Harrison, Arkansas

Last updated
Harrison
Harrison AR downtown.jpg
Motto(s): 
"Adventure Awaits You" [1]
Boone County Arkansas Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Harrison Highlighted 0530460.svg
Location of Harrison in Boone County, Arkansas.
Coordinates: 36°14′14″N93°6′49″W / 36.23722°N 93.11361°W / 36.23722; -93.11361 Coordinates: 36°14′14″N93°6′49″W / 36.23722°N 93.11361°W / 36.23722; -93.11361
Country United States
State Arkansas
County Boone
Platted1869
Area
[2]
  Total11.23 sq mi (29.08 km2)
  Land11.20 sq mi (29.01 km2)
  Water0.03 sq mi (0.07 km2)
Elevation
1,050 ft (320 m)
Population
 (2010)
  Total12,943
  Estimate 
(2017) [3]
13,079
  Density1,167.66/sq mi (450.84/km2)
Time zone UTC-6 (Central (CST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
72601-72602
Area code(s) 870
FIPS code 05-30460
GNIS feature ID0077134
Website cityofharrison.com
Buffalo National River, Harrison, Arkansas was the first National River to be designated in the United States. BuffGenLoc.png
Buffalo National River, Harrison, Arkansas was the first National River to be designated in the United States.

Harrison is a city in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. It is the county seat of Boone County. It is named after General Marcus LaRue Harrison, a surveyor that laid out the city along Crooked Creek at Stifler Springs. [4] According to 2017 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,079, [5] up from 12,943 at the 2010 census and it is the 30th largest city in Arkansas based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau. [6] Harrison is the principal city of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Boone and Newton counties.

Boone County, Arkansas A county in Northwest Arkansas

Boone County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,903. The county seat is Harrison. It is Arkansas's 62nd county, formed on April 9, 1869.

Arkansas State of the United States of America

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Crooked Creek is a stream in Newton, Boone and Marion counties of north Arkansas. It is a tributary of the White River.

Contents

Race riots by whites in 1905 and 1909 drove away black residents, establishing Harrison as a sundown town. [7] [8] Today (2019) it is known as a center of white supremacist activity, including the national headquarters of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. [9] [10] While in the 2010 census the population of Arkansas was 15.7% African-American, [11] in Harrison it was 0.9% and in Boone County 0.5%. [12]

Sundown town all-white municipalities that practice a form of segregation

Sundown towns, also known as sunset towns or gray towns, were all-white municipalities or neighborhoods in the United States that practiced a form of segregation—historically by enforcing restrictions excluding non-whites via some combination of discriminatory local laws, intimidation, and violence. The term came from signs posted that "colored people" had to leave town by sundown. "At least until the early 1960s, …northern states could be nearly as inhospitable to black travelers as states like Alabama or Georgia."

White supremacy or white supremacism is the racist belief that white people are superior to people of other races and therefore should be dominant over them. White supremacy has roots in scientific racism, and it often relies on pseudoscientific arguments. Like most similar movements such as neo-Nazism, white supremacists typically oppose members of other races as well as Jews.

History

Peace March in Harrison displaying love for diversity in the city. Peace March Harrison AR.jpg
Peace March in Harrison displaying love for diversity in the city.
Lake Harrison Park and Downtown Harrison view from a Hot Air Balloon during the Balloon Festival Downtown Harrison, Arkansas aerial view from hot air balloon.jpg
Lake Harrison Park and Downtown Harrison view from a Hot Air Balloon during the Balloon Festival
Aerial view of Downtown Harrison. The Courthouse Square located in the National Historic District. Downtown Harrison, AR Courthouse Square.jpg
Aerial view of Downtown Harrison. The Courthouse Square located in the National Historic District.
America's first National River, Buffalo National River, is located just south of Harrison Buffalo National River, Harrison, AR.png
America's first National River, Buffalo National River, is located just south of Harrison
Boone County Heritage Museum in Harrison Boone County Heritage Museum Harrison, Arkansas.jpg
Boone County Heritage Museum in Harrison
Dammed portion of Crooked Creek in Harrison. There is a walking trail around Lake Harrison. Lake Harrison, Crooked Creek in Harrison, Arkansas.jpg
Dammed portion of Crooked Creek in Harrison. There is a walking trail around Lake Harrison.
Crooked Creek/Lake Harrison used as the site for Crawdad Days. Crawdad Days Festival Harrison, Arkansas.jpg
Crooked Creek/Lake Harrison used as the site for Crawdad Days.

