National Center for Biotechnology Information

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National Center for Biotechnology Information
US-NLM-NCBI-Logo.svg
AbbreviationNCBI
Founded1988;32 years ago (1988)
Headquarters Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.
Coordinates 38°59′45″N77°05′56″W / 38.9959°N 77.0989°W / 38.9959; -77.0989 Coordinates: 38°59′45″N77°05′56″W / 38.9959°N 77.0989°W / 38.9959; -77.0989
Website www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) [1] [2] is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper.

Contents

The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank for DNA sequences and PubMed, a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez search engine. NCBI was directed by David Lipman, [2] one of the original authors of the BLAST sequence alignment program [3] and a widely respected figure in bioinformatics. He also led an intramural research program, including groups led by Stephen Altschul (another BLAST co-author), David Landsman, Eugene Koonin, John Wilbur, Teresa Przytycka, and Zhiyong Lu. David Lipman stood down from his post in May 2017. [4]

GenBank

NCBI has had responsibility for making available the GenBank DNA sequence database since 1992. [5] GenBank coordinates with individual laboratories and other sequence databases such as those of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ). [5]

Since 1992, NCBI has grown to provide other databases in addition to GenBank. NCBI provides Gene, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, the Molecular Modeling Database (3D protein structures), dbSNP (a database of single-nucleotide polymorphisms), the Reference Sequence Collection, a map of the human genome, and a taxonomy browser, and coordinates with the National Cancer Institute to provide the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project. The NCBI assigns a unique identifier (taxonomy ID number) to each species of organism. [6]

The NCBI has software tools that are available by WWW browsing or by FTP. For example, BLAST is a sequence similarity searching program. BLAST can do sequence comparisons against the GenBank DNA database in less than 15 seconds.

NCBI Bookshelf

The "NCBI Bookshelf [7] is a collection of freely accessible, downloadable, on-line versions of selected biomedical books. The Bookshelf covers a wide range of topics including molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, microbiology, disease states from a molecular and cellular point of view, research methods, and virology. Some of the books are online versions of previously published books, while others, such as Coffee Break, are written and edited by NCBI staff. The Bookshelf is a complement to the Entrez PubMed repository of peer-reviewed publication abstracts in that Bookshelf contents provide established perspectives on evolving areas of study and a context in which many disparate individual pieces of reported research can be organized.[ citation needed ]

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

BLAST is an algorithm used for calculating sequence similarity between biological sequences such as nucleotide sequences of DNA and amino acid sequences of proteins. [8] BLAST is a powerful tool for finding sequences similar to the query sequence within the same organism or in different organisms. It searches the query sequence on NCBI databases and servers and post the results back to the person's browser in chosen format. Input sequences to the BLAST are mostly in FASTA or Genbank format while output could be delivered in variety of formats such as HTML, XML formatting and plain text. HTML is the default output format for NCBI's web-page. Results for NCBI-BLAST are presented in graphical format with all the hits found, a table with sequence identifiers for the hits having scoring related data, along with the alignments for the sequence of interest and the hits received with analogous BLAST scores for these [9]

Entrez

The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System is used at NCBI for all the major databases such as Nucleotide and Protein Sequences, Protein Structures, PubMed, Taxonomy, Complete Genomes, OMIM, and several others. [10] Entrez is both indexing and retrieval system having data from various sources for biomedical research. NCBI distributed the first version of Entrez in 1991, composed of nucleotide sequences from PDB and GenBank, protein sequences from SWISS-PROT, translated GenBank, PIR, PRF , PDB and associated abstracts and citations from PubMed. Entrez is specially designed to integrate the data from several different sources, databases and formats into a uniform information model and retrieval system which can efficiently retrieve that relevant references, sequences and structures. [11]

Gene

Gene has been implemented at NCBI to characterize and organize the information about genes. It serves as a major node in the nexus of genomic map, expression, sequence, protein function, structure and homology data. A unique GeneID is assigned to each gene record that can be followed through revision cycles. Gene records for known or predicted genes are established here and are demarcated by map positions or nucleotide sequence. Gene has several advantages over its predecessor, LocusLink, including, better integration with other databases in NCBI, broader taxonomic scope, and enhanced options for query and retrieval provided by Entrez system. [12]

