Department, Parks and Recreation, and the Zoo.

Most Pulaski County government offices are located in the city of Little Rock, including the Quorum, Circuit, District, and Juvenile Courts; and the Assessor, County Judge, County Attorney, and Public Defenders offices.

Both the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas and the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit have judicial facilities in Little Rock. The city is served by the Little Rock Police Department.

Education

Colleges and universities

Little Rock is home to two universities that are part of the University of Arkansas System: the campuses of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences are located in the city. A pair of smaller, historically black colleges, Philander Smith College, affiliated with the United Methodist Church, and Arkansas Baptist College, are also located in Little Rock.

The University of Arkansas at Little Rock was founded in 1927 as Little Rock Junior College, under the supervision of the city Board of Education. In its first semester, there were eight instructors and about 100 students. The college is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, a status it has kept since 1929. Housed originally in public school buildings, the college moved in 1949 to another location between University Ave and Fair Park Blvd, North of Asher Ave., on land donated by Raymond Rebsamen, a Little Rock businessman. The college was the sole beneficiary of a continuing trust established by former Governor George W. Donaghey at the time. In 1957, the institution began a four-year degree program, became independent and privately supported under a separate board of trustees, and took the name Little Rock University.

In September 1969, The Little Rock University merged into the University of Arkansas System, to create the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The University of Arkansas System merger began a period of steady growth, which saw UALR go from about 3,500 students and 75 full-time faculty members in 1969 to about 10,000 students and over 400 full-time faculty members in the 1998 academic year. The university consists of 54 undergraduate major programs, an extensive schedule of night, weekend, and off-campus classes, and various community educational services. UALR began offering graduate and professional work in 1975. Besides the juris doctor offered at the William H. Bowen School of Law, UALR has three doctoral programs and 29 graduate and professional programs, and joint programs with other campuses of the University of Arkansas System.

The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is part of the University of Arkansas System. UAMS has about 2,200 students in six academic units: the Colleges of Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Health Related Professions, and Public Health and the Graduate School. UAMS also has more than 660 resident physicians completing their training at UAMS or at one of the seven Area Health Education Centers around the state. UAMS provides hospital and outpatient care, and houses the Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute, Harvey and Bernice Jones Eye Institute, Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy, and Jackson T. Stephens Spine and Neurosciences Institute. Arkansas Children's Hospital and the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System are affiliates of UAMS.

The outreach efforts of UAMS has seven Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) in Fayetteville, Pine Bluff, El Dorado, Texarkana, Fort Smith, Jonesboro, and Helena, Arkansas; networks of senior health centers and centers for young children with special health care needs; and interactive video education and medical consultation services to community hospitals around the state. UAMS is the state's largest basic and applied research institution with programs in multiple myeloma, aging, and other areas. [ citation needed ]

Located in downtown is the Clinton School of Public Service, a branch of the University of Arkansas System, which offers master's degrees in public service.

Pulaski Technical College has two locations in Little Rock. The Pulaski Technical College Little Rock-South site houses programs in automotive technology, collision repair technology, commercial driver training, diesel technology, small engine repair technology and motorcycle/all-terrain vehicle repair technology. The Pulaski Technical College Culinary Arts and Hospitality Management Institute and The Finish Line Cafe are also located in Little Rock-South.

There is a Missionary Baptist Seminary in Little Rock associated with the American Baptist Association. The school began as Missionary Baptist College in Sheridan in Grant County.

Secondary schools

Public schools

President Bill Clinton led celebrations of the 40th anniversary of desegregation at Little Rock Central High School. AR LR Central High.jpg
President Bill Clinton led celebrations of the 40th anniversary of desegregation at Little Rock Central High School.

Little Rock is home to both the Arkansas School for the Blind (ASB) and the Arkansas School for the Deaf (ASD), which are state-run schools operated by the Board of Trustees of the ASB–ASD. In addition, eStem Public Charter High School and LISA Academy provide tuition-free public education as charter schools.

The city's comprehensive public school system is operated by the Little Rock School District (LRSD). As of 2012, the district consists of 64 schools with more schools being built. As of the 2009–2010 school year, the district has enrollment of 25,685. It has 5 high schools, 8 middle schools, 31 elementary schools, 1 early childhood (pre-kindergarten) center, 2 alternative schools, 1 adult education center, 1 accelerated learning center, 1 career-technical center, and about 3,800 employees.

