National Institutes of Health

Last updated

National Institutes of Health (NIH)
NIH Master Logo Vertical 2Color.png
National Institutes of Health logo
NIH Clinical Research Center aerial.jpg
Aerial photo of the NIH Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Bethesda, Maryland
Agency overview
Formed1887 (1887)
Preceding agency
  • Hygienic Laboratory
Headquarters Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.
Employees20,262 [1]
Annual budgetIncrease2.svg US$37 billion [2] (as of 2018) [3]
Agency executive
Parent agency Department of Health & Human Services
Child agencies
Website www.nih.gov

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) ( /ɛnˈ/ ; each letter separately) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The majority of NIH facilities are located in Bethesda, Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program (IRP) and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program.

Public health preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organized efforts and informed choices of society and individuals

Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals". Analyzing the health of a population and the threats it faces is the basis for public health. The public can be as small as a handful of people or as large as a village or an entire city; in the case of a pandemic it may encompass several continents. The concept of health takes into account physical, psychological and social well-being. As such, according to the World Health Organization, it is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

United States Department of Health and Human Services department of the US federal government

The United States Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).

Bethesda, Maryland Census-designated place in Maryland, United States

Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, located just northwest of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House, which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda. In Aramaic, beth ḥesda means "House of Mercy" and in Hebrew, beit ḥesed means "House of Kindness". The National Institutes of Health main campus and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center are in Bethesda, as are a number of corporate and government headquarters.

Contents

As of 2013, the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic, translational, and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, [4] while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U.S., or about US$26.4 billion. [5]

In Canada and the United States, the term principal investigator (PI) refers to the holder of an independent grant administered by a university and the lead researcher for the grant project, usually in the sciences, such as a laboratory study or a clinical trial. The phrase is also often used as a synonym for "head of the laboratory" or "research group leader." While the expression is common in the sciences, it is used widely for the person or persons who make final decisions and supervise funding and expenditures on a given research project.

The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae (HIB), and human papillomavirus (HPV). [6]

Tooth decay disease involving breakdown of teeth

Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria. The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black. Symptoms may include pain and difficulty with eating. Complications may include inflammation of the tissue around the tooth, tooth loss, and infection or abscess formation.

Lithium Chemical element with atomic number 3

Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. When cut, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium. Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines. Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

Bipolar disorder mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood. The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania, depending on its severity, or whether symptoms of psychosis are present. During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable. Individuals often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. The need for sleep is usually reduced during manic phases. During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 30–40 percent. Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorders and substance use disorder are commonly associated with bipolar disorder.

History

The Laboratory of Hygiene in 1887 Kinyoun's laboratory.jpg
The Laboratory of Hygiene in 1887
Ida A. Bengtson, a bacteriologist who in 1916 was the first woman hired to work in the Hygienic Laboratory. Ida Bengston.jpg
Ida A. Bengtson, a bacteriologist who in 1916 was the first woman hired to work in the Hygienic Laboratory.
Dedication of first six NIH buildings by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940 Dedication of first six NIH buildings.jpg
Dedication of first six NIH buildings by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940
NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland, in 1945 NIH buildings 1-7.jpg
NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland, in 1945

NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U.S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, and it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative. [8]

The Marine Hospital Service was an organization of Marine Hospitals dedicated to the care of ill and disabled seamen in the United States Merchant Marine, the U.S. Coast Guard and other federal beneficiaries. The Marine Hospital Service evolved into the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps.

Medical research research

Biomedical research encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research", – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a preclinical understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials. Within this spectrum is applied research, or translational research, conducted to expand knowledge in the field of medicine.

In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York. [9] [10] In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School. This marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, and was given $750,000 to construct two NIH buildings. Over the next few decades, Congress would increase funding tremendously to the NIH, and various institutes and centers within the NIH were created for specific research programs. [11] In 1944, the Public Health Service Act was approved, and the National Cancer Institute became a division of NIH. In 1948, the name changed from National Institute of Health to National Institutes of Health.

