Bipolar disorder

Last updated

Bipolar disorder
Other namesBipolar affective disorder, bipolar illness, manic depression, manic depressive disorder, manic-depressive illness, [1] manic-depressive psychosis, circular insanity, [1] bipolar disease [2]
Comedy and tragedy masks without background.svg
Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression and mania.
Specialty Psychiatry
SymptomsPeriods of depression and elevated mood [3] [4]
Complications Suicide, self-harm [3]
Usual onset25 years old [3]
Types Bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, others [4]
Causes Environmental and genetic [3]
Risk factors Family history, childhood abuse, long-term stress [3]
Differential diagnosis Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia, substance use disorder [3]
Treatment Psychotherapy, medications [3]
Medication Lithium, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants [3]
Frequency1-3% [3] [5]

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood. [3] [4] [6] The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania, depending on its severity, or whether symptoms of psychosis are present. [3] During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable. [3] Individuals often make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences. [4] The need for sleep is usually reduced during manic phases. [4] During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact with others. [3] The risk of suicide among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 3040 percent. [3] Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorders and substance use disorder are commonly associated with bipolar disorder. [3]

Mental disorder distressing thought or behavior pattern

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional.

Depression (mood) state of low mood and aversion to activity

Depression, a state of low mood and aversion to activity, can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being. Symptoms of the mood disorder is marked by sadness, inactivity, difficulty in thinking and concentration and a significant increase/decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping. A great deal of people also have feelings of dejection, hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal tendencies. It can either be short term or long term depending on the severity of the person's condition. A depressed mood is a normal temporary reaction to life events, such as the loss of a loved one. It is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments. Depressed mood may also be a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia.

Euphoria mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness and excitement

Euphoria is the experience of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness. Certain natural rewards and social activities, such as aerobic exercise, laughter, listening to or making music, and dancing, can induce a state of euphoria. Euphoria is also a symptom of certain neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders, such as mania. Romantic love and components of the human sexual response cycle are also associated with the induction of euphoria. Certain drugs, many of which are addictive, can cause euphoria, which at least partially motivates their recreational use.

Contents

The causes are not clearly understood, but both environmental and genetic factors play a role. [3] Many genes of small effect contribute to risk. [3] [7] Environmental risk factors include a history of childhood abuse and long-term stress. [3] About 85% of the risk is attributed to genetics. [8] The condition is classified as bipolar I disorder if there has been at least one manic episode, with or without depressive episodes, and as bipolar II disorder if there has been at least one hypomanic episode (but no manic episodes) and one major depressive episode. [4] In those with less severe symptoms of a prolonged duration, the condition cyclothymic disorder may be diagnosed. [4] If the symptoms are due to drugs or medical problems, it is classified separately. [4] Other conditions that may present similarly include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder as well as a number of medical conditions. [3] Medical testing is not required for a diagnosis, though blood tests or medical imaging can be done to rule out other problems. [9]

of conspecifics, competitors, predators, and parasites {Refimprove|date=March 2009}}

Genetics Science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms

Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.

Heritability Estimation of effect of genetic variation on phenotypic variation of a trait

Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population. In other words, the concept of heritability can alternately be expressed in the form of the following question: "What is the proportion of the variation in a given trait within a population that is not explained by the environment or random chance?"

Treatment commonly includes psychotherapy as well as medications such as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics. [3] Examples of mood stabilizers that are commonly used include lithium and various anticonvulsants. [3] Involuntary treatment in a hospital may be needed if a person is a risk to themselves or others but refuses treatment. [3] Severe behavioral problems, such as agitation or combativeness, may be managed with short term antipsychotics or benzodiazepines. [3] In periods of mania, it is recommended that antidepressants be stopped. [3] If antidepressants are used for periods of depression, they should be used with a mood stabilizer. [3] Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), while not very well studied, may be tried for those who do not respond to other treatments. [3] [10] If treatments are stopped, it is recommended that this be done slowly. [3] Many individuals have financial, social or work-related problems due to the illness. [3] These difficulties occur a quarter to a third of the time, on average. [3] Due to lifestyle choices and the side effects of medications, the risk of death from natural causes such as heart disease in people with bipolar is twice that of the general population. [3]

Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders. Others have been criticized as pseudoscience.

Lithium (medication) monoatomic ion

Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication. This includes the treatment of major depressive disorder that does not improve following the use of other antidepressants, and bipolar disorder. In these disorders, it reduces the risk of suicide. Lithium is taken by mouth.

Anticonvulsants are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. Anticonvulsants are also increasingly being used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder, since many seem to act as mood stabilizers, and for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Anticonvulsants suppress the excessive rapid firing of neurons during seizures. Anticonvulsants also prevent the spread of the seizure within the brain.

Bipolar disorder affects approximately 1% of the global population. [11] In the United States, about 3% are estimated to be affected at some point in their life; rates appear to be similar in females and males. [12] [5] The most common age at which symptoms begin is 25. [3] The economic cost of the disorder has been estimated at $45 billion for the United States in 1991. [13] A large proportion of this was related to a higher number of missed work days, estimated at 50 per year. [13] People with bipolar disorder often face problems with social stigma. [3]

Signs and symptoms

An 1858 lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania' 'Melancholy passing into mania' Wellcome L0022595 (cropped).jpg
An 1858 lithograph captioned 'Melancholy passing into mania'

Both mania and depression are characterized by disruptions in normal mood, psychomotor activity, circadian rhythm, and cognition. Mania can present with varying levels of mood disturbance, ranging from euphoria that is associated with "classic mania" to dysphoria and irritability. The core symptom of mania involves an increase in energy of psychomotor activity. Mania can also present with increased self-esteem or grandiosity, rapid speech, the subjective feeling of rapid thoughts, disinhibited social behavior, or impulsivity. [14] Mania is distinguished from hypomania by length, as hypomania requires four consecutive days, and mania requires more than a week. Unlike mania, hypomania is not always associated with impaired functioning. [15] The biological mechanisms responsible for switching from a manic or hypomanic episode to a depressive episode, or vice versa, remain poorly understood. [16]

Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.

In psychology, a mood is an emotional state. In contrast to emotions, feelings, or affects, moods are less specific, less intense and less likely to be provoked or instantiated by a particular stimulus or event. Moods are typically described as having either a positive or negative valence. In other words, people usually talk about being in a good mood or a bad mood.

Circadian rhythm any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria.

