The smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of the order Perciformes.  It is the type species of its genus Micropterus (black basses), and is a popular game fish sought by anglers throughout the temperate zones of North America, and has been spread by stocking—as well as illegal introductions—to many cool-water tributaries and lakes in Canada and more so introduced in the United States.  The maximum recorded size is approximately 27 inches and 12 pounds. The smallmouth bass is native to the upper and middle Mississippi River basin, the Saint Lawrence River – Great Lakes system, and up into the Hudson Bay basin.  The world record size was 11 lbs and 15 ounces caught in the reservoir Dale Hollow, on the Kentucky—Tennessee border.  Its common names include smallmouth, bronzeback, brown bass, brownie, smallie, bronze bass, and bareback bass.
Smallmouth have a slender but muscular fusiform body shape making them very powerful swimmers.  The coloration of the smallmouth bass' ctenoid scales range from golden-olive to dark brown dorsally which fades to a yellowish white ventrally with dark brown vertical bars or blotches along the body and dark brown horizontal bars on the head.  The combination of the muscular fusiform body shape and camouflage like coloring make these fish highly effective ambush predators. The coloration can vary greatly depending on the fishes age, habitat, water quality, diet, and the spawning cycle. Generally, the protruding jaw of the smallmouth doesn't extend past the eyes which are red or brown. They have two dorsal fins which are separated by a shallow interdorsal notch. The front dorsal has 9-11 spiney rays and the back dorsal has 13–15 soft rays. 
Males are generally smaller than females. The males tend to range around two pounds, while females can range from three to six pounds. Their average sizes and coloration can differ, depending on if they are found in lacustrine or riverine habitats. Smallmouth found in riverine habitats are generally long and slender which allows greater agility in moving water, while those found in lacustrine habitats and shorter and deeper bodied.  Riverine smallmouth that live in dark water tend to be rather torpedo-shaped and very dark brown to be more efficient for feeding.  Lacustrine smallmouth bass, however, that live in sandy areas, tend to be a light yellow-brown and are more oval-shaped. 
There are two recognized subspecies, the Northern smallmouth bass (M. dolomieui dolomieui) and the Neosho smallmouth bass (M. dolomieui velox).  The Northern smallmouth bass is much more widespread than the much smaller subgroup called the Neosho smallmouth bass. The Neosho are native to an ecologically isolated region of the lower Midwest known as the Central Interior Highlands, which weave through southwestern Missouri, northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma. 
They have been seen eating tadpoles, fish, aquatic insects, and crayfish.  
The smallmouth bass is found in clearer water than the largemouth, especially streams, rivers, and the rocky areas and stumps and also sandy bottoms of lakes and reservoirs. It can also survive in a stronger current than other black bass. The smallmouth prefers cooler water temperatures than its cousin the largemouth bass, and as a result will often seek out deeper, faster moving water during the hot summer months. Because it is intolerant of pollution, the smallmouth bass is a good natural indicator of a healthy environment, though they are still much more resilient than most trout species. Carnivorous, its diet comprises crayfish, amphibians,  insects, and smaller fish, while the larvae feed on various zooplankton  and insect larvae.  Adults also cannibalize young of other parents. 
The female can lay up to 21,100 eggs, which are guarded by the male in his nest. [ citation needed ]
When the weather gets colder, and the water temperature drops below 15 C (60 F), smallmouth will often migrate in search of deeper pools in which they enter a semi-hibernation state,  moving sluggishly and feeding very little until the warm season returns.  The migration patterns of smallmouth have been tracked and it is not unusual for a smallmouth to travel 12 miles in a single day  in a stream, creek or river.  The overall migration can exceed 60 miles. 
Smallmouth generally begin spawning patterns in spring or early summer when water temperatures are between 15–18 °C (59.0–64.4 °F), which is heavily dependent on latitudinal location.  Smallmouth require clean stone, rock, or gravel substrate for a successful spawn. 
| Fly fishing |
In the United States, smallmouth bass were first introduced outside of their native range with the construction of the Erie Canal in 1825, extending the fish's range into central New York state. During the mid-to-late 19th century, smallmouth were transplanted via the nation's rail system to lakes and rivers throughout the northern and western United States, as far as California. Shippers found that smallmouth bass were a hardy species that could be transported in buckets or barrels by rail, sometimes using the spigots from the railroad water tanks to aerate the fingerlings. They were introduced east of the Appalachians just before the Civil War, and afterwards transplanted to the states of New England.  
With increased industrialization and land use changes, many of the nation's eastern trout rivers were polluted or experienced elevated water temperatures, reducing the range of native brook trout. Smallmouth bass were often introduced to northern rivers with increased water temperatures and slowly became a popular gamefish with many anglers. Equally adaptable to large, cool-water impoundments and reservoirs, the smallmouth also spread far beyond its original native range. Later, smallmouth populations also began to decline after years of damage caused by overdevelopment and pollution, as well as a loss of river habitat caused by damming many formerly wild rivers to form lakes or reservoirs. In recent years, a renewed emphasis on preserving water quality and riparian habitat in the nation's rivers and lakes, together with stricter management practices, eventually benefited smallmouth populations and has caused a resurgence in their popularity with anglers.  