Harvard Medical School Medical school in Boston, MA

Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University. It is located in the Longwood Medical Area of the Mission Hill neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1782, HMS is one of the oldest medical schools in the United States and is consistently ranked 1st among research-oriented medical schools by U.S. News and World Report. Unlike most other leading medical schools, HMS does not operate in conjunction with a single hospital but is directly affiliated with several teaching hospitals in the Boston area. The HMS faculty comprises of approximately 2,900 full- and part-time voting faculty members consisting of assistant, associate, and full professors, and over 5,000 full- and part-time, non-voting instructors. The majority of the faculty receive their appointments through an affiliated teaching hospital.

Ransdell Act

The Ransdell Act, reorganized, expanded and redesignated the Laboratory of Hygiene as the National Institute of Health.

Public Health Service Act

The Public Health Service Act is a United States federal law enacted in 1944. The full act is captured under Title 42 of the United States Code, Chapter 6A.

In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital. [12] :130 When three doctors resigned after refusing to inject patients without their consent, the experiment gained considerable media attention. [12] :133 The NIH was a major source of funding for Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation. [12] :135 Upon investigating all of their grantee institutions, the NIH discovered that the majority of them did not protect the rights of human subjects. From then on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation with review boards. [12] :135

Chester Milton Southam was an immunologist and oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Cornell University Medical College; he went to Thomas Jefferson University in 1971 and worked there until the end of his career.

HeLa cell line

HeLa is an immortal cell line used in scientific research. It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. The line was derived from cervical cancer cells taken on February 8, 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who died of cancer on October 4, 1951. The cell line was found to be remarkably durable and prolific which warrants its extensive use in scientific research.

In 1967, the Division of Regional Medical Programs was created to administer grants for research for heart disease, cancer, and strokes. That same year, the NIH director lobbied the White House for increased federal funding in order to increase research and the speed with which health benefits could be brought to the people. An advisory committee was formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs. By 1971 cancer research was in full force and President Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President's Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, and 15 new research, training, and demonstration centers. [13]

Funding for the NIH has often been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time. In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research, and 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. [14] While government funding for research in other disciplines has been increasing at a rate similar to inflation since the 1970s, research funding for the NIH nearly tripled through the 1990s and early 2000s, but has remained relatively stagnant since then. [15]

By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, and launched the Human Genome Project. [16]

Directors

NIH Office of the Director is the central office responsible for setting policy for NIH, and for planning, managing and coordinating the programs and activities of all NIH components. The NIH Director plays an active role in shaping the agency's activities and outlook. The Director is responsible for providing leadership to the Institutes and Centers by identifying needs and opportunities, especially in efforts involving multiple Institutes. [17] Within this Office is the Division of Program Coordination, Planning and Strategic Initiatives with 12 divisions including:

Previous directors:

Locations and campuses

Intramural research is primarily conducted at the main campus in Bethesda, Maryland and Rockville, Maryland, and the surrounding communities.

The Bayview Campus in Baltimore, Maryland houses the research programs of the National Institute on Aging, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Human Genome Research Institute with nearly 1,000 scientists and support staff. [19] The Frederick National Laboratory in Frederick, MD and the nearby Riverside Research Park, houses many components of the National Cancer Institute, including the Center for Cancer Research, Office of Scientific Operations, Management Operations Support Branch, the division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and the division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis. [20]

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is located in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina.

Other ICs have satellite locations in addition to operations at the main campus. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases maintains its Rocky Mountain Labs in Hamilton, Montana, [21] with an emphasis on BSL3 and BSL4 laboratory work. NIDKK operates the Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch in Phoenix, AZ.