Manic episodes

An 1892 color lithograph depicting a woman diagnosed with "Hilarious Mania" A woman diagnosed as suffering from hilarious mania. Colour Wellcome L0026687.jpg
An 1892 color lithograph depicting a woman diagnosed with "Hilarious Mania"

Mania is a distinct period of at least one week of elevated or irritable mood, which can range from euphoria to delirium, and those experiencing hypomania or mania generally exhibit several of the following behaviors: speaking in a rapid, uninterruptible manner, decreased need for sleep, short attention span, racing thoughts, increased goal-oriented activities, agitation, or exhibition of behaviors characterized as impulsive or high-risk, such as hypersexuality or excessive spending. [17] [18] [19] To meet the definition for a manic episode, these behaviors must impair the individual's ability to socialize or work. [17] [19] If untreated, a manic episode usually lasts three to six months. [20]

Delirium Severe confusion that develops quickly, and often fluctuates in intensity, neurocognitive disorder

Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previous baseline level of mental function that develops over a short period of time, typically hours to days. Delirium is a syndrome encompassing disturbances in attention, consciousness, and cognition. It may also involve other neurological deficits, such as psychomotor disturbances, impaired sleep-wake cycle, emotional disturbances, and perceptual disturbances, although these features are not required for diagnosis.

Pressure of speech is a tendency to speak rapidly and frenziedly, as if motivated by an urgency not apparent to the listener. The speech produced is difficult to interrupt.

Attention span is the amount of concentrated time a person can spend on a task without becoming distracted. The element of distractibility occurs when the individual is uncontrollably drawn to some other activity or sensation. Most educators and psychologists agree that the ability to focus and sustain attention on a task is crucial for the achievement of one's goals. Attention training is said to be part of education, particularly in the way students are trained to remain focused on a topic of observation or discussion for longer periods, developing listening and analytical skills in the process.

Manic individuals often have a history of substance abuse developed over years as a form of "self-medication". [21] At the most extreme, a person in a full-blown manic state can experience psychosis: a break with reality, a state in which thinking is affected along with mood. [19] They may feel unstoppable, or as if they have been "chosen" and are on a "special mission", or have other grandiose or delusional ideas. [22] This may lead to violent behavior and, sometimes, hospitalization in an inpatient psychiatric hospital. [18] [19] The severity of manic symptoms can be measured by rating scales such as the Young Mania Rating Scale, though questions remain about the reliability of these scales. [23]

The onset of a manic or depressive episode is often foreshadowed by sleep disturbances. [24] Mood changes, psychomotor and appetite changes, and an increase in anxiety can also occur up to three weeks before a manic episode develops. [25]

Hypomanic episodes

Hypomania is the milder form of mania, defined as at least four days of the same criteria as mania, [19] but which does not cause a significant decrease in the individual's ability to socialize or work, lacks psychotic features such as delusions or hallucinations, and does not require psychiatric hospitalization. [17] Overall functioning may actually increase during episodes of hypomania and is thought to serve as a defense mechanism against depression by some. [26] Hypomanic episodes rarely progress to full-blown manic episodes. [26] Some people who experience hypomania show increased creativity [19] [27] while others are irritable or demonstrate poor judgment.

Hypomania may feel good to some persons who experience it, though most people who experience hypomania state that the stress of the experience is very painful. [19] Bipolar people who experience hypomania, however, tend to forget the effects of their actions on those around them. Even when family and friends recognize mood swings, the individual will often deny that anything is wrong. [28] What might be called a "hypomanic event", if not accompanied by depressive episodes, is often not deemed problematic, unless the mood changes are uncontrollable, or volatile. [26] Most commonly, symptoms continue for a few weeks to a few months. [29]

Depressive episodes

'Melancholy' by W. Bagg after a photograph by Hugh Welch Diamond 'Melancholy' by W. Bagg Wellcome L0022594.jpg
'Melancholy' by W. Bagg after a photograph by Hugh Welch Diamond

Symptoms of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder include persistent feelings of sadness, irritability or anger, loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities, excessive or inappropriate guilt, hopelessness, sleeping too much or not enough, changes in appetite and/or weight, fatigue, problems concentrating, self-loathing or feelings of worthlessness, and thoughts of death or suicide. [30] In severe cases, the individual may develop symptoms of psychosis, a condition also known as severe bipolar disorder with psychotic features. These symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. A major depressive episode persists for at least two weeks, and may result in suicide if left untreated. [31]

The earlier the age of onset, the more likely the first few episodes are to be depressive. [32] Since a diagnosis of bipolar disorder requires a manic or hypomanic episode, many affected individuals are initially misdiagnosed as having major depression and then incorrectly treated with prescribed antidepressants. [33]

Mixed affective episodes

In bipolar disorder, mixed state is a condition during which symptoms of both mania and depression occur simultaneously. [34] Individuals experiencing a mixed state may have manic symptoms such as grandiose thoughts while simultaneously experiencing depressive symptoms such as excessive guilt or feeling suicidal. [34] Mixed states are considered to be high-risk for suicidal behavior since depressive emotions such as hopelessness are often paired with mood swings or difficulties with impulse control. [34] Anxiety disorders occur more frequently as a comorbidity in mixed bipolar episodes than in non-mixed bipolar depression or mania. [34] Substance abuse (including alcohol) also follows this trend, thereby appearing to depict bipolar symptoms as no more than a consequence of substance abuse. [34]

Associated features

Associated features are clinical phenomena that often accompany the disorder but are not part of the diagnostic criteria. In adults with the condition, bipolar disorder is often accompanied by changes in cognitive processes and abilities. [35] These include reduced attentional and executive capabilities and impaired memory. [36] How the individual processes the universe also depends on the phase of the disorder, with differential characteristics between the manic, hypomanic and depressive states. [25] Those with bipolar disorder may have difficulty in maintaining relationships. [37] There are several common childhood precursors seen in children who later receive a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, such as mood abnormalities (including major depressive episodes) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). [38]

Comorbid conditions

The diagnosis of bipolar disorder can be complicated by coexisting (comorbid) psychiatric conditions including the following: obsessive-compulsive disorder, substance-use disorder, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, social phobia, premenstrual syndrome (including premenstrual dysphoric disorder), or panic disorder. [21] [30] [39] [40] A careful longitudinal analysis of symptoms and episodes, enriched if possible by discussions with friends and family members, is crucial to establishing a treatment plan where these comorbidities exist. [41]

Causes

The causes of bipolar disorder likely vary between individuals and the exact mechanism underlying the disorder remains unclear. [42] Genetic influences are believed to account for 60–80 percent of the risk of developing the disorder indicating a strong hereditary component. [39] The overall heritability of the bipolar spectrum has been estimated at 0.71. [43] Twin studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes but have indicated a substantial genetic contribution, as well as environmental influence. For bipolar disorder type I, the rate at which identical twins (same genes) will both have bipolar disorder type I (concordance) is estimated at around 40 percent, compared to about 5 percent in fraternal twins. [17] [44] A combination of bipolar I, II, and cyclothymia similarly produced rates of 42 percent and 11 percent (identical and fraternal twins, respectively), with a relatively lower ratio for bipolar II that likely reflects heterogeneity. There is overlap with major (unipolar) depression and if this is also counted in the co-twin the concordance with bipolar disorder rises to 67 percent in identical twins and 19 percent in fraternal twins. [45] The relatively low concordance between fraternal twins brought up together suggests that shared family environmental effects are limited, although the ability to detect them has been limited by small sample sizes. [43] Estrogen in women has been linked to bipolar disorder. [46] [47]