LRSD public high schools include:

The Pulaski County Special School District (PCSSD) serves parts of Little Rock. PCSSD high schools are located in the city such as:

Private schools

Various private schools are located in Little Rock, such as:

Little Rock previously had a Catholic high school for African-Americans, St. Bartholomew High School; it closed in 1964. The Catholic grade school St. Bartholomew School, also established for African-Americans, closed in 1974. [27] The Our Lady of Good Counsel School closed in 2006. [28]

Public libraries

The Central Arkansas Library System comprises the main building downtown and numerous branches throughout the city, Jacksonville, Maumelle, Perryville, Sherwood and Wrightsville. The Pulaski County Law Library is at the William H. Bowen School of Law.

Notable places

Sports

ClubLeagueVenueEstablishedChampionships
Arkansas Travelers Texas League Dickey-Stephens Park 19637
Little Rock Rangers National Premier Soccer League War Memorial Stadium 20160
Little Rock Trojans NCAA Division I (Sun Belt Conference) Jack Stephens Center and Gary Hogan Field 19273
Dickey Stephens Park Dickey Stephens Park.jpg
Dickey Stephens Park

Little Rock is home to the Arkansas Travelers. They are the AA professional Minor League Baseball affiliate of the Seattle Mariners in the Texas League. The Travelers played their last game in Little Rock at Ray Winder Field on September 3, 2006, and moved into Dickey-Stephens Park in nearby North Little Rock in April 2007.

The Little Rock Rangers soccer club of the National Premier Soccer League played their inaugural seasons in 2016 & 2017 for the men's and women's teams respectively. Home games are played at War Memorial Stadium.

Little Rock was also home to the Arkansas Twisters (later Arkansas Diamonds) of Arena Football 2 and Indoor Football League and the Arkansas RimRockers of the American Basketball Association and NBA Development League. Both of these teams played at Verizon Arena in North Little Rock.

The city is also home to the Little Rock Trojans, the athletic program of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The majority of the school's athletic teams are housed in the Jack Stephens Center, which opened in 2005. The Trojans play in the Sun Belt Conference, where the Arkansas State Red Wolves are their chief rival.

Little Rock's War Memorial Stadium plays host to at least one University of Arkansas Razorback football game each year. The stadium is known for being in the middle of a golf course. Each fall, the city closes the golf course on Razorback football weekends for fans to tailgate. It is estimated that over 80,000 people are present for the tailgating activities on these weekends. War Memorial also hosts the Arkansas High School football state championships, and starting in the fall of 2006 hosts one game apiece for the University of Central Arkansas and the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Arkansas State University also plays at the stadium from time to time.

Little Rock was a host of the First and Second Rounds of the 2008 NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament. It has also been a host of the SEC Women's Basketball Tournament.

The now defunct Arkansas RiverBlades and Arkansas GlacierCats, both minor-league hockey teams, were located in the Little Rock area. The GlacierCats of the now defunct Western Professional Hockey League (WPHL) played in Little Rock at Barton Coliseum while the RiverBlades of the ECHL played at the Verizon Arena.

Hubert "Geese" Ausbie played basketball at Philander Smith College in Little Rock, where he earned All-Conference and All-American honors. He later gained fame as a member of the Harlem Globetrotters.

John Kocinski, 250 cc and World Superbike motorcycle racing champion, is from Little Rock.

World Champion Middleweight Boxer Jermain Taylor and NBA players Derek Fisher and Joe Johnson were born and/or have roots in Little Rock.

Little Rock is home to the Grande Maumelle Sailing Club. Established in 1959, the club hosts multiple regattas during the year on both Lake Maumelle and the Arkansas River.

Little Rock is also home to the Little Rock Marathon, held on the first Saturday of March every year since 2003. The marathon features the world's largest medal given to marathon participants.