Native Americans were the first inhabitants of the area, the first probably being cliff dwellers who lived in caves in the bluffs along the rivers. In later times, the Osage, a branch of the Sioux, was the main tribe in the Ozarks, and one of their larger villages is thought to have been to the east of the present site of Harrison. The Shawnee, Quapaw, and Caddo people were also familiar to the area.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas Pre-Columbian inhabitants of North, Central and South America and their descendants

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

Cliff dwelling style of house

In archeology, cliff dwellings are dwellings formed by using niches or caves in high cliffs, with more or less excavation or with additions in the way of masonry.

Osage Nation Native American Siouan-speaking tribe in the United States

The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family. They migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, and the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers.

The Cherokee arrived around 1816 and did not get along with the Osage. This hostility erupted into a full-scale war in the Ozark Mountains. By the 1830s both tribes were removed to Indian Territory. It is possible that the first white men to visit the area were some forty followers of Hernando de Soto and that they camped at a Native village on the White River at the mouth of Bear Creek. It is more likely that the discoverers were French hunters or trappers who followed the course of the White River. [13]

The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, and the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia.

Indian Territory U.S. 17th-, 18th- and early-20th-century territory set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of the indigenous peoples of the Americas

As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War (1861–1865), the policy of the government was one of assimilation.

Hernando de Soto Spanish explorer and conquistador

Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who was involved in expeditions in Nicaragua and the Yucatan Peninsula, and played an important role in Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire in Peru, but is best known for leading the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States. He is the first European documented as having crossed the Mississippi River.

In early 1857, the Baker-Fancher wagon train assembled at Beller's Stand, south of Harrison. On September 11, 1857, approximately 120 members of this wagon train were murdered near Mountain Meadows, Utah Territory, by attacking local Mormon militia and members of the Paiute Indian tribe. In 1955, a monument to memorialize the victims of the massacre was placed on the Harrison town square. [14]

Utah Territory territory of the USA between 1850-1896

The Territory of Utah was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 4, 1896, when the final extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Utah, the 45th state.

Mormons Religious group part of the Latter Day Saint movement

Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s. After Smith's death in 1844, the Mormons followed Brigham Young to what would become the Utah Territory. Today, most Mormons are understood to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Other Mormons may be independently religious, secular and non-practicing, or belong to another denomination. The center of Mormon cultural influence is in Utah, and North America has more Mormons than any other continent, though the majority of Mormons live outside the United States.

Boone County was organized in 1869, during Reconstruction after the Civil War. Harrison was platted and made the county seat. It is named after Marcus LaRue Harrison, a Union officer who surveyed and platted the town. The town of Harrison was incorporated on March 1, 1876. [15]

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The most studied and written about episode in U.S. history, the Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Plat scale map showing the divisions of a piece of land

In the United States, a plat is a map, drawn to scale, showing the divisions of a piece of land. United States General Land Office surveyors drafted township plats of Public Lands Surveys to show the distance and bearing between section corners, sometimes including topographic or vegetation information. City, town or village plats show subdivisions into blocks with streets and alleys. Further refinement often splits blocks into individual lots, usually for the purpose of selling the described lots; this has become known as subdivision.

Union Army Land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War

During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Also known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic.