Research

Clinical Center - Building 10 NIH Clinical Center south entrance.jpg
Clinical Center – Building 10

As of 2017, 153 scientists receiving financial support from the NIH have been awarded a Nobel Prize and 195 have been awarded a Lasker Award. [22]

Intramural research

NIH devotes 10% of its funding to research within its own facilities (intramural research). The institution gives 80% of its funding in research grants to extramural (outside) researchers. Of this extramural funding, a certain percentage (2.8% in 2014) must be granted to small businesses under the SBIR/STTR program. [23] The extramural funding consists of about 50,000 grants to more than 325,000 researchers at more than 3000 institutions. [24] In FY 2010, NIH spent US$10.7bn (not including temporary funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009) on clinical research, US$7.4bn on genetics-related research, US$6.0bn on prevention research, US$5.8bn on cancer, and US$5.7bn on biotechnology. [25]

Public Access Policy

In 2008 a Congressional mandate called for investigators funded by the NIH to submit an electronic version of their final manuscripts to the National Library of Medicine's research repository, PubMed Central (PMC), no later than 12 months after the official date of publication. [26] The NIH Public Access Policy was the first public access mandate for a U.S. public funding agency. [27]

NIH Interagency Pain Research Coordinating Committee

On February 13, 2012, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced a new group of individuals assigned to research pain. This committee is composed of researchers from different organizations and will focus to "coordinate pain research activities across the federal government with the goals of stimulating pain research collaboration… and providing an important avenue for public involvement" ("Members of new," 2012). With a committee such as this research will not be conducted by each individual organization or person but instead a collaborating group which will increase the information available. With this hopefully more pain management will be available including techniques for arthritis sufferers.[ citation needed ]

Economic return

In 2000, the Joint Economic Committee of Congress reported NIH research, which was funded at $16 billion a year in 2000, that some econometric studies had given a rate of return of 25 to 40 percent per year by reducing the economic cost of illness in the US. It found that of the 21 drugs with the highest therapeutic impact on society introduced between 1965 and 1992, public funding was "instrumental" for 15. [28] As of 2011 NIH-supported research helped to discover 153 new FDA-approved drugs, vaccines, and new indications for drugs in the 40 years prior. [29] One study found NIH funding aided either directly or indirectly in developing the drugs or drug targets for all of the 210 FDA-approved drugs from 2010 to 2016. [30] In 2015, Pierre Azoulay et al. estimated $10 million invested in research generated two to three new patents. [31]

Notable discoveries and developments

Since its inception, the NIH intramural research program has been a source of many pivotal scientific and medical discoveries. Some of these include:

NIH Toolbox

In September 2006, the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research started a contract for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function to develop a set of state-of-the-art measurement tools to enhance collection of data in large cohort studies. Scientists from more than 100 institutions nationwide contributed. In September 2012, the NIH Toolbox was rolled out to the research community. NIH Toolbox assessments are based, where possible, on Item Response Theory and adapted for testing by computer.[ citation needed ]

Funding

Budget and politics

Historical NIH budget [32]
YearBudget (millions)
19380.5
19400.7
19452.8
195052.7
195581.2
1960399.4
1965959.2
19701,061.0
19752,092.9
19803,428.9
19855,149.5
19907,567.4
199511,299.5
200017,840.5
200528,594.4
201031,238.0
201530,311.4
201632,311.4
201734,300.9
201837,311.3

To allocate funds, the NIH must first obtain its budget from Congress. This process begins with institute and center (IC) leaders collaborating with scientists to determine the most important and promising research areas within their fields. IC leaders discuss research areas with NIH management who then develops a budget request for continuing projects, new research proposals, and new initiatives from the Director. NIH submits its budget request to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the HHS considers this request as a portion of its budget. Many adjustments and appeals occur between NIH and HHS before the agency submits NIH's budget request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). OMB determines what amounts and research areas are approved for incorporation into the President's final budget. The President then sends NIH's budget request to Congress in February for the next fiscal year's allocations. [33] The House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees deliberate and by fall, Congress usually appropriates funding. This process takes approximately 18 months before the NIH can allocate any actual funds. [34]

Historical funding

Over the last century, the responsibility to allocate funding has shifted from the OD and Advisory Committee to the individual ICs and Congress increasingly set apart funding for particular causes. In the 1970s, Congress began to earmark funds specifically for cancer research, and in the 1980s there was a significant amount allocated for AIDS/HIV research. [35]