Genetic

Behavioral genetic studies have suggested that many chromosomal regions and candidate genes are related to bipolar disorder susceptibility with each gene exerting a mild to moderate effect. [39] The risk of bipolar disorder is nearly ten-fold higher in first degree-relatives of those affected with bipolar disorder when compared to the general population; similarly, the risk of major depressive disorder is three times higher in relatives of those with bipolar disorder when compared to the general population. [17]

Although the first genetic linkage finding for mania was in 1969, [48] the linkage studies have been inconsistent. [17] The largest and most recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) failed to find any particular locus that exerts a large effect, reinforcing the idea that no single gene is responsible for bipolar disorder in most cases. [49] Polymorphisms in BDNF , DRD4 , DAO, and TPH1 have been frequently associated with bipolar disorder and were initially successful in a meta-analysis, but failed after correction for multiple testing. [50] On the other hand, two polymorphisms in TPH2 were identified as being associated with bipolar disorder. [51]

Due to the inconsistent findings in a genome-wide association study, multiple studies have undertaken the approach of analyzing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biological pathways. Signaling pathways traditionally associated with bipolar disorder that have been supported by these studies include corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling, cardiac β-adrenergic signaling, Phospholipase C signaling, glutamate receptor signaling, [52] cardiac hypertrophy signaling, Wnt signaling, Notch signaling, [53] and endothelin 1 signaling. Of the 16 genes identified in these pathways, three were found to be dysregulated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex portion of the brain in post-mortem studies, CACNA1C , GNG2 , and ITPR2 . [54]

Findings point strongly to heterogeneity, with different genes being implicated in different families. [55] Robust and replicable genome-wide significant associations showed several common SNPs, including variants within the genes CACNA1C , ODZ4 , and NCAN . [39] [49]

Bipolar disorder is associated with reduced expression of specific DNA repair enzymes and increased levels of oxidative DNA damages. [56]

Advanced paternal age has been linked to a somewhat increased chance of bipolar disorder in offspring, consistent with a hypothesis of increased new genetic mutations. [57]

Environmental

Psychosocial factors play a significant role in the development and course of bipolar disorder, and individual psychosocial variables may interact with genetic dispositions. [58] It is probable that recent life events and interpersonal relationships contribute to the onset and recurrence of bipolar mood episodes, just as they do for unipolar depression. [59] In surveys, 30–50 percent of adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder report traumatic/abusive experiences in childhood, which is associated with earlier onset, a higher rate of suicide attempts, and more co-occurring disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). [60] The number of reported stressful events in childhood is higher in those with an adult diagnosis of bipolar spectrum disorder compared to those without, particularly events stemming from a harsh environment rather than from the child's own behavior. [61]

Neurological

Less commonly, bipolar disorder or a bipolar-like disorder may occur as a result of or in association with a neurological condition or injury. Conditions like these and injuries include stroke, traumatic brain injury, HIV infection, multiple sclerosis, porphyria, and rarely temporal lobe epilepsy. [62]

Mechanism

Physiological

Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in the volume of various brain regions between patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects GFPneuron.png
Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in the volume of various brain regions between patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects

Abnormalities in the structure and/or function of certain brain circuits could underlie bipolar disorder. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies in bipolar disorder report decreased volume in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), fronto-insular cortex, ventral prefrontal cortex, and claustrum. Increases have been reported in the volume of the lateral ventricles, globus pallidus, subgenual anterior cingulate, and amygdala as well as in the rates of deep white matter hyperintensities. [63] [64] [65] [66] Functional MRI findings suggest that abnormal modulation between ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, especially the amygdala, likely contributes to poor emotional regulation and mood symptoms. [67] Pharmacological treatment of mania increases ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) activity, normalizing it relative to controls, suggesting that vPFC hypoactivity is an indicator of mood state. On the other hand, pretreatment hyperactivity in the amygdala is reduced post-treatment but is still increased relative to controls, suggesting that it is a trait marker. [68]

Manic and depressive episodes tend to be characterized by ventral versus dorsal dysfunction in the ventral prefrontal cortex. During attentional tasks and resting, mania is associated with decreased orbitofrontal cortex activity, while depression is associated with increased resting metabolism. Consistent with affective disorders due to lesions, mania and depression are lateralized in vPFC dysfunction, with depression primarily being associated with the left vPFC, and mania the right vPFC. Abnormal vPFC activity, along with amygdala hyperactivity is found during euthymia as well as in healthy relatives of those with bipolar, indicating possible trait features. [69]

Euthymic bipolar people show decreased activity in the lingual gyrus, while people who are manic demonstrate decreased activity in the inferior frontal cortex, while no differences were found in people with bipolar depression. [70] People with bipolar have increased activation of left hemisphere ventral limbic areas and decreased activation of right hemisphere cortical structures related to cognition. [71]

One proposed model for bipolar disorder suggests that hypersensitivity of reward circuits consisting of frontostriatal circuits causes mania, and hyposensitivity of these circuits causes depression. [72]

According to the "kindling" hypothesis, when people who are genetically predisposed toward bipolar disorder experience stressful events, the stress threshold at which mood changes occur becomes progressively lower, until the episodes eventually start (and recur) spontaneously. There is evidence supporting an association between early-life stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) leading to its overactivation, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. [73] [74]

Some of the brain components which have been proposed to play a role are the mitochondria [42] and a sodium ATPase pump. [75] Circadian rhythms and regulation of the hormone melatonin also seem to be altered. [76]

Neurochemical

Dopamine, a known neurotransmitter responsible for mood cycling, has been shown to have increased transmission during the manic phase. [16] [77] The dopamine hypothesis states that the increase in dopamine results in secondary homeostatic downregulation of key systems and receptors such as an increase in dopamine-mediated G protein-coupled receptors. This results in decreased dopamine transmission characteristic of the depressive phase. [16] The depressive phase ends with homeostatic up regulation potentially restarting the cycle over again. [78]

Glutamate is significantly increased within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the manic phase of bipolar disorder, and returns to normal levels once the phase is over. [79] The increase in gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is possibly caused by a disturbance in early development causing a disturbance of cell migration and the formation of normal lamination, the layering of brain structures commonly associated with the cerebral cortex. [80]

Medications used to treat bipolar may exert their effect by modulating intracellular signaling, such as through depleting myo-inositol levels, inhibition of cAMP signaling, and through altering G coupled proteins. [81] Consistent with this, elevated levels of Gαi, Gαs, and Gαq/11 have been reported in brain and blood samples, along with increased protein kinase A expression and sensitivity. [82]

Decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, a byproduct of serotonin, are present in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons with bipolar disorder during both the depressed and manic phases. Increased dopaminergic activity has been hypothesized in manic states due to the ability of dopamine agonists to stimulate mania in people with bipolar disorder. Decreased sensitivity of regulatory α2 adrenergic receptors as well as increased cell counts in the locus ceruleus indicated increased noradrenergic activity in manic people. Low plasma GABA levels on both sides of the mood spectrum have been found. [83] One review found no difference in monoamine levels, but found abnormal norepinephrine turnover in people with bipolar disorder. [84] Tyrosine depletion was found to reduce the effects of methamphetamine in people with bipolar disorder as well as symptoms of mania, implicating dopamine in mania. VMAT2 binding was found to be increased in one study of people with bipolar mania. [85]

Diagnosis

Bipolar disorder is commonly diagnosed during adolescence or early adulthood, but onset can occur throughout the life cycle. [4] [86] The disorder can be difficult to distinguish from unipolar depression and the average delay in diagnosis is 5–10 years after symptoms begin. [87] Diagnosis of bipolar disorder takes several factors into account and considers the self-reported experiences of the symptomatic individual, abnormal behavior reported by family members, friends or co-workers, observable signs of illness as assessed by a clinician, and often a medical work-up to rule-out medical causes. In diagnosis, caregiver-scored rating scales, specifically the mother, has been found to be more accurate than teacher and youth report in predicting identifying youths with bipolar disorder. [88] Assessment is usually done on an outpatient basis; admission to an inpatient facility is considered if there is a risk to oneself or others. The most widely used criteria for diagnosing bipolar disorder are from the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Edition (ICD-10). The ICD-10 criteria are used more often in clinical settings outside of the U.S. while the DSM criteria are used clinically within the U.S. and are the prevailing criteria used internationally in research studies. The DSM-5, published in 2013, included further and more accurate specifiers compared to its predecessor, the DSM-IV-TR. [89] Semi structured interviews such as the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) are used for diagnostic confirmation of bipolar disorder.

Several rating scales for the screening and evaluation of bipolar disorder exist, [90] including the Bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale, Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the General Behavior Inventory and the Hypomania Checklist. [91] The use of evaluation scales cannot substitute a full clinical interview but they serve to systematize the recollection of symptoms. [91] On the other hand, instruments for screening bipolar disorder tend to have lower sensitivity. [90]

Differential diagnosis

There are several other mental disorders with symptoms similar to those seen in bipolar disorder. These disorders include schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, [92] attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder. [93] [94] [95]

Although there are no biological tests that are diagnostic of bipolar disorder, [49] blood tests and/or imaging may be carried out to exclude medical illnesses with clinical presentations similar to that of bipolar disorder. Neurologic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, complex partial seizures, strokes, brain tumors, Wilson's disease, traumatic brain injury, Huntington's disease, and complex migraines can mimic features of bipolar disorder. [86] An EEG may be used to exclude neurological disorders such as epilepsy, and a CT scan or MRI of the head may be used to exclude brain lesions. [86] Additionally, disorders of the endocrine system such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and Cushing's disease are in the differential as is the connective tissue disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Infectious causes of mania that may appear similar to bipolar mania include herpes encephalitis, HIV, influenza, or neurosyphilis. [86] Certain vitamin deficiencies such as pellagra (niacin deficiency), Vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, and Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome (thiamine deficiency) can also lead to mania. [86]

A review of current and recent medications and drug use is considered to rule out these causes; common medications that can cause manic symptoms include antidepressants, prednisone, Parkinson's disease medications, thyroid hormone, stimulants (including cocaine and methamphetamine), and certain antibiotics. [96]

Bipolar spectrum

Since Emil Kraepelin's distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the 19th century, researchers have defined a spectrum of different types of bipolar disorder E. Kraepelin.jpg
Since Emil Kraepelin's distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the 19th century, researchers have defined a spectrum of different types of bipolar disorder

Bipolar spectrum disorders includes: bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder and cases where subthreshold symptoms are found to cause clinically significant impairment or distress. [4] [86] These disorders involve major depressive episodes that alternate with manic or hypomanic episodes, or with mixed episodes that feature symptoms of both mood states. [4] The concept of the bipolar spectrum is similar to that of Emil Kraepelin's original concept of manic depressive illness. [97]

Unipolar hypomania without accompanying depression has been noted in the medical literature. [98] There is speculation as to whether this condition may occur with greater frequency in the general, untreated population; successful social function of these potentially high-achieving individuals may lead to being labeled as normal, rather than as individuals with substantial dysregulation.

Criteria and subtypes

Simplified graphical comparison of bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia Bipolar disorder subtypes comparison between Bipolar I, II disorder and Cyclothymia.svg
Simplified graphical comparison of bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymia

The DSM and the ICD characterize bipolar disorder as a spectrum of disorders occurring on a continuum. The DSM-5 lists three specific subtypes: [4]

When relevant, specifiers for peripartum onset and with rapid cycling should be used with any subtype. Individuals who have subthreshold symptoms that cause clinically significant distress or impairment, but do not meet full criteria for one of the three subtypes may be diagnosed with other specified or unspecified bipolar disorder. Other specified bipolar disorder is used when a clinician chooses to provide an explanation for why the full criteria were not met (e.g., hypomania without a prior major depressive episode). [4]

Rapid cycling

Most people who meet criteria for bipolar disorder experience a number of episodes, on average 0.4 to 0.7 per year, lasting three to six months. [103] Rapid cycling, however, is a course specifier that may be applied to any of the above subtypes. It is defined as having four or more mood disturbance episodes within a one-year span and is found in a significant proportion of individuals with bipolar disorder. [30] These episodes are separated from each other by a remission (partial or full) for at least two months or a switch in mood polarity (i.e., from a depressive episode to a manic episode or vice versa). [17] The definition of rapid cycling most frequently cited in the literature (including the DSM) is that of Dunner and Fieve: at least four major depressive, manic, hypomanic or mixed episodes are required to have occurred during a 12-month period. [104] Ultra-rapid (days) and ultra-ultra rapid or ultradian (within a day) cycling have also been described. [105] The literature examining the pharmacological treatment of rapid cycling is sparse and there is no clear consensus with respect to its optimal pharmacological management. [106]

Prevention

Attempts at prevention of bipolar disorder have focused on stress (such as childhood adversity or highly conflictual families) which, although not a diagnostically specific causal agent for bipolar, does place genetically and biologically vulnerable individuals at risk for a more severe course of illness. [107] There has been debate regarding the causal relationship between usage of cannabis and bipolar disorder. [108]

Management

There are a number of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic techniques used to treat bipolar disorder. Individuals may use self-help and pursue recovery.