The notorious bank robber and convicted murderer Henry Starr met his fate in Harrison on February 18, 1921, when Starr and three companions entered the People's State Bank and robbed it of $6,000.00. During the robbery, Starr was shot by the former president of the bank, William J. Myers. Starr was carried to the town jail, where he died the next morning. [16]

On May 7, 1961, heavy rain caused Crooked Creek, immediately south of the downtown business district, to flood the town square and much of the southwestern part of the city. Water levels inside buildings reached eight feet (2.5 m). Many small buildings and automobiles were swept away. According to the American Red Cross, four lives were lost, 80 percent of the town's business district was destroyed, and over 300 buildings were damaged or destroyed in losses exceeding $5.4 million. [17]

Harrison is just north of the Buffalo National River. On March 1, 1972, 100 years after the establishment of the first National Park at Yellowstone National Park, President Richard Nixon signed into law the Buffalo National River as the first National River in the United States. The project was spearheaded by longtime congressman John Paul Hammerschmidt of Harrison, Arkansas.

In 1982, Kingdom Identity Ministries, an anti-gay Christian Identity outreach ministry identified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center, was founded in Harrison. [18] [19] In 2014, a peace march and vigil celebrating the life and legacy of Martin Luther King Jr. was held in downtown Harrison. The march was hosted by the Arkansas Martin Luther King Jr. Commission. [20] [21]

Geography

U.S. Routes 62, 65, and 412 pass through Harrison. U.S. 65 leads north 33 miles (53 km) to Branson, Missouri, and south 108 miles (174 km) to Conway, Arkansas. U.S. 62 leads west 43 miles (69 km) to Eureka Springs and beyond to Rogers and Bentonville. U.S. 412 leads west 73 miles (117 km) to Springdale. U.S. 62 and 412 combined lead east 48 miles (77 km) to Mountain Home.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles (28.8 km2), of which 11.1 square miles (28.7 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km2), or 0.26%, is water. [6]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1880 582
1890 1,438147.1%
1900 1,5517.9%
1910 1,6023.3%
1920 3,477117.0%
1930 3,6264.3%
1940 4,23816.9%
1950 5,54230.8%
1960 6,58018.7%
1970 7,23910.0%
1980 9,56732.2%
1990 9,9223.7%
2000 12,15222.5%
2010 12,9436.5%
Est. 201713,079 [3] 1.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [22]

As of the census [23] of 2010, there were 12,943 people and 6,043 housing units in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 96.2% White, 0.3% Black or African American, 0.6% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.7% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, and 1.6% from two or more races. 2.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

23.2% of the population was under the age of 18, and 19.0% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up 53.1% of the population, and males made up 46.9% of the population.

The median income for the period 2007-11 for a household in the city was $33,244, and the number of people living below the poverty level was 15.1%. The median value of owner-occupied housing units was $108,700. [24]

Architecture

The Boone County Courthouse, built in 1909, and the Boone County Jail, built in 1914, were both designed by architect Charles L. Thompson and are listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places. [25]

Economy

Harrison is home to the general office of FedEx Freight, a leading Less-Than-Load (LTL) freight carrier. Arkansas Freightways, later renamed to American Freightways, was combined with Viking Freight to become FedEx Freight in February 2001. [26]

Walmart store #2 opened in 1965.

Claridge Products and Equipment, Inc., is one of the largest Visual Display Board manufacturers in the world. It has been in business for over 60 years. It is a family-owned business and has been certified as a business owned and controlled by a woman from the National Women Business Owners Corporation (NWBOC). [27]


Major employers

Arts and culture

Annual cultural events

Harrison hosts the annual Arkansas Hot Air Balloon races each September, Crawdad Days Music Festival each May, a Harvest Homecoming festival each October, and Christmas celebration in December.

Hot air balloons from across the United States attend this annual two-day event Balloon Festival Harrison, Arkansas.png
Hot air balloons from across the United States attend this annual two-day event

Museums and other points of interest

The National Trust for Historic Preservation has recognized the Harrison Courthouse Square Historic District. It contains a large number of the city's original commercial and governmental structures, including the still-used courthouse in the center of the square, the recently refurbished Lyric Theater, and the 1929 Hotel Seville, which underwent a complete restoration in 2008. Located just south of Harrison off Scenic Highway 7, Fenton's Berry Farm provides the area with locally grown fruits and vegetables in season.