Today, smallmouth bass are very popular game fish, frequently sought by anglers using conventional spinning and bait casting gear, as well as fly fishing tackle.   The smallmouth bass is potentially the toughest fighting freshwater fish in North America, and is commonly the targeted species in many fresh water fishing tournaments.  In addition to wild populations, the smallmouth bass is stocked in cool rivers and lakes throughout Canada and the United States. In shallow streams, it is a wary fish, though usually not to the extent of most trout. The smallmouth is highly regarded for its topwater fighting ability when hooked – old fishing journals referred to the smallmouth bass as "ounce for ounce and pound for pound the gamest fish that swims".  Smallmouth bass are not usually taken for the table, but rather are caught and released by most anglers. However, smaller specimens in cooler water often have higher quality filets of white, firm flesh when cooked. 
The current all-tackle world record for a smallmouth bass is 11 lb 15 oz, caught by David Hayes  in the Dale Hollow Reservoir, on the Kentucky/Tennessee border, in 1955. 
In conventional fishing, smallmouth may be successfully caught on a wide range of natural and artificial baits or lures, including crankbaits, hair jigs, plastic jerkbaits, artificial worms, spinnerbaits, and all types of soft plastic lures, including curly tail grubs or tubes with lead head jigs. Spinning reels or baitcasting reels may be used, with line strengths of 6 to 15 pounds typically utilized. According to many, smallmouth typically put up a better, more exciting fight than any other black bass. Rods are usually of ultralight to medium-heavy action. They may also be caught with a fly rod using a dry or wet artificial fly, nymphs, streamers, or imitations of larger aquatic creatures, such as hellgrammites, crawfish, or leeches. Floating topwater popper fly patterns and buzz baits are also popular for smallmouth fishing.  
For river fishing, spinning tackle or fly tackle has been the most popular angling tools for smallmouth in North America for many years. When fishing in colder water, it is believed to be more effective to fish with smaller lures like hair jigs or small spinners. During the rest of the year, smallmouth are usually taken using soft plastic tubes or spinnerbaits. The best spots in rivers to fish for smallmouth are behind rocks or in eddies, where water swirls around. Smallmouth can also be taken in cool lakes like Lake Erie or any of the northern lakes.
Bass is a name shared by many species of fish. The term encompasses both freshwater and marine species, all belonging to the large order Perciformes, or perch-like fishes. The word bass comes from Middle English bars, meaning 'perch'.
Micropterus is a genus of North American freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes, collectively known as the black bass. They are sometimes erroneously called "black trout", but the name trout more correctly refers to certain members of the salmonid family.
The spotted bass, also called spotty, or spots in various fishing communities, is a species of North American freshwater fish belonging to the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of the order Perciformes. It is noted for the rows of dark spots below the lateral line, which give it its common name. One of the black basses, it is native to the Mississippi River basin and across the Gulf states, from central Texas through the Florida panhandle. Its native range extends into the western Mid-Atlantic states and it has been introduced into western North Carolina and Virginia. It has also been introduced to southern Africa, where it has become established in some isolated waters as an invasive species.
The largemouth bass is a carnivorous freshwater gamefish in the Centrarchidae (sunfish) family, a species of black bass native to the eastern and central United States, southeastern Canada and northern Mexico, but widely introduced elsewhere. It is known by a variety of regional names, such as the widemouth bass, bigmouth bass, black bass, bucketmouth, largies, Potter's fish, Florida bass, Florida largemouth, green bass, bucketmouth bass, Green trout, gilsdorf bass, Oswego bass, LMB, and southern largemouth and northern largemouth. The largemouth bass is the state fish of Georgia and Mississippi, and the state freshwater fish of Florida and Alabama.
Centrarchidae, better known as sunfishes, is a family of freshwater ray-finned fish belonging to the order Perciformes, native only to North America. There are eight universally included genera within the centrarchid family: Lepomis, Micropterus, Pomoxis (crappies), Enneacanthus, Centrarchus, Archoplites, Ambloplites, and Acantharchus. A genetic study in 2012 suggests that the highly distinct pygmy sunfishes of the genus Elassoma are also centarchids.
Bass fishing is the recreational fishing activity, typically via rod angling, for various North American game fishes known collectively as black bass. There are numerous black bass species targeted in North America, including largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, spotted bass or Kentucky bass, and Guadalupe bass. All black bass species are members of the sunfish family Centrarchidae.
The shoal bass is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. One of the black basses, it is native to waters in Florida and Georgia. It is also occasionally found in rivers and streams of East Alabama where it has been declared an endangered species and cannot legally be kept if caught by fishermen. Of typical size for a black bass, M. cataractae reaches a maximum recorded length of 24 inches (61 cm) and a maximum published weight of 8 pounds, 12 ounces.