Funding for the NIH has often been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time. During the 1980s, President Reagan repeatedly tried to cut funding for research, only to see Congress partly restore funding. The political contention over NIH funding slowed the nation's response to the AIDS epidemic; while AIDS was reported in newspaper articles from 1981, no funding was provided for research on the disease. In 1984 National Cancer Institute scientists found implications that "variants of a human cancer virus called HTLV-III are the primary cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)," a new epidemic that gripped the nation. [36]

In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research and 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. [14] From 1993 to 2001 the NIH budget doubled. Since then, funding essentially remained flat, and during the decade following the financial crisis, the NIH budget struggled to keep up with inflation. [37]

In 1999 Congress increased the NIH's budget by $2.3 billion [35] to $17.2 billion in 2000. [38] In 2009 Congress again increased the NIH budget to $31 billion in 2010. [38] In 2017 and 2018, despite President Trump's proposals to cut the NIH budget, Congress passed laws with bipartisan support that substantially increasing appropriations for NIH, which was 37.3 billion dollars annually in FY2018. [39] [40]

Extramural research

Researchers at universities or other institutions outside of NIH can apply for research project grants (RPGs) from the NIH. There are numerous funding mechanisms for different project types (e.g., basic research, clinical research etc.) and career stages (e.g., early career, postdoc fellowships etc.). The NIH regularly issues "requests for applications" (RFAs), e.g., on specific programmatic priorities or timely medical problems (such as Zika virus research in early 2016). In addition, researchers can apply for "investigator-initiated grants" whose subject is determined by the scientist.

The total number of applicants has increased substantially, from about 60,000 investigators who had applied during the period from 1999 to 2003 to slightly less than 90,000 in who had applied during the period from 2011 to 2015. [41] Due to this, the "cumulative investigator rate," that is, the likelihood that unique investigators are funded over a 5-year window, has declined from 43% to 31%. [41]

R01 grants are the most common funding mechanism and include investigator-initiated projects. The roughly 27,000 to 29,000 R01 applications had a funding success of 17-19% during 2012 though 2014. Similarly, the 13,000 to 14,000 R21 applications had a funding success of 13-14% during the same period. [42] In FY 2016, the total number of grant applications received by the NIH was 54,220, with approximately 19% being awarded funding. [43] Institutes have varying funding rates. The National Cancer Institute awarded funding to 12% of applicants, while the National Institute for General Medical Science awarded funding to 30% of applicants. [43]

Funding criteria

NIH employs five broad decision criteria in its funding policy. First, ensure the highest quality of scientific research by employing an arduous peer review process. Second, seize opportunities that have the greatest potential to yield new knowledge and that will lead to better prevention and treatment of disease. Third, maintain a diverse research portfolio in order to capitalize on major discoveries in a variety of fields such as cell biology, genetics, physics, engineering, and computer science. Fourth, address public health needs according to the disease burden (e.g., prevalence and mortality). And fifth, construct and support the scientific infrastructure (e.g., well-equipped laboratories and safe research facilities) necessary to conduct research. [44]

Advisory committee members advise the Institute on policy and procedures affecting the external research programs and provide a second level of review for all grant and cooperative agreement applications considered by the Institute for funding. [45]

Gender and sex bias

In 2014, it was announced that the NIH is directing scientists to perform their experiments with both female and male animals, or cells derived from females as well as males if they are studying cell cultures, and that the NIH would take the balance of each study design into consideration when awarding grants. [46] The announcement also stated that this rule would probably not apply when studying sex-specific diseases (for example, ovarian or testicular cancer). [46]

Government shutdown

When a government shutdown occurs, the NIH continues to treat people who are already enrolled in clinical trials, but does not start any new clinical trials and does not admit new patients who are not already enrolled in a clinical trial, except for the most critically ill, [47] [48] [49] as determined by the NIH Director. [50]