Media

Print

The Arkansas Democrat Gazette is the largest newspaper in the city, as well as the state. As of March 31, 2006, Sunday circulation is 275,991 copies, while daily (Monday-Saturday) circulation is 180,662, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations. The monthly magazine Arkansas Life is part of the newspaper's niche publications division, and began publication in September 2008. From 2007 to 2015, the newspaper also published the free tabloid Sync Weekly. [30]

Daily legal and real estate news is also provided Monday through Friday in the Daily Record. Healthcare news covered by Healthcare Journal of Little Rock. Entertainment and political coverage is provided weekly in Arkansas Times and monthly in the Little Rock Free Press. Business and economics news is published weekly in Arkansas Business. Entertainment, Political, Business, and Economics news is published Monthly in "Arkansas Talks" www.Arkansastalks.org

In addition to area newspapers, the Little Rock market is served by a variety of magazines covering diverse interests. The publications are:

Television

Many television networks have local affiliates in Little Rock, in addition to numerous independent stations. As for cable TV services, Comcast has a monopoly over Little Rock and much of Pulaski County. Some suburbs have the option of having Comcast, Charter or other cable companies.

Television stations in the Little Rock area are:

Call lettersNumberNetwork
KETS/AETN 2 PBS
KETS-22.2 Create
Arkansas Information Reading Service (audio only, only on SAP; radio reading service)
KETS-32.3 PBS Kids
KETS-42.4 World
KARK 4 NBC
Laff4.2 Laff
Grit4.3 Grit
KATV 7 ABC
KATV-DT27.2 Comet TV
Charge!7.3 Charge!
TBD7.4 TBD
KTHV 11 CBS
THV211.2 Antenna TV
Justice11.3 Justice Network
Quest11.4 Quest (U.S. TV network)
KLRT 16 Fox
16.2 Escape
KVTN25VTN: Your Arkansas Christian Connection
KASN 38 The CW
KKAP 36 Daystar
KARZ 42 MyNetworkTV
KARZ-DT242.2 Bounce TV
KMYA-DT 49.1 Me-TV

Radio

AM radio Stations in the Little Rock area are:

Call lettersFrequencyFormat
KAFN 690Sports
KMTL 760Gospel
KLRT 850Children's
KLRG 880Gospel
KARN 920Sports Talk
WLR 950Community radio
KJBN 1050Religious
KAAY 1090Christian
KPZK 1250Urban/Hip Hop
KZTD 1350Bright A/C-Talk
KZTS 1380Total Sports
KTUV 1440Gospel

FM radio stations in the Little Rock area are:

Call lettersFrequencyFormat
KABF 88.3Community radio
KUAR 89.1News and info
KLRE-FM 90.5Classical
KANX 91.1Religious
KUCA 91.3Classical
KIPR 92.3Mainstream Urban
KASR 92.7Sports
KKSP 93.3Rock
KKPT 94.1Classic Rock
KHKN 94.9Adult Hits
KSSN 95.7Country
KHTE-FM 96.5News/Talk
KWLR 96.9Religious
KURB 98.5Adult Contemporary
KDIS-FM 99.5Religious Talk
KDJE 100.3Active Rock
KDXE 101.1Conservative Talk
KVLO 101.7Gospel
KOKY 102.1Urban Adult Contemporary
KPZK-FM 102.5Gospel
KARN-FM 102.9News and Talk
KABZ 103.7Sports Talk
KMJX 105.1Country
KOLL 106.3Regional Mexican
KHLR 106.7Country
KLAL 107.7Top 40

Infrastructure

Healthcare

Hospitals in Little Rock include:

  • Arkansas State Hospital – Psychiatric Division
  • Arkansas Children's Hospital
  • Arkansas Heart Hospital
  • Baptist Health Medical Center
  • Central Arkansas Veteran's Health care System (CAVHS)
  • Pinnacle Pointe Hospital
  • St. Vincent Health System
  • UAMS Medical Center

Transportation

List of highways

I-30 terminates at I-40 in North Little Rock Northern terminus of Interstate 30, Little Rock, AR.jpg
I-30 terminates at I-40 in North Little Rock

Little Rock is served by two primary Interstate Highways and four auxiliary Interstates. I-40 passes through North Little Rock to the north, and I-30 enters the city from the south, terminating at I-40 in the north of the Arkansas River. Shorter routes designed to accommodate the flow of urban traffic across town include I-430, which bypasses the city to the west, I-440, which serves the eastern part of Little Rock including Clinton National Airport, and I-630 which runs east–west through the city, connecting west Little Rock with the central business district. I-530 runs southeast to Pine Bluff as a spur route. [31]

US 70 parallels I-40 into North Little Rock before multiplexing with I-30 at the Broadway exit (Exit 141B). US 67 and US 167 share the same route from the northeast before splitting. US 67 and US 70 multiplex with Interstate 30 to the southwest. US 167 multiplexes with US 65 and I-530 to the southeast.