The Guadalupe bass is a rare species of fish endemic to the U.S. state of Texas, where it also is the official state fish. It is restricted to creeks and rivers, and is listed as near threatened. Today, most fly fishermen and anglers practice catch-and-release techniques to improve fish populations. The Guadalupe bass is often difficult to distinguish from the smallmouth bass or spotted bass, and the fish is known to hybridize.
The rock bass, also known as the rock perch, goggle-eye, red eye, and black perch, is a freshwater fish native to east-central North America. This red eyed creature is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes and can be distinguished from other similar species by the six spines in the anal fin.
The shadow bass is a species of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. It is endemic to southeastern United States of America.
The Cape whitefish or Berg-breede River whitefish is a ray-finned fish species in the family Cyprinidae. It is placed with the South African redfins in Pseudobarbus. It is tetraploid. Its closest living relative was at one time considered the sawfin.
The Clanwilliam redfin, is a ray-finned fish species in the family Cyprinidae. It is placed with the South African redfins in Pseudobarbus. It is tetraploid. Its closest living relative is probably the Twee River redfin.
The sawfin, also known as Clanwilliam sawfin, is a ray-finned fish species in the family Cyprinidae. It is placed with the South African redfins in Pseudobarbus. It is tetraploid. Its closest living relative is probably the Cape whitefish.
The brook stickleback is a small freshwater fish that is distributed across the US and Canada. It grows to a length of about 2 inches. It occupies the northern part of the eastern United States, as well as the southern half of Canada. Small populations are scattered throughout the Mississippi-Great Lakes basin extending to Colorado, New Mexico, Kentucky, Tennessee, etc., though some of these areas are not native to the species. This small fish inhabits clear, cool streams and lakes. They eat small invertebrates, algae, insect larvae, and occasionally their own eggs. They are also preyed upon by smallmouth bass and northern pike. Feeding time is usually dawn and sunset. The brook stickleback does have active competition mostly from minnows, but feeding times are different, along with diet. Spawning occurs in midsummer. Males secure a territory, build a nest, and mate with females. Males provide protection for the eggs, ward off predators, and usually die later in the season. This is considered an annual species. The nests are built out of aquatic grasses. Though the brook stickleback is not considered a threatened species, deforesting and changing waters are altering ecosystems of the species. Harvesting of trees around riparian environments is having a large effect of the stream ecosystem where the brook stickleback resides.
The Owens pupfish is a rare species of fish in the family Cyprinodontidae, the pupfish. It is endemic to California in the United States, where it is limited to the Owens Valley. It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States. This pupfish is up to 5 centimetres long, the largest males sometimes longer. The male is blue-gray, turning bright blue during spawning. The female is greenish brown with a silvery or whitish belly.
The border barb is a ray-finned fish species in the family Cyprinidae. It is placed with the South African redfins in Pseudobarbus. Like Pseudobarbus. It is tetraploid.
Boskop Dam is an earth-fill type dam on the Mooi River, near Potchefstroom, North West Province, South Africa. It was constructed in 1959. The main purpose of the dam is for irrigation and domestic usage. Its hazard potential is ranked as high, due to poor maintenance and the development of sink holes.
The smallmouth yellowfish is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Labeobarbus. It has become an invasive species in rivers of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, such as the Mbhashe River.
Noturus exilis, also called the slender madtom, is a species of the catfish family Ictaluridae. Ictaluridae includes bullheads, madtoms, channel catfish, and blue catfish. Noturus exilis is found in the central portion of the Mississippi River basin, but is most abundant in Ozarkian streams. Slender madtoms occur west of the Mississippi River in the Ozarks of Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Missouri north to southern Wisconsin and Minnesota. It also occurs east of the Mississippi River in the uplands of Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky in the Tennessee, Cumberland, and Green drainages. Nelson first described Noturus exilis in 1876. The slender madtom is moderately large with a terminal to sub terminal mouth, flat head, small eyes, and black marginal bands on the median fins. Most slender madtoms are less than 90 millimetres (3.5 in). Noturus flavus and Noturus nocturnus are rather similar in shape and coloration to Norturus exilis. Slender madtoms inhabit small to medium-sized streams, in riffle and flowing pool habitats with coarse gravel to slab rock substrates. The presence of a shelter object, such as a large rock, seems to be important in habitat selection.
Fishing in Colorado has brought in a large amount of revenue for the state. In 2019 Colorado Parks and Wildlife estimated outdoor recreation contributed roughly 62 billion dollars to the state economy. Fishing was reported to be the 5th most popular outdoor activity and 110, 511 fishing and hunting combination licenses were sold. Ice fishing makes up part of this total fishing revenue and is a common annual sport for Colorado residents and out-of-state visitors. There is no legal definition of ice fishing season. Rather, people begin to ice fish once the lakes freeze over with thick enough ice. Colorado Parks and Wildlife also recommend that people always ice-fish with another person. Typically, this starts in December and ends in April for Colorado. Lakes size, depth, elevation, and seasonal weather can cause variance to the season. Once the lakes freeze over with thick enough ice, anglers go out onto the ice, drill holes through the ice, and fish for a variety of species.