Hospitalization may be required especially with the manic episodes present in bipolar I. This can be voluntary or (local legislation permitting) involuntary (called civil or involuntary commitment). Long-term inpatient stays are now less common due to deinstitutionalization, although these can still occur. [109] Following (or in lieu of) a hospital admission, support services available can include drop-in centers, visits from members of a community mental health team or an Assertive Community Treatment team, supported employment and patient-led support groups, intensive outpatient programs. These are sometimes referred to as partial-inpatient programs. [110]

Psychosocial

Psychotherapy is aimed at alleviating core symptoms, recognizing episode triggers, reducing negative expressed emotion in relationships, recognizing prodromal symptoms before full-blown recurrence, and, practicing the factors that lead to maintenance of remission. [111] [112] [113] Cognitive behavioral therapy, family-focused therapy, and psychoeducation have the most evidence for efficacy in regard to relapse prevention, while interpersonal and social rhythm therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy appear the most effective in regard to residual depressive symptoms. Most studies have been based only on bipolar I, however, and treatment during the acute phase can be a particular challenge. [114] Some clinicians emphasize the need to talk with individuals experiencing mania, to develop a therapeutic alliance in support of recovery. [115]

Medication

Lithium is often used to treat bipolar disorder and has the best evidence for reducing suicide. Lithium2017a.jpg
Lithium is often used to treat bipolar disorder and has the best evidence for reducing suicide.

A number of medications are used to treat bipolar disorder. [59] The medication with the best evidence is lithium, which is an effective treatment for acute manic episodes, preventing relapses, and bipolar depression. [116] Lithium reduces the risk of suicide, self-harm, and death in people with bipolar disorder. [117] It is unclear if ketamine (a common general anaesthetic used in surgery) is useful in bipolar as of 2015. [118]

Mood stabilizers

Lithium and the anticonvulsants carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproic acid are used as mood stabilizers to treat bipolar disorder. These mood stabilizers are used for long-term mood stabilization but have not demonstrated the ability to quickly treat acute bipolar depression. [119] Lithium is preferred for long-term mood stabilization. [59] Carbamazepine effectively treats manic episodes, with some evidence it has greater benefit in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder, or those with more psychotic symptoms or a more schizoaffective clinical picture. It is less effective in preventing relapse than lithium or valproate. [120] [121] Valproate has become a commonly prescribed treatment and effectively treats manic episodes. [122] Lamotrigine has some efficacy in treating bipolar depression, and this benefit is greatest in more severe depression. [123] It has also been shown to have some benefit in preventing bipolar disorder relapses, though there are concerns about the studies done, and is of no benefit in rapid cycling subtype of bipolar disorder. [124] The effectiveness of topiramate is unknown. [125]

Antipsychotics

Antipsychotic medications are effective for short-term treatment of bipolar manic episodes and appear to be superior to lithium and anticonvulsants for this purpose. [59] Atypical antipsychotics are also indicated for bipolar depression refractory to treatment with mood stabilizers. [119] Olanzapine is effective in preventing relapses, although the supporting evidence is weaker than the evidence for lithium. [126]

Antidepressants

Antidepressants are not recommended for use alone in the treatment of bipolar disorder and have not been found to be of any benefit over that found with mood stabilizers. [11] [127] Atypical antipsychotic medications (e.g., aripiprazole) are preferred over antidepressants to augment the effects of mood stabilizers due to the lack of efficacy of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. [119]

Other

Short courses of benzodiazepines may be used in addition to other medications until mood stabilizing become effective. [128] Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective form of treatment for acute mood disturbances in those with bipolar disorder, especially when psychotic or catatonic features are displayed. [11] ECT is also recommended for use in pregnant women with bipolar disorder. [11]

Contrary to widely held views, stimulants are relatively safe in bipolar disorder, and considerable evidence suggests they may even produce an antimanic effect. In cases of comorbid ADHD and bipolar, stimulants may help improve both conditions. [129]

Alternative medicine

Several studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids may have beneficial effects on depressive symptoms, but not manic symptoms. However, only a few small studies of variable quality have been published and there is not enough evidence to draw any firm conclusions. [130] [131]

Prognosis

A lifelong condition with periods of partial or full recovery in between recurrent episodes of relapse, [30] [130] bipolar disorder is considered to be a major health problem worldwide because of the increased rates of disability and premature mortality. [130] It is also associated with co-occurring psychiatric and medical problems, and high rates of initial under- or misdiagnosis, causing a delay in appropriate treatment interventions and contributing to poorer prognoses. [32] After a diagnosis is made, it remains difficult to achieve complete remission of all symptoms with the currently available psychiatric medications and symptoms often become progressively more severe over time. [90] [132]

Compliance with medications is one of the most significant factors that can decrease the rate and severity of relapse and have a positive impact on overall prognosis. [133] However, the types of medications used in treating BD commonly cause side effects [134] and more than 75% of individuals with BD inconsistently take their medications for various reasons. [133]

Of the various types of the disorder, rapid cycling (four or more episodes in one year) is associated with the worst prognosis due to higher rates of self-harm and suicide. [30] Individuals diagnosed with bipolar who have a family history of bipolar disorder are at a greater risk for more frequent manic/hypomanic episodes. [135] Early onset and psychotic features are also associated with worse outcomes, [136] [137] as well as subtypes that are nonresponsive to lithium. [132]

Early recognition and intervention also improve prognosis as the symptoms in earlier stages are less severe and more responsive to treatment. [132] Onset after adolescence is connected to better prognoses for both genders, and being male is a protective factor against higher levels of depression. For women, better social functioning prior to developing bipolar disorder and being a parent are protective towards suicide attempts. [135]

Functioning

People with bipolar disorder often experience a decline in cognitive functioning during (or possibly before) their first episode, after which a certain degree of cognitive dysfunction typically becomes permanent, with more severe impairment during acute phases and moderate impairment during periods of remission. As a result, two-thirds of people with BD continue to experience impaired psychosocial functioning in between episodes even when their mood symptoms are in full remission. A similar pattern is seen in both BD-I and BD-II, but people with BD-II experience a lesser degree of impairment. [134] Cognitive deficits typically increase over the course of the illness. Higher degrees of impairment correlate with the number of previous manic episodes and hospitalizations, and with the presence of psychotic symptoms. [138] Early intervention can slow the progression of cognitive impairment, while treatment at later stages can help reduce distress and negative consequences related to cognitive dysfunction. [132]

Despite the overly ambitious goals that are frequently part of manic episodes, symptoms of mania undermine the ability to achieve these goals and often interfere with an individual's social and occupational functioning. One third of people with BD remain unemployed for one year following a hospitalization for mania. [139] Depressive symptoms during and between episodes, which occur much more frequently for most people than hypomanic or manic symptoms over the course of illness, are associated with lower functional recovery in between episodes, including unemployment or underemployment for both BD-I and BD-II. [4] [140] However, the course of illness (duration, age of onset, number of hospitalizations, and presence or not of rapid cycling) and cognitive performance are the best predictors of employment outcomes in individuals with bipolar disorder, followed by symptoms of depression and years of education. [140]