Protein

Protein database maintains the text record for individual protein sequences, derived from many different resources such as NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) project, GenBank, PDB and UniProtKB/SWISS-Prot. Protein records are present in different formats including FASTA and XML and are linked to other NCBI resources. Protein provides the relevant data to the users such as genes, DNA/RNA sequences, biological pathways, expression and variation data and literature. It also provides the pre-determined sets of similar and identical proteins for each sequence as computed by the BLAST. The Structure database of NCBI contains 3D coordinate sets for experimentally-determined structures in PDB that are imported by NCBI. The Conserved Domain database (CDD) of protein contains sequence profiles that characterize highly conserved domains within protein sequences. It also has records from external resources like SMART and Pfam. There is another database in protein known as Protein Clusters database which contains sets of proteins sequences that are clustered according to the maximum alignments between the individual sequences as calculated by BLAST. [13]

Pubchem database

PubChem database of NCBI is a public resource for molecules and their activities against biological assays. PubChem is searchable and accessible by Entrez information retrieval system. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

Nucleic acid polymeric macromolecules

Nucleic acids are the biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. The term nucleic acid is the overall name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA ; if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA.

In bioinformatics, BLAST is an algorithm and program for comparing primary biological sequence information, such as the amino-acid sequences of proteins or the nucleotides of DNA and/or RNA sequences. A BLAST search enables a researcher to compare a subject protein or nucleotide sequence with a library or database of sequences, and identify library sequences that resemble the query sequence above a certain threshold.

Entrez cross-database search engine, or web portal

The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System is a federated search engine, or web portal that allows users to search many discrete health sciences databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. The NCBI is a part of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is itself a department of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which in turn is a part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The name "Entrez" was chosen to reflect the spirit of welcoming the public to search the content available from the NLM.

The GenBank sequence database is an open access, annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations. This database is produced and maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information as part of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC).

A sequence profiling tool in bioinformatics is a type of software that presents information related to a genetic sequence, gene name, or keyword input. Such tools generally take a query such as a DNA, RNA, or protein sequence or ‘keyword’ and search one or more databases for information related to that sequence. Summaries and aggregate results are provided in standardized format describing the information that would otherwise have required visits to many smaller sites or direct literature searches to compile. Many sequence profiling tools are software portals or gateways that simplify the process of finding information about a query in the large and growing number of bioinformatics databases. The access to these kinds of tools is either web based or locally downloadable executables.

David J. Lipman American biologist

David J. Lipman is an American biologist who since 1989 to 2017 had been the Director of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Institutes of Health. NCBI is the home of GenBank, the U.S. node of the International Sequence Database Consortium, and PubMed, one of the most heavily used sites in the world for the search and retrieval of biomedical information. Lipman is one of the original authors of the BLAST sequence alignment program, and a respected figure in bioinformatics. In 2017, he left NCBI and became Chief Science Officer at Impossible Foods.

formatdb is a discontinued software tool that was used in molecular bioinformatics to format protein or nucleotide databases for BLAST. It has been replaced by makeblastdb and the NCBI "strongly encourage[s]" users to stop using formatdb.

BLAT is a pairwise sequence alignment algorithm that was developed by Jim Kent at the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) in the early 2000s to assist in the assembly and annotation of the human genome. It was designed primarily to decrease the time needed to align millions of mouse genomic reads and expressed sequence tags against the human genome sequence. The alignment tools of the time were not capable of performing these operations in a manner that would allow a regular update of the human genome assembly. Compared to pre-existing tools, BLAT was ~500 times faster with performing mRNA/DNA alignments and ~50 times faster with protein/protein alignments.

Warren Richard Gish is the owner of Advanced Biocomputing LLC. He joined Washington University in St. Louis as a junior faculty member in 1994, and was a Research Associate Professor of Genetics from 2002 to 2007.

DGLUCY protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

DGLUCY is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DGLUCY gene.

dbSNP

The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database (dbSNP) is a free public archive for genetic variation within and across different species developed and hosted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) in collaboration with the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). Although the name of the database implies a collection of one class of polymorphisms only, it in fact contains a range of molecular variation: (1) SNPs, (2) short deletion and insertion polymorphisms (indels/DIPs), (3) microsatellite markers or short tandem repeats (STRs), (4) multinucleotide polymorphisms (MNPs), (5) heterozygous sequences, and (6) named variants. The dbSNP accepts apparently neutral polymorphisms, polymorphisms corresponding to known phenotypes, and regions of no variation. It was created in September 1998 to supplement GenBank, NCBI’s collection of publicly available nucleic acid and protein sequences.