Stakeholders

General public

One of the goals of the NIH is to "expand the base in medical and associated sciences in order to ensure a continued high return on the public investment in research." [51] Taxpayer dollars funding NIH are from the taxpayers, making them the primary beneficiaries of advances in research. Thus, the general public is a key stakeholder in the decisions resulting from the NIH funding policy. [52] However, some in the general public do not feel their interests are being represented, and individuals have formed patient advocacy groups to represent their own interests. [53]

Extramural researchers and scientists

Important stakeholders of the NIH funding policy include researchers and scientists. Extramural researchers differ from intramural researchers in that they are not employed by the NIH but may apply for funding. Throughout the history of the NIH, the amount of funding received has increased, but the proportion to each IC remains relatively constant. The individual ICs then decide who will receive the grant money and how much will be allotted.

Policy changes on who receives funding significantly affects researchers. For example, the NIH has recently attempted to approve more first-time NIH R01 applicants, or the research grant applications of young scientists. To encourage the participation of young scientists, the application process has been shortened and made easier. [54] In addition, first-time applicants are being offered more funding for their research grants than those who have received grants in the past. [55]

Commercial partnerships

In 2011 and 2012, the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General published a series of audit reports revealing that throughout the fiscal years 2000–2010, institutes under the aegis of the NIH did not comply with the time and amount requirements specified in appropriations statutes, in awarding federal contracts to commercial partners, committing the federal government to tens of millions of dollars of expenditure ahead of appropriation of funds from Congress. [56]

Institutes and centers

The NIH is composed of 27 separate institutes and centers (ICs) that conduct and coordinate research across different disciplines of biomedical science. These are:

In addition, the National Center for Research Resources operated from April 13, 1962 to December 23, 2011.

See also

Related Research Articles

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention government agency

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services and is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke government agency

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is a part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). It conducts and funds research on brain and nervous system disorders and has a budget of just over US$1.5 billion. The mission of NINDS is "to reduce the burden of neurological disease—a burden borne by every age group, every segment of society, and people all over the world". NINDS has established two major branches for research: an extramural branch that funds studies outside the NIH, and an intramural branch that funds research inside the NIH. Most of NINDS' budget goes to fund extramural research. NINDS' basic science research focuses on studies of the fundamental biology of the brain and nervous system, genetics, neurodegeneration, learning and memory, motor control, brain repair, and synapses. NINDS also funds clinical research related to diseases and disorders of the brain and nervous system, e.g. AIDS, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, and traumatic brain injury.

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Government organization

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is a United States government agency which explores complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). It was initially created as the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM), and renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) before receiving its current name. NCCIH is one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH) within the Department of Health and Human Services of the federal government of the United States.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NIH, in turn, is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research.

The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) is one of the institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health, an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

National Cancer Institute US research institute, part of National Institutes of Health

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The NCI coordinates the United States National Cancer Program and conducts and supports research, training, health information dissemination, and other activities related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer; the supportive care of cancer patients and their families; and cancer survivorship.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases institute of the National Institutes of Heath which conducts basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). NIAID's mission is to conduct basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases.

Leonard A. Scheele Surgeon General of the United States

Leonard Andrew Scheele was an American physician and public servant. He was appointed the seventh Surgeon General of the United States from 1948 to 1956.

The University of Maryland School of Medicine, located in Baltimore City, Maryland, U.S., is the medical school of the University of Maryland, Baltimore and is affiliated with the University of Maryland Medical Center and Medical System. Established in 1807 as the College of Medicine of Maryland, it is the first public and the fifth oldest medical school in the United States. It was also the first medical school to institute a residency training program. UMB SOM's campus includes Davidge Hall, which was built in 1812, and is the oldest building in continuous use for medical education in the Northern Hemisphere.

National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering organization

The National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), founded at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 2000, is located in Bethesda, Maryland. It is one of 27 institutes and centers that are part of NIH, an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Project Bioshield Act

The Project Bioshield Act was an act passed by the United States Congress in 2004 calling for $5 billion for purchasing vaccines that would be used in the event of a bioterrorist attack. This was a ten-year program to acquire medical countermeasures to biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear agents for civilian use. A key element of the Act was to allow stockpiling and distribution of vaccines which had not been tested for safety or efficacy in humans, due to ethical concerns. Efficacy of such agents cannot be directly tested in humans without also exposing humans to the chemical, biological, or radioactive threat being treated, so testing follows the FDA Animal Rule for pivotal animal efficacy.