Rail

Amtrak serves the city twice daily via the Texas Eagle, with northbound service to Chicago and southbound service to San Antonio, as well as numerous intermediate points. Through service to Los Angeles and intermediate points operates three times a week. The train carries coaches, a sleeping car, a dining car, and a Sightseer Lounge car. Reservations are required.

Aviation

Seven airlines serve 14 national/international gateway cities, e.g. Atlanta, Dallas, Chicago, Charlotte, Orlando etc. from Clinton National Airport. In 2006 they carried approximately 2.1 million passengers on approximately 116 daily flights to and from Little Rock. In July 2017, a seventh airline, Frontier Airlines, announced that they would be resuming scheduled operations to Denver in 2018.

Bus

Greyhound Lines serves Dallas and Memphis, as well as intermediate points, with numerous connections to other cities and towns. Jefferson Lines serves Fort Smith, Kansas City, and Oklahoma City, as well as intermediate points, with numerous connections to other cities and towns. These carriers operate out of the North Little Rock bus station.

Public transportation

The Metro Streetcar crossing the Arkansas River Little Rock streetcar crossing the Arkansas River.jpg
The Metro Streetcar crossing the Arkansas River

Within the city, public bus service is provided by the Rock Region Metro, which until 2015 was named the Central Arkansas Transit Authority (CATA). As of January 2010, CATA operated 23 regular fixed routes, 3 express routes, as well as special events shuttle buses and paratransit service for disabled persons.[ citation needed ] Of the 23 fixed-route services, 16 offer daily service, 6 offer weekday service with limited service on Saturday, and one route runs exclusively on weekdays. The three express routes run on weekday mornings and afternoons. Since November 2004, downtown areas of Little Rock and North Little Rock have been additionally served by the Metro Streetcar system (formerly the River Rail Electric Streetcar), also operated by Rock Region Metro. The Streetcar is a 3.4-mile (5.5 km)-long heritage streetcar system that runs from the North Little Rock City Hall and throughout downtown Little Rock before crossing over to the William J. Clinton Presidential Library. The streetcar line has fourteen stops and a fleet of five cars with a daily ridership of around 350.

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 82.9 percent of working Little Rock residents commuted by driving alone, 8.9 percent carpooled, 1.1 percent used public transportation, and 1.8 percent walked. About 1.3 percent commuted by all other means of transportation, including taxi, bicycle, and motorcycle. About 4 percent worked out of the home. [32]

In 2015, 8.2 percent of city of Little Rock households were without a car, which increased slightly to 8.9 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Little Rock averaged 1.58 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household. [33]

Notable people

Bill Clinton, 42nd President of the United States Bill Clinton.jpg
Bill Clinton, 42nd President of the United States

Sister cities

Friendship cities

See also

Notes

  1. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. Official records for Little Rock began on 28 February 1875 at the State Capitol and maintained there until 30 April 1942. The next day, and until 7 August 1942, temperature and precipitation were recorded separately at two different locations in and around Little Rock, and the official climatology station has been Adams Field since 8 August 1942. For more information, see Threadex

Related Research Articles

Pulaski County, Arkansas County in the United States

Pulaski County is a county in the U.S. state of Arkansas with a population of 392,664, making it the most populous county in Arkansas. Its county seat is Little Rock, which is also Arkansas's capital and largest city. Pulaski County is Arkansas's fifth county, formed on December 15, 1818, alongside Clark and Hempstead Counties. The county is named for Casimir Pulaski, a Polish volunteer who saved George Washington's life during the American Revolutionary War.

Scott, Arkansas CDP in Arkansas, United States

Scott is a census-designated place (CDP) in Lonoke and Pulaski counties in the central part of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The population was 72 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Jacksonville, Arkansas City in Arkansas, United States

Jacksonville is a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States, and a suburb of Little Rock. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 28,364. It is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area with 729,135 people as of 2014.

