The Barcode of Life Data System (commonly known as BOLD or BOLDSystems) is a web platform specifically devoted to DNA barcoding.It is a cloud-based data storage and analysis platform developed at the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics in Canada. It consists of four main modules, a data portal, an educational portal, a registry of BINs (putative species), and a data collection and analysis workbench which provides an online platform for analyzing DNA sequences. Since its launch in 2005, BOLD has been extended to provide a range of functionality including data organization, validation, visualization and publication. The most recent version of the system, version 4, launched in 2017, brings a set of improvements supporting data collection and analysis but also includes novel functionality improving data dissemination, citation, and annotation. Before November 16th 2020, BOLD already contained barcode sequences for 318,105 formally described species covering animals, plants, fungi, protists (with ~8.9 million specimens).
BOLD is freely available to any researcher with interests in DNA Barcoding. By providing specialized services, it aids in the publication of records that meet the standards needed to gain BARCODE designation in the international nucleotide sequence databases. Because of its web-based delivery and ﬂexible data security model, it is also well positioned to support projects that involve broad research alliances.
Data release of BOLD mainly originated from a project BARCODE 500K executed by the International Barcode of Life (iBOL) Consortium from 2010 to 2015. It aimed for data acquisition of DNA barcode records for 5M specimens representing 500K species. All the specimens collection, sequences assignment, information sorting are contributed by great amount of scientists, collaborators and facilities from nations over the world. Data accumulation increases the accuracy of DNA barcode identification and facilitates the attainment of barcoding of life.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data, in particular when the data sets are large and complex. As an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines biology, computer science, information engineering, mathematics and statistics to analyze and interpret the biological data. Bioinformatics has been used for in silico analyses of biological queries using mathematical and statistical techniques.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. The broad field may also be referred to as environmental genomics, ecogenomics or community genomics.
Astraptes fulgerator, the two-barred flasher, is a spread-wing skipper butterfly in the genus Astraptes which may constitute a possible cryptic species complex. It ranges all over the Americas, from the southern United States to northern Argentina.
The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) is an international initiative dedicated to supporting the development of DNA barcoding as a global standard for species identification. CBOL's Secretariat Office is hosted by the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, in Washington, DC. Barcoding was proposed in 2003 by Prof. Paul Hebert of the University of Guelph in Ontario as a way of distinguishing and identifying species with a short standardized gene sequence. Hebert proposed the 648 bases of the Folmer region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome-C oxidase-1 as the standard barcode region. Dr. Hebert is the Director of the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, and the International Barcode of Life Project (iBOL), all headquartered at the University of Guelph. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) is also located at the University of Guelph.
The history of genetics dates from the classical era with contributions by Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Epicurus, and others. Modern genetics began with the work of the Augustinian friar Gregor Johann Mendel. His work on pea plants, published in 1866, established the theory of Mendelian inheritance.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.
Conogethes is a genus of moths in the subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. The currently 17 recognized species are distributed in the Indomalayan and Australasian realm.
Niphopyralis is a genus of snout moths of the subfamily Spilomelinae in the family Crambidae.
Sisyracera is a genus of snout moths in the subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. It was described in 1890 by Heinrich Benno Möschler with Leucinodes preciosalis as type species, now considered a synonym of Sisyracera subulalis. The genus has been placed in the tribe Udeini.
DNA barcoding is a method of species identification using a short section of DNA from a specific gene or genes. The premise of DNA barcoding is that, by comparison with a reference library of such DNA sections, an individual sequence can be used to uniquely identify an organism to species, in the same way that a supermarket scanner uses the familiar black stripes of the UPC barcode to identify an item in its stock against its reference database. These "barcodes" are sometimes used in an effort to identify unknown species, parts of an organism, or simply to catalog as many taxa as possible, or to compare with traditional taxonomy in an effort to determine species boundaries.