Vaccine Research Center

The Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center, more commonly known as the Vaccine Research Center (VRC), is an Intramural Division of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, one of the US National Institutes of Health. The mission of the VRC is "to conduct research that facilitates the development of effective vaccines for human disease." The primary focus of research is the development of vaccines for AIDS, but the VRC also is working to develop vaccines for Ebola and Marburg viruses and for influenza.

The National Disease Research Interchange (NDRI), based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA) is the nation’s leading source of human tissues, cells and organs for scientific research. A not-for-profit 501 (c)(3) organization founded in 1980, NDRI is funded in part by the National Institutes of Health, public and private foundations and organizations, pharmaceutical and biotechnology corporations. NDRI is a 24/7 operation that partners with a nationwide network of over 130 tissue source sites (TSS), including organ procurement organizations (OPO), tissue banks, eye banks, and hospitals. The TSS, are distributed throughout the USA, in 45 states, with concentrations in major metropolitan areas on both the east and west coasts. Their wide geographic distribution allows NDRI to provide biospecimens from donor populations with diverse demographics and also facilitates the timely and efficient provision of fresh tissues directly to researchers across the country. By serving as the liaison between procurement sources and the research community, NDRI is uniquely positioned to support breakthrough advances and discoveries that can affect advances in the treatment and cure of human diseases.

The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) was established in 2012 and is located in Bethesda, Maryland. The NCATS is one of 27 institutes and centers of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services. The mission of NCATS is to transform the translation of scientific discoveries so that new treatments and cures for disease can be delivered to patients faster. The budget provided to NCATS for fiscal year 2018 is $557,373,000.

National Institutes of Health Clinical Center hospital

The NIH Clinical Center is a hospital solely dedicated to clinical research at the National Institutes of Health campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The Clinical Center, known as Building 10, consists of the original part of the hospital, the Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, and the newest addition, the Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center. The two parts are connected to form one large building.

NIH Intramural Research Program

The NIH Intramural Research Program (IRP) is the internal research program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), known for its synergistic approach to biomedical science. With 1,200 Principal Investigators and over 4,000 Postdoctoral Fellows conducting basic, translational, and clinical research, the NIH Intramural Research Program is the largest biomedical research institution on earth. The unique funding environment of the IRP facilitates opportunities to conduct both long-term and high-impact science that would otherwise be difficult to undertake. With rigorous external reviews ensuring that only the most outstanding research secures funding, the IRP is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Hemophilus influenzae (HIB), and human papillomavirus (HPV). In addition, the IRP has also produced or trained 21 Nobel Prize-winning scientists.

The NIH Public Access Policy is an open access mandate, drafted in 2004 and mandated in 2008, requiring that research papers describing research funded by the National Institutes of Health must be available to the public free through PubMed Central within 12 months of publication. PubMed Central is the self-archiving repository in which authors or their publishers deposit their publications. Copyright is retained by the usual holders, but authors may submit papers with one of the Creative Commons licenses.

Susan G. Amara is an American professor of neuroscience and is the Scientific Director of the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Amara is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She is a Past-President of the Society for Neuroscience. Dr. Amara has a B.S. in Biological Sciences from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in Physiology and Pharmacology from the University of California, San Diego.