Recovery and recurrence

A naturalistic study from first admission for mania or mixed episode (representing the hospitalized and therefore most severe cases) found that 50 percent achieved syndromal recovery (no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis) within six weeks and 98 percent within two years. Within two years, 72 percent achieved symptomatic recovery (no symptoms at all) and 43 percent achieved functional recovery (regaining of prior occupational and residential status). However, 40 percent went on to experience a new episode of mania or depression within 2 years of syndromal recovery, and 19 percent switched phases without recovery. [141]

Symptoms preceding a relapse (prodromal), specially those related to mania, can be reliably identified by people with bipolar disorder. [142] There have been intents to teach patients coping strategies when noticing such symptoms with encouraging results. [143]

Suicide

Bipolar disorder can cause suicidal ideation that leads to suicidal attempts. Individuals whose bipolar disorder begins with a depressive or mixed affective episode seem to have a poorer prognosis and an increased risk of suicide. [92] One out of two people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime and many attempts are successfully completed. [39] The annual average suicide rate is 0.4 percent, which is 10–20 times that of the general population. [144] The standardized mortality ratio from suicide in bipolar disorder is between 18 and 25. [145] The lifetime risk of suicide has been estimated to be as high as 20 percent in those with bipolar disorder. [17]

Epidemiology

Burden of bipolar disorder around the world: disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
.mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
<180
180-185
185-190
190-195
195-200
200-205
205-210
210-215
215-220
220-225
225-230
>230 Bipolar disorder world map - DALY - WHO2004.svg
Burden of bipolar disorder around the world: disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
  <180
  180-185
  185-190
  190-195
  195-200
  200-205
  205-210
  210-215
  215-220
  220-225
  225-230
  >230

Bipolar disorder is the sixth leading cause of disability worldwide and has a lifetime prevalence of about 1 to 3 percent in the general population. [5] [146] [147] However, a reanalysis of data from the National Epidemiological Catchment Area survey in the United States suggested that 0.8 percent of the population experience a manic episode at least once (the diagnostic threshold for bipolar I) and a further 0.5 percent have a hypomanic episode (the diagnostic threshold for bipolar II or cyclothymia). Including sub-threshold diagnostic criteria, such as one or two symptoms over a short time-period, an additional 5.1 percent of the population, adding up to a total of 6.4 percent, were classified as having a bipolar spectrum disorder. [148] A more recent analysis of data from a second US National Comorbidity Survey found that 1 percent met lifetime prevalence criteria for bipolar I, 1.1 percent for bipolar II, and 2.4 percent for subthreshold symptoms. [149]

There are conceptual and methodological limitations and variations in the findings. Prevalence studies of bipolar disorder are typically carried out by lay interviewers who follow fully structured/fixed interview schemes; responses to single items from such interviews may suffer limited validity. In addition, diagnoses (and therefore estimates of prevalence) vary depending on whether a categorical or spectrum approach is used. This consideration has led to concerns about the potential for both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis. [150]

The incidence of bipolar disorder is similar in men and women [151] as well as across different cultures and ethnic groups. [152] A 2000 study by the World Health Organization found that prevalence and incidence of bipolar disorder are very similar across the world. Age-standardized prevalence per 100,000 ranged from 421.0 in South Asia to 481.7 in Africa and Europe for men and from 450.3 in Africa and Europe to 491.6 in Oceania for women. However, severity may differ widely across the globe. Disability-adjusted life year rates, for example, appear to be higher in developing countries, where medical coverage may be poorer and medication less available. [153] Within the United States, Asian Americans have significantly lower rates than their African and European American counterparts. [154]

Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak years for the onset of bipolar disorder. [155] [156] One study also found that in 10 percent of bipolar cases, the onset of mania had happened after the patient had turned 50. [157]

History

German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin first distinguished between manic-depressive illness and "dementia praecox" (now known as schizophrenia) in the late 19th century Emil Kraepelin 1926.jpg
German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin first distinguished between manic–depressive illness and "dementia praecox" (now known as schizophrenia) in the late 19th century

Variations in moods and energy levels have been observed as part of the human experience throughout history. The words "melancholia", an old word for depression, and "mania" originated in Ancient Greece. The word melancholia is derived from melas (μέλας), meaning "black", and chole (χολή), meaning "bile" or "gall", [158] indicative of the term's origins in pre-Hippocratic humoral theory. Within the humoral theories, mania was viewed as arising from an excess of yellow bile, or a mixture of black and yellow bile. The linguistic origins of mania, however, are not so clear-cut. Several etymologies were proposed by the Ancient Roman physician Caelius Aurelianus, including the Greek word ania, meaning "to produce great mental anguish", and manos, meaning "relaxed" or "loose", which would contextually approximate to an excessive relaxing of the mind or soul. [159] There are at least five other candidates, and part of the confusion surrounding the exact etymology of the word mania is its varied usage in the pre-Hippocratic poetry and mythology. [159]

In the early 1800s, French psychiatrist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol's lypemania, one of his affective monomanias, was the first elaboration on what was to become modern depression. [160] The basis of the current conceptualisation of bipolar illness can be traced back to the 1850s; In 1850, Jean-Pierre Falret presented a description to the Academy the Paris Psychiatric Society in the course of which he mentioned "circular insanity" (la folie circulaire, French pronunciation:  [la fɔli siʁ.ky.lɛʁ] ); the lecture was summarized in 1851 in the "Gazette des hôpitaux" ("Hospital Gazette"). [1] Three years later, in 1854, Jules-Gabriel-François Baillarger (1809–1890) described to the French Imperial Académie Nationale de Médecine a biphasic mental illness causing recurrent oscillations between mania and melancholia, which he termed folie à double forme (French pronunciation:  [fɔli a dubl fɔʀm] , "madness in double form"). [1] [161] Baillarger's original paper, "De la folie à double forme," appeared in the medical journal Annales médico-psychologiques (Medico-psychological annals) in 1854. [1]

These concepts were developed by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926), who, using Kahlbaum's concept of cyclothymia, [162] categorized and studied the natural course of untreated bipolar patients. He coined the term manic depressive psychosis, after noting that periods of acute illness, manic or depressive, were generally punctuated by relatively symptom-free intervals where the patient was able to function normally. [163]

The term "manic–depressive reaction" appeared in the first version of the DSM in 1952, influenced by the legacy of Adolf Meyer. [164] Subtyping into "unipolar" depressive disorders and bipolar disorders has its origin in Karl Kleist's concept - since 1911 - of unipolar and bipolar affective disorders, which was used by Karl Leonhard in 1957 to differentiate between unipolar and bipolar disorder in depression. [159] These subtypes have been regarded as separate conditions since publication of the DSM-III. The subtypes bipolar II and rapid cycling have been included since the DSM-IV, based on work from the 1970s by David Dunner, Elliot Gershon, Frederick Goodwin, Ronald Fieve, and Joseph Fleiss. [165] [166] [167]

Society and culture

Singer Rosemary Clooney's public revelation of bipolar disorder made her an early celebrity spokeswoman for mental illness. Rosemary Clooney Allan Warren.jpg
Singer Rosemary Clooney's public revelation of bipolar disorder made her an early celebrity spokeswoman for mental illness.