The Lyric Theatre in downtown Harrison hosts plays, concerts and films Historic Lyric Theatre Harrison, Arkansas.jpg
The Lyric Theatre in downtown Harrison hosts plays, concerts and films

Ozark Arts Council

The Ozarks Arts Council is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization established in 1996 with the mission "To enrich lives by promoting the arts in Harrison and North Arkansas through exhibitions, performances, and education." [29] It provides administrative support and distributes financial and in-kind donations to its member organizations:

The historic Lyric Theatre is managed by the Ozark Arts Council. Originally opened as a movie theater in 1929, it is now used for plays, community events, old movies and other gatherings. [30]

Sports

In 2008 F.S. Garrison Stadium was opened after almost six years of fundraising by Kim Rosson, President,[ who? ] and the Goblin Booster Club.[ citation needed ] It is named in memory of F. Sheridan Garrison, founder of the American Freightways Corp. (now FedEx Freight). Over $7 million was raised for the stadium project by the Goblin Booster Club. The largest donors were the Garrison Family and Mosco Cash, owner of Home Ice Company. Before the first game against the Mountain Home Bombers on September 12, 2008, it was donated to the Harrison School District.[ citation needed ]

It features grandstand seating for 2,700 and overflow seating for 500 as well as a videoboard and scoreboard for commercial, live play, and instant replay. It is located at 1125 Goblin Drive in Harrison. [31] The stadium is the site of one of the annual Brandon Burlsworth Foundation Football Camps. [32]

Parks and recreation

Harrison serves as the National Park Service's Buffalo National River headquarters. The park was established in the 1970s, and was the nation's first national river. [33] The river flows for 135 miles (217 km), and there are over 59 different species of fish in it.

Anstaff Bank Soccer Complex features 8 fields to accommodate youth and High School Soccer. Harrison, Arkansas Anstaff Bank Soccer Complex Aerial View Harrison, Arkansas.jpg
Anstaff Bank Soccer Complex features 8 fields to accommodate youth and High School Soccer. Harrison, Arkansas
Located in Harrison, Arkansas the Equity Bank Sports Complex features state of the art baseball/softball fields. Equity Bank Sports Complex Field View Harrison, Arkansas.jpg
Located in Harrison, Arkansas the Equity Bank Sports Complex features state of the art baseball/softball fields.
Brandon Burlsworth Youth Center hosts basketball and volleyball for youth and high school teams. Harrison, Arkansas Brandon Burlsworth Youth Center Harrison, Arkansas.jpg
Brandon Burlsworth Youth Center hosts basketball and volleyball for youth and high school teams. Harrison, Arkansas

Crooked Creek, a nationally recognized "Blue Ribbon" smallmouth bass fishery, flows through Harrison. [34]

Hemmed-In-Hollow Falls, at 209 feet (64 m) the tallest waterfall between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians, is located 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Harrison near Compton. [35] On the same bluff line is Diamond Falls, at 148 feet (45 m) the second tallest in the state. [36]

Education

Northark College Northark 001.jpg
Northark College

Residents are served by the Harrison School District. The Harrison High School mascot is the Golden Goblin. Harrison is also home to North Arkansas College (Northark). The Harrison School District had been a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools since 1936 until its dissolution in 2014. It is now a member of the AdvancED commission.

Media

Print

Harrison and Boone County have been served by the local newspaper, The Harrison Daily Times, [37] since 1876. [38]

Radio

Radio stations broadcasting from Harrison [39] include:

Television

Harrison has two stations of its own, including KTKO-LP and K26GS-D (both in Harrison proper). Harrison KTKO-TV 8.1, also known as TKO 8, provides coverage for local events including Goblin Sports, Harrison City Council meetings, and Boone County Quorum Court meetings. [40] It is an affiliate of the Me-TV Network showing a wide range of classic television programming. [41] K26GS is a This TV affiliate and also provides local programming to Harrison. KWBM, a Daystar affiliate, is also licensed to Harrison, however its offices are in Springfield, while its transmitter is located in Taney County, Missouri. KWBM leases part of its signal to Springfield Fox affiliate KRBK, in order to relay reliable Fox TV coverage to Harrison and the southern portions of the Springfield TV market.