Peter B. Jahrling is chief of the Emerging Viral Pathogens Section of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

References

  1. Baye, Rachel (October 17, 2012). "NIH plans to move 3,000 employees to Bethesda campus". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on March 17, 2018.
  2. "Trump, Congress approve largest U.S. research spending increase in a decade". Science AAAS. March 23, 2018. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  3. "Appropriations (Section 2)". The NIH Almanac (Report). National Institutes of Health. February 25, 2011. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  4. "Organization and Leadership | NIH Intramural Research Program". Irp.nih.gov. April 4, 2011. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  5. Osterweil, Neil (September 20, 2005). "Medical Research Spending Doubled Over Past Decade". MedPage Today. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  6. NIH Sourcebook "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. Harden, Victoria A. "WWI and the Ransdell Act of 1930". A Short History of the National Institutes of Health. Office Of History National Institutes Of Health, United States National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
  8. NIH Almanac 2011 , History: Chronology of Events: 1800–
  9. "A Short History of the National Institutes of Health (1 of 13)". history.nih.gov. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  10. "SIC 9431 Administration of Public Health Programs". Referenceforbusiness.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  11. NIH Almanac 2011 , History: Chronology of Events: 1900–
  12. 1 2 3 4 Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. New York: Broadway Paperbacks.
  13. "History of the National Cancer Institute". National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health. March 18, 2015. Archived from the original on June 28, 2017. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  14. 1 2 Laurie J. Price (1992). "A Medical Anthropologist's Ruminations on NIH Funding". Medical Anthropology Quarterly. New Series. 6 (2): 128–146. doi:10.1525/maq.1992.6.2.02a00030. JSTOR   649307.
  15. "Historical Trends in Federal R&D". AAAS - The World's Largest General Scientific Society. June 11, 2013. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018.
  16. "Online Education Kit: 1990: Launch of the Human Genome Project". National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  17. "NIH Leadership". National Institutes of Health (NIH). October 31, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2019.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  18. "The NIH Directors". National Institutes of Health. February 11, 2015. Archived from the original on June 1, 2013.
  19. "Bayview Campus". nih.gov. May 8, 2013. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  20. "NCI at Frederick: About the NCI at Frederick". ncifrederick.cancer.gov. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018.
  21. "Division of Intramural Research Overview". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. September 1, 2010. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved September 15, 2015.
  22. "Lasker Awards". National Institutes of Health (NIH). February 5, 2016. Archived from the original on July 5, 2016.
  23. Garland, Eva (2014). Winning SBIR/STTR Grants: A Ten Week Plan for Preparing Your NIH Phase I Application. ISBN   978-1494784447.
  24. "NIH Budget". National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of Health. May 23, 2011. Archived from the original on August 26, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  25. "Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories (RCDC)". Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools. National Institutes of Health. March 15, 2011. Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  26. National Institutes of Health. "NIH Public Access Policy Details". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on November 3, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  27. Suber, Peter (April 16, 2008). "An open access mandate for the National Institutes of Health". Open Medicine. 2 (2): e39–41. PMC   3090178 . PMID   21602938.
  28. "The Benefits of Medical Research and the Role of the NIH" (PDF). U.S. Joint Economic Committee. May 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2015. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  29. Stevens, A. J.; Jensen, J. J.; Wyller, K.; Kilgore, P. C.; Chatterjee, S.; Rohrbaugh, M. L. (2011). "The Role of Public-Sector Research in the Discovery of Drugs and Vaccines". New England Journal of Medicine . 364 (6): 535–541. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1008268. PMID   21306239.
  30. "NIH funding contributed to 210 approved drugs in recent years, study says". statnews.com. February 12, 2018. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  31. Azoulay, Pierre; Graff Zivin, Joshua S.; Li, Danielle; Sampat, Bhaven N. (January 2015). "Public R&D Investments and Private-sector Patenting: Evidence from NIH Funding Rules". NBER Working Paper No. 20889. doi:10.3386/w20889.
  32. "Appropriations". National Institutes of Health (NIH). Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  33. "Funding" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016.
  34. "Funding". Archived from the original on December 7, 2011.