There are widespread problems with social stigma, stereotypes, and prejudice against individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. [169]

Kay Redfield Jamison, a clinical psychologist and professor of psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, profiled her own bipolar disorder in her memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995). [170] In his autobiography Manicdotes: There's Madness in His Method (2008), Chris Joseph describes his struggle between the creative dynamism which allowed the creation of his multimillion-pound advertising agency Hook Advertising, and the money-squandering dark despair of his bipolar illness. [171]

Several dramatic works have portrayed characters with traits suggestive of the diagnosis that has been the subject of discussion by psychiatrists and film experts alike. A notable example is Mr. Jones (1993), in which Mr. Jones (Richard Gere) swings from a manic episode into a depressive phase and back again, spending time in a psychiatric hospital and displaying many of the features of the syndrome. [172] In The Mosquito Coast (1986), Allie Fox (Harrison Ford) displays some features including recklessness, grandiosity, increased goal-directed activity and mood lability, as well as some paranoia. [173] Psychiatrists have suggested that Willy Loman, the main character in Arthur Miller's classic play Death of a Salesman , suffers from bipolar disorder, [174] though that specific term for the condition did not exist when the play was written.

TV specials, for example the BBC's Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive , [175] MTV's True Life: I'm Bipolar, talk shows, and public radio shows, and the greater willingness of public figures to discuss their own bipolar disorder, have focused on psychiatric conditions, thereby, raising public awareness.

On April 7, 2009, the nighttime drama 90210 on the CW network, aired a special episode where the character Silver was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. [176] Stacey Slater, a character from the BBC soap EastEnders, has been diagnosed with the disorder. The storyline was developed as part of the BBC's Headroom campaign. [177] The Channel 4 soap Brookside had earlier featured a story about bipolar disorder when the character Jimmy Corkhill was diagnosed with the condition. [178] 2011 Showtime's political thriller drama Homeland protagonist Carrie Mathison is bipolar, which she has kept secret since her school days. [179] In April 2014, ABC premiered a medical drama, Black Box , in which the main character, a world-renowned neuroscientist, is bipolar. [180]

In an effort to ease the social stigma associated with bipolar disorder, the orchestra conductor Ronald Braunstein cofounded the ME/2 Orchestra with his wife Caroline Whiddon in 2011. Braunstein was diagnosed with bipolar disorder in 1985 and his concerts with the ME/2 Orchestra were conceived in order to create a welcoming performance environment for his musical colleagues, while also raising public awareness about mental illness. [181] [182]

Creativity

A link between mental illness and professional success or creativity has been suggested, including in accounts by Socrates, Seneca the Younger, and Cesare Lombroso. Despite prominence in popular culture, the link between creativity and bipolar has not been rigorously studied. This area of study also is likely affected by confirmation bias. Some evidence suggests that some heritable component of bipolar disorder overlaps with heritable components of creativity. Probands of people with bipolar disorder are more likely to be professionally successful, as well as to demonstrate temperamental traits similar to bipolar disorder. Furthermore, while studies of the frequency of bipolar disorder in creative population samples have been conflicting, studies that have a positive finding report that full blown bipolar disorder is rare. [183]

Specific populations

Children

Lithium is the only medication approved by the FDA for treating mania in children Lithium carbonate.jpg
Lithium is the only medication approved by the FDA for treating mania in children

In the 1920s, Emil Kraepelin noted that manic episodes are rare before puberty. [184] In general, bipolar disorder in children was not recognized in the first half of the twentieth century. This issue diminished with an increased following of the DSM criteria in the last part of the twentieth century. [184] [185] The DSM5 does not specifically have bipolar disorder in children and instead refers to it as disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. [186]

While in adults the course of bipolar disorder is characterized by discrete episodes of depression and mania with no clear symptomatology between them, in children and adolescents very fast mood changes or even chronic symptoms are the norm. [187] Pediatric bipolar disorder is commonly characterized by outbursts of anger, irritability and psychosis, rather than euphoric mania, which is more likely to be seen in adults. [184] [187] Early onset bipolar disorder is more likely to manifest as depression rather than mania or hypomania. [188]

The diagnosis of childhood bipolar disorder is controversial, [187] although it is not under discussion that the typical symptoms of bipolar disorder have negative consequences for minors suffering them. [184] The debate is mainly centered on whether what is called bipolar disorder in children refers to the same disorder as when diagnosing adults, [184] and the related question of whether the criteria for diagnosis for adults are useful and accurate when applied to children. [187] Regarding diagnosis of children, some experts recommend following the DSM criteria. [187] Others believe that these criteria do not correctly separate children with bipolar disorder from other problems such as ADHD, and emphasize fast mood cycles. [187] Still others argue that what accurately differentiates children with bipolar disorder is irritability. [187] The practice parameters of the AACAP encourage the first strategy. [184] [187] American children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder in community hospitals increased 4-fold reaching rates of up to 40 percent in 10 years around the beginning of the 21st century, while in outpatient clinics it doubled reaching 6 percent. [187] Studies using DSM criteria show that up to 1 percent of youth may have bipolar disorder. [184]

Treatment involves medication and psychotherapy. [187] Drug prescription usually consists in mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics. [187] Among the former, lithium is the only compound approved by the FDA for children. [184] Psychological treatment combines normally education on the disease, group therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. [187] Chronic medication is often needed. [187]

Current research directions for bipolar disorder in children include optimizing treatments, increasing the knowledge of the genetic and neurobiological basis of the pediatric disorder and improving diagnostic criteria. [187] Some treatment research suggests that psychosocial interventions that involve the family, psychoeducation, and skills building (through therapies such as CBT, DBT, and IPSRT) can benefit in a pharmocotherapy. [189] Unfortunately, the literature and research on the effects of psychosocial therapy on BPSD is scarce, making it difficult to determine the efficacy of various therapies. [189] The DSM-5 has proposed a new diagnosis which is considered to cover some presentations currently thought of as childhood-onset bipolar. [190]

Elderly

There is a relative lack of knowledge about bipolar disorder in late life. There is evidence that it becomes less prevalent with age but nevertheless accounts for a similar percentage of psychiatric admissions; that older bipolar patients had first experienced symptoms at a later age; that later onset of mania is associated with more neurologic impairment; that substance abuse is considerably less common in older groups; and that there is probably a greater degree of variation in presentation and course, for instance individuals may develop new-onset mania associated with vascular changes, or become manic only after recurrent depressive episodes, or may have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder at an early age and still meet criteria. There is also some weak and not conclusive evidence that mania is less intense and there is a higher prevalence of mixed episodes, although there may be a reduced response to treatment. Overall, there are likely more similarities than differences from younger adults. [191] [192] In the elderly, recognition and treatment of bipolar disorder may be complicated by the presence of dementia or the side effects of medications being taken for other conditions. [193]

See also

Related Research Articles

Bipolar I disorder is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features. Most patients also, at other times, have one or more depressive episodes, and all experience a hypomanic stage before progressing to full mania.