Nosferatu is a genus of cichlid fishes endemic to the Rio Panuco Basin and the tributaries of the adjacent Tamiahua Lagoon and San Andrés Lagoon in the states of Veracruz, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas and Querétaro, Mexico. The genus is characterized by a prolongation in the size of the symphysial pair of teeth relative to that of the other teeth in the outer row of the upper jaw ; breeding pigmentation that consists of darkening of ventral area extending over nostrils, opercular series, and pectoral fins; depressed dorsal fin rarely expands beyond anterior third of caudal fin; and an elongated, elastic, smooth caecum adhered to a saccular stomach.
Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) is a method to identify classes of genes or proteins that are over-represented in a large set of genes or proteins, and may have an association with disease phenotypes. The method uses statistical approaches to identify significantly enriched or depleted groups of genes. Transcriptomics technologies and proteomics results often identify thousands of genes which are used for the analysis.
Sunil Kumar Verma, is an Indian biologist and as of January 2018, a principal scientist at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India. Verma is primarily known for his contributions to the development of "universal primer technology", a first generation DNA barcoding method, that can identify any bird, fish, reptile or mammal from a small biological sample, and satisfy legal evidence requirements in a court of law. This technology has revitalised the field of wildlife forensics and is now routinely used across India to provide a species identification service in cases of wildlife crime. This approach of species identification is now known as "DNA barcoding" across the world.
Pollen DNA barcoding is the process of identifying pollen donor plant species through the amplification and sequencing of specific, conserved regions of plant DNA. Being able to accurately identify pollen has a wide range of applications though it has been difficult in the past due to the limitations of microscopic identification of pollen.
DNA barcoding is an alternative method to the traditional morphological taxonomic classification, and has frequently been used to identify species of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Many are crucial indicator organisms in the bioassessment of freshwater and marine ecosystems.
DNA barcoding methods for fish are used to identify groups of fish based on DNA sequences within selected regions of a genome. These methods can be used to study fish, as genetic material, in the form of environmental DNA (eDNA) or cells, is freely diffused in the water. This allows researchers to identify which species are present in a body of water by collecting a water sample, extracting DNA from the sample and isolating DNA sequences that are specific for the species of interest. Barcoding methods can also be used for biomonitoring and food safety validation, animal diet assessment, assessment of food webs and species distribution, and for detection of invasive species.
Winifred Hallwachs is an American tropical ecologist who helped to establish and expand northwestern Costa Rica's Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG). The work of Hallwachs and her husband Daniel Janzen at ACG is considered an exemplar of inclusive conservation.
Fungal DNA barcoding is the process of identifying species of the biological kingdom Fungi through the amplification and sequencing of specific DNA sequences and their comparison with sequences deposited in a DNA barcode database such as the ISHAM reference database, or the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD). In this attempt, DNA barcoding relies on universal genes that are ideally present in all fungi with the same degree of sequence variation. The interspecific variation, i.e., the variation between species, in the chosen DNA barcode gene should exceed the intraspecific (within-species) variation.
Genome skimming is a sequencing approach that uses low-pass, shallow sequencing of a genome, to generate fragments of DNA, known as genome skims. These genome skims contain information about the high-copy fraction of the genome. The high-copy fraction of the genome consists of the ribosomal DNA, plastid genome (plastome), mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), and nuclear repeats such as microsatellites and transposable elements. It employs high-throughput, next generation sequencing technology to generate these skims. Although these skims are merely 'the tip of the genomic iceberg', phylogenomic analysis of them can still provide insights on evolutionary history and biodiversity at a lower cost and larger scale than traditional methods. Due to the small amount of DNA required for genome skimming, its methodology can be applied in other fields other than genomics. Tasks like this include determining the traceability of products in the food industry, enforcing international regulations regarding biodiversity and biological resources, and forensics.
Cheverella is a monotypic genus of snout moths in the subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. It contains only one species, Cheverella galapagensis, which is endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. Both the genus and the species were first described by Bernard Landry in 2011. The genus is placed in the tribe Udeini.
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