  35. 1 2 NIH Almanac 2011 , History: Legislative Chronology: Funding
  36. NIH Almanac 2011 , History: Chronology of Events: 1980–
  37. NIH Appropriations (Section 1) Archived May 7, 2017, at the Wayback Machine and NIH Appropriations (Section 2) Archived January 5, 2018, at the Wayback Machine April 7, 2016, retrieved May 4, 2016, U.S. Department of Health and Human Service
  38. 1 2 "Funding" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 15, 2013.
  39. Office of Management and Budget America First. A Budget Blueprint to Make America Great Again. Archived May 4, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2018. Government Publishing Office, March 16, 2017.65 pp
  40. "NIH Funding: FY1994-FY2019" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
  41. 1 2 Lauer, Mike (May 31, 2016). "How Many Researchers?". Open Mike. NIH. Archived from the original on August 25, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  42. Rockey, Sally (April 10, 2015). "Looking at Recent Data on R21 and R01-equivalent Grants". Rock Talk. NIH. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
  43. 1 2 "NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT)". report.nih.gov. Archived from the original on February 2, 2018.
  44. "Statement on Funding Allocation for Disease Research by Harold Varmus, M. D., Director, National Institutes of Health". Assistant Secretary for Legislation, Department of Health and Human Services. May 6, 1999.
  45. "National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council (NANDSC)". Ninds.nih.gov. Archived from the original on April 28, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2013.
  46. 1 2 Rabin, Roni Caryn (May 14, 2014). "Labs Are Told to Start Including a Neglected Variable: Females". The New York Times . Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  47. Sabrina Tavernese (October 9, 2013). "Clinical Trials Continue, but Only at a Crawl". New York Times. Archived from the original on October 27, 2017.
  48. Neergaard, Lauran (October 9, 2013). "NIH admits a dozen critically ill, making exceptions to no-new-patient policy during shutdown". Huffington Post. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  49. "Government slimdown blocks some seeking NIH research treatment". Fox News Channel . The Associated Press. October 2, 2013. Archived from the original on October 5, 2013.
  50. "Department of Health and Human Services Fiscal Year 2014 Contingency Staffing Plan for Operations in the Absence of Enacted Annual Appropriations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2013.
  51. "Stakeholders". October 31, 2014. Archived from the original on November 25, 2011.
  52. "Stakeholders". Archived from the original on November 14, 2011.
  53. "Stakeholders". Archived from the original on November 4, 2016.
  54. Karp PD, Sherlock G, Gerlt JA, Sim I, Paulsen I, Babbitt PC, Laderoute K, Hunter L, Sternberg P, Wooley J, Bourne PE (2008). "Changes to NIH grant system may backfire". Science. 322 (5905): 1187–8. doi:10.1126/science.322.5905.1187c. PMID   19023064.
  55. Costello LC (May 2010). "Perspective: is NIH funding the "best science by the best scientists"? A critique of the NIH R01 research grant review policies". Acad Med. 85 (5): 775–9. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181d74256. PMID   20520024.
  56. "Appropriations Funding for National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Contract N01-AI-15416 With the University of California at San Francisco Audit (A-03-10-03120)" (PDF). June 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
    "Appropriations Funding for National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Contract N01-AI-3-0052 With Avecia Biologics Limited" (PDF). September 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
    "Appropriations Funding for National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Contract HHSN266-2006-00015C With NexBio, Inc" (PDF). September 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
    "Appropriations Funding for National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Contract HHSN272-2008-00013C with the EMMES Corporation (A-03-10-03115)" (PDF). October 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 2, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2011.
    "Appropriations Funding for Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Contract HHSN275-03-3345 With Westat, Inc. Audit (A-03-10-03106)" (PDF). October 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 1, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
    "Appropriations Funding for National Institute on Drug Abuse Contract HHSN271-2007-00009C with Charles River Laboratories, Inc. (A-03-10-03104)" (PDF). October 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 2, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
    "Appropriations Funding for National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Contract HHSN266-2005-00022C With PPD Development, LP (Audit A-03-10-03118)" (PDF). September 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
    "Appropriations Funding for National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Contract N01-AI-30068 With PPD Development, LP (Audit A-03-10-03116)" (PDF). September 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from websites or documents ofthe National Institutes of Health.

Coordinates: 39°00′07″N77°06′14″W / 39.002°N 77.104°W / 39.002; -77.104