TSBP1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

TSBP1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSBP1 gene. C6orf10 is an open reading frame on chromosome 6 containing a protein that is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in the adult genome and may play a role during fetal development. C6orf10 has been found to be linked to both neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases in adults. Expression of this gene is highest in the testis but is also seen in other tissue types such as the brain, lens of the eye and the medulla. TSBP1 was previously known as C6orf10.

UGENE

UGENE is computer software for bioinformatics. It works on personal computer operating systems such as Windows, macOS, or Linux. It is released as free and open-source software, under a GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2.

TSR3 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

TSR3, or TSR3 Ribosome Maturation Factor, is a hypothetical human protein found on chromosome 16. Its protein is 312 amino acids long. and its cDNA has 1214 base pairs It was previously designated C16orf42.

PATRIC is the Bacterial Bioinformatics Resource Center, an information system designed to support the biomedical research community’s work on bacterial infectious diseases via integration of vital pathogen information with rich data and analysis tools. PATRIC sharpens and hones the scope of available bacterial phylogenomic data from numerous sources specifically for the bacterial research community, in order to save biologists time and effort when conducting comparative analyses. The freely available PATRIC platform provides an interface for biologists to discover data and information and conduct comprehensive comparative genomics and other analyses in a one-stop shop. PATRIC, a project of Virginia Tech’s Cyberinfrastructure Division, is funded by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

METTL26

An Error has occurred retrieving Wikidata item for infobox METTL26, previously designated C16orf13, is a protein-coding gene for Methyltransferase Like 26, also known as JFP2. Though the function of this gene is unknown, various data have revealed that it is expressed at high levels in various cancerous tissues. Underexpression of this gene has also been linked to disease consequences in humans.

C17orf53 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

C17orf53 is a gene in humans that encodes a protein known as C17orf53, uncharacterized protein C17orf53. It has been shown to target the nucleus, with minor localization in the cytoplasm. Based on current findings C17orf53 is predicted to perform functions of transport, however further research into the protein could provide more specific evidence regarding its function.

Transmembrane protein 44 mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens

Transmembrane protein 44 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM44 gene.

C19orf44 mammalian protein found in Homo sapiens

Chromosome 19 open reading frame 44 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C19orf44 gene. C19orf44 is an uncharacterized protein with an unknown function in humans. C19orf44 is non-limiting implying that the protein exists in other species besides human. The protein contains one domain of unknown function (DUF) that is highly conserved throughout its orthologs. This protein is most highly expressed in the testis and ovary, but also has significant expression in the thyroid and parathyroid. Other names for this protein include: LOC84167.

References

  1. "The Human Genome Project". The New York Times .
  2. 1 2 "Research Institute Posts Gene Data on Internet". The New York Times . June 26, 1997.
  3. "Sense from Sequences: Stephen F. Altschul on Bettering BLAST". 2000.
  4. "National Library of Medicine Announces Departure of NCBI Director Dr. David Lipman". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  5. 1 2 Mizrachi, Ilene (22 August 2007). "GenBank: The Nucleotide Sequence Database". National Center for Biotechnology Information (US) via www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  6. "Home - Taxonomy - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
  7. USA (2019-05-06). "Home - Books - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  8. Altschul Stephen; Gish Warren; Miller Webb; Myers Eugene; Lipman David (1990). "Basic local alignment search tool". Journal of Molecular Biology. 215 (3): 403–410. doi:10.1016/s0022-2836(05)80360-2. PMID   2231712.
  9. Madden T. (2002). The NCBI handbook, 2nd edition, Chapter 16, The BLAST Sequence Analysis Tool
  10. NCBI Resource Coordinators (2012). "Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information". Nucleic Acids Research 41 (Database issue): D8–D20.
  11. Ostell J. (2002). The NCBI handbook, 2nd edition, Chapter 15, The Entrez Search and Retrieval System
  12. Maglott D. Pruitt K. & Tatusova T. (2005). The NCBI handbook, 2nd edition, Chapter 19, Gene: A Directory of Genes
  13. Sayers E. (2013). The NCBI handbook, 2nd edition, NCBI Protein Resources
  14. Wang Y. & Bryant S H. (2014). The NCBI handbook, 2nd edition, NCBI PubChem BioAssay Database