Maumelle, Arkansas City in Arkansas, United States

Maumelle is a small city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 17,163. The city is located northwest of Little Rock, bordering the opposite shore of the Arkansas River and is part of the Little Rock metropolitan area.

North Little Rock, Arkansas City in Arkansas, United States

North Little Rock is a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States, across the Arkansas River from Little Rock in the central part of the state. The population was 62,304 at the 2010 census. In 2017 the estimated population was 65,911, making it the seventh-most populous city in the state. North Little Rock, along with Little Rock and Conway, anchors the six-county Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is further included in the Little Rock-North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area with 902,443 residents.

Central Arkansas Metropolitan area in Arkansas, United States

Central Arkansas, also known as the Little Rock metro, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Arkansas. With an estimated 2016 population of 734,622, it is the most populated area in Arkansas. Located at the convergence of Arkansas's other geographic regions, the region's central location make Central Arkansas an important population, economic, education, and political center in Arkansas and the South. Little Rock is the state's capital, and the city is also home to two Fortune 500 companies, Arkansas Children's Hospital, and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS).

Pinnacle Mountain State Park

Pinnacle Mountain State Park is a 2,356-acre state park located in Pulaski County, Arkansas just outside of Little Rock. The main attraction is Pinnacle Mountain, an iconic landmark surrounded by the bottomlands of the Big Maumelle and Little Maumelle rivers.

Arkansas Highway 100 highway in Arkansas

Highway 100 is a designation for two state highways in Central Arkansas.

Arkansas Highway 10 highway in Arkansas

Arkansas Highway 10 is an east–west state highway in West Arkansas. The route runs 135.41 miles (217.92 km) from Oklahoma State Highway 120 near Hackett east to Interstate 30 in Little Rock, the state's capitol. The highway serves both the Fort Smith metropolitan area and the Little Rock – North Little Rock – Conway metropolitan area.

Oak Grove High School (Pulaski County, Arkansas)

Oak Grove High School was a public secondary school located in unincorporated Pulaski County, Arkansas, near North Little Rock. Oak Grove High School served grades 7 through 12 and was administered by the Pulaski County Special School District. Since 1967, Oak Grove had been accredited by the North Central Association (NCA) Commission on Accreditation and School Improvement (CASI). Oak Grove's official colors were green and white and the school's mascot was a hornet.

Pulaski County Special School District (PCSSD) is one of four public school districts in Pulaski County, Arkansas—along with the Little Rock School District, the North Little Rock School District, and the Jacksonville North Pulaski School District—accredited by the Arkansas Department of Education. PCSSD has its headquarters in Sweet Home, an unincorporated area near southeastern Little Rock.

Central Arkansas Library System

Central Arkansas Library System is a public library system headquartered in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States.

Arkansas Highway 365 state highway in Arkansas, U.S.

Arkansas Highway 365 is a north–south state highway in Central Arkansas. The route of 69.31 miles (111.54 km) runs from US 65B/US 79B in Pine Bluff north through Little Rock to US 65B/AR 60 in Conway. The route is a redesignation of former U.S. Route 65, which has since been rerouted onto various Interstate highways through the area. Portions of Highway 365 in Jefferson County are former alignments of the Dollarway Road, which was the longest paved concrete road upon completion in 1913.

Rock Region Metro Transit agency in Arkansas, U.S.

Rock Region Metropolitan Transit Authority, is the largest transit agency in Arkansas. It was formerly known as the Central Arkansas Transit Authority. Rock Region Metro provides public transportation services within Pulaski County, Arkansas, seven days a week. The 21 fixed routes and four express commuter routes provide transportation service to 10,000 riders every weekday. A demand response ADA paratransit service, known as LINKS, operates alongside the fixed route hours and coverage area. A heritage streetcar system, known as the Metro Streetcar, operates 3.4 miles of track throughout the downtown areas of Little Rock and North Little Rock.

Maumelle High School

Maumelle High School is a public secondary school located in Maumelle, Arkansas, United States, for students in grades nine through twelve. Maumelle is one of six high schools administered by the Pulaski County Special School District and is fed into by Maumelle Middle School.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

Richard Charles Beck, known as Rick Beck, is an electrical engineer from Conway County, Arkansas, who is a Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives for District 65 in parts of Conway and Perry counties in the central portion of his state.

References

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Further reading

Government
General information