Major depressive disorder all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem, and by loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause. People may also occasionally have false beliefs or see or hear things that others cannot. Some people have periods of depression separated by years in which they are normal, while others nearly always have symptoms present. Major depressive disorder can negatively affect a person's personal life, work life, or education, as well as sleeping, eating habits, and general health. Between 2–8% of adults with major depression die by suicide, and about 50% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder.

Mood disorder mental disorders which have as their most predominant feature a disturbance in affect or mood to depression or to elation

Mood disorder, also known as mood affective disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature. The classification is in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

Schizoaffective disorder is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and an unstable mood. The diagnosis is made when the person has symptoms of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder—either bipolar disorder or depression—but does not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or a mood disorder individually. The main criterion for the schizoaffective disorder diagnosis is the presence of psychotic symptoms for at least two weeks without any mood symptoms present. Schizoaffective disorder can often be misdiagnosed when the correct diagnosis may be psychotic depression, psychotic bipolar disorder, schizophreniform disorder or schizophrenia. It is important for providers to accurately diagnose patients, as treatment differs greatly for each of these diagnoses.

A mixed affective state, formerly known as a mixed-manic or mixed episode, has been defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania—such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal ideation, racing thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability—occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.

Atypical depression as it has been known in the DSM IV, is depression that shares many of the typical symptoms of the psychiatric syndromes major depression or dysthymia but is characterized by improved mood in response to positive events. In contrast, people with melancholic depression generally do not experience an improved mood in response to normally pleasurable events. Atypical depression also features significant weight gain or an increased appetite, hypersomnia, a heavy sensation in the limbs and interpersonal rejection sensitivity that results in significant social or occupational impairment.

The emphasis of the treatment of bipolar disorder is on effective management of the long-term course of the illness, which can involve treatment of emergent symptoms. Treatment methods include pharmacological and psychological techniques.

Cyclical variations in moods and energy levels have been recorded at least as far back as several thousand years. The words "melancholia" and "mania" have their etymologies in Ancient Greek. The word melancholia is derived from melas/μελας, meaning "black", and chole/χολη, meaning "bile" or "gall", indicative of the term’s origins in pre-Hippocratic humoral theories. A man known as Aretaeus of Cappadocia has the first records of analyzing the symptoms of depression and mania in the 1st century of Greece. There is documentation that explains how bath salts were used to calm those with manic symptoms and also help those who are dealing with depression. Even today, lithium is used as a treatment to bipolar disorder which is significant because lithium could have been an ingredient in the Greek bath salt. Centuries passed and very little was studied or discovered. It wasn't until the mid-19th century that a French psychiatrist by the name of Jean-Pierre Falret wrote an article describing "circular insanity" and this is believed to be the first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Years later, in the early 1900s, Emil Kraepelin, a German psychiatrist, analyzed the influence of biology on mental disorders, including bipolar disorder. His studies are still used as the basis of classification of mental disorders today.

Bipolar disorder in children, or pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD), is a mental disorder in children and adolescents that, like bipolar disorder (BD) in adults, is characterized by extreme changes in mood and behavior accompanying periods of depressed or irritable moods and periods of elevated moods called manic or hypomanic episodes. These shifts are sometimes quick, but usually are gradual. The average age of onset of PBD is unclear, but the risk increases with the onset of puberty. PBD is typically more severe and has a poorer prognosis than BD with onset in late-adolescence or adulthood.

Bipolar II disorder is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression. Diagnosis for bipolar II disorder requires that the individual must never have experienced a full manic episode, unless caused by an antidepressant. Otherwise, one manic episode meets the criteria for bipolar I disorder.

Grandiose delusions psychopathological condition (that is, when an individual believes that he has exceptional abilities, fame, wealth, or omnipotence)

Grandiose delusions (GD), delusions of grandeur, expansive delusions are a subtype of delusion that occur in patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric diseases, including two-thirds of patients in manic state of bipolar disorder, half of those with schizophrenia, patients with the grandiose subtype of delusional disorder, and a substantial portion of those with substance abuse disorders. GDs are characterized by fantastical beliefs that one is famous, omnipotent, wealthy, or otherwise very powerful. The delusions are generally fantastic and typically have a religious, science fictional, or supernatural theme. There is a relative lack of research into GD, in contrast to persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations. About 10% of healthy people experience grandiose thoughts but do not meet full criteria for a diagnosis of GD.

Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BD-NOS) is a diagnosis for bipolar disorder (BD) when it does not fall within the other established sub-types. Bipolar disorder NOS is sometimes referred to as subthreshold bipolar disorder.

Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania. These symptoms however are not sufficient to be a major depressive episode or a hypomanic episode. Symptoms must last for more than one or two years.

The associated features of bipolar disorder are clinical phenomena that often accompany bipolar disorder (BD) but are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. There are several childhood precursors in children who later receive a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. They may show subtle early traits such as mood abnormalities, full major depressive episodes, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. BD is also accompanied by changes in cognition processes and abilities. This includes reduced attentional and executive capabilities and impaired memory. How the individual processes the world also depends on the phase of the disorder, with differential characteristics between the manic, hypomanic and depressive states. Some studies have found a significant association between bipolar disorder and creativity.

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a mental disorder in children and adolescents characterized by a persistently irritable or angry mood and frequent temper outbursts that are disproportionate to the situation and significantly more severe than the typical reaction of same-aged peers. DMDD was added to the DSM-5 as a type of depressive disorder diagnosis for youths. The symptoms of DMDD resemble those of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety disorders, and childhood bipolar disorder.

The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a self-report questionnaire designed to help detect bipolar disorder. It focuses on symptoms of hypomania and mania, which are the mood states that separate bipolar disorders from other types of depression and mood disorder. It has 5 main questions, and the first question has 13 parts, for a total of 17 questions. The MDQ was originally tested with adults, but it also has been studied in adolescents ages 11 years and above. It takes approximately 5–10 minutes to complete. In 2006, a parent-report version was created to allow for assessment of bipolar symptoms in children or adolescents from a caregiver perspective, with the research looking at youths as young as 5 years old. The MDQ has become one of the most widely studied and used questionnaires for bipolar disorder, and it has been translated into more than a dozen languages.

Hypomania is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and mood elevation (euphoria). It may involve irritation, but less severely than full mania. According to DSM-5 criteria, hypomania is distinct from mania in that there is no significant functional impairment; mania, by DSM-5 definition, does include significant functional impairment and may have psychotic features.

The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is a 73-question psychological self-report assessment tool designed by Richard Depue and colleagues to identify the presence and severity of manic and depressive moods in adults, as well as to assess for cyclothymia. It is