Harrison is part of the Springfield, Missouri, television market, and receives stations from Springfield, including: KYTV (NBC), KOLR (CBS), KSPR (ABC), KOZL (MyNetworkTV), and KRBK (Fox).

It was also featured in a BBC TV show in the UK named Miriam's Big American Adventure, hosted by Miriam Margolyes.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Harrison was the headquarters of the defunct Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad, which provided passenger and freight service from Joplin, Missouri, to Helena in Phillips County in eastern Arkansas, from 1906 until its disestablishment in 1946. [42] A segment of the route between Seligman, MO and Harrison, AR was operated as the Arkansas & Ozarks Railroad from 1948 to 1960. [43]

Harrison is served by Boone County Regional Airport. Scheduled flights from Harrison to Memphis, Tennessee, and Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, are offered by Southern Airways Express.

Highways in the area include:

Health care

North Arkansas Regional Medical Center North Arkansas Regional Medical Center 001.jpg
North Arkansas Regional Medical Center

The recently renovated North Arkansas Regional Medical Center is in Harrison. [44]

Notable people

Climate

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Harrison has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. [46]

Related Research Articles

Ozark County, Missouri County in the United States

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Stone County, Arkansas County in the United States

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Randolph County, Arkansas County in the United States

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Marion County, Arkansas County in the United States

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Franklin County, Arkansas County in the United States

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Crawford County, Arkansas County in the United States

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Benton County, Arkansas County in the United States

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Baxter County, Arkansas County in the United States

Baxter County is a county in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 41,513. The county seat is Mountain Home. It is Arkansas's 66th county, formed on March 24, 1873, and named for Elisha Baxter, the tenth governor of Arkansas.

Cotter, Arkansas City in Arkansas, United States

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Lead Hill, Arkansas Town in Arkansas, United States

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Omaha, Arkansas Town in Arkansas, United States

Omaha is a town in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. As of the 2010 census the population stood at 157. It is a rural community located approximately 10 miles from Branson, Missouri and 15 miles from Harrison. The town is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.

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Ozark, Arkansas City in Arkansas, United States

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Yellville is a city and county seat in Marion County, Arkansas, United States. Yellville is located in the Ozark Mountains along the banks of Crooked Creek, and neighbors the small town of Summit to the north. The population was 1,204 at the 2010 Census. The town's original name is preserved in the Shawnee Town Branch, a local creek. The town also holds an annual Turkey Trot Festival.

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Arkansas Highway 43 highway in Arkansas

Highway 43 is a designation for three north–south state highways in northwest Arkansas. One segment of 27.1 miles (43.6 km) runs from Highway 59 in Siloam Springs north into Delaware County, Oklahoma along Oklahoma State Highway 20 (SH-20) to terminate at Missouri Route 43 (Route 43) at the Missouri/Oklahoma/Arkansas tri-point near Southwest City, Missouri. A second segment of 20.0 miles (32.2 km) runs northeast from Highway 21 at Boxley to Highway 7 in Harrison. The third segment runs 1.8 miles (2.9 km) north in Harrison from US Route 65 (US 65) to Highway 7.

A total of eight special routes of U.S. Route 65 exist, divided between the U.S. states of Arkansas and Missouri. Currently, they are all business loops, although a spur route in Pine Bluff, Arkansas and bypass routes in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and Springfield, Missouri both existed in the past.

Batavia Township, Boone County, Arkansas Township in Arkansas, United States

Batavia Township is one of 20 current townships in Boone County, Arkansas, USA. As of the 2010 census, its total population was 911. Batavia, Arkansas was settled in 1881 by Roswell Emerson Underwood, who spent four years as a Genesee County, New York, surveyor for the Holland Land Company. He was impressed by the beauty of this site which is located in the foothills of the Ozark Mountains. He was the first postmaster, and named the town for Batavia, New York, his former residence.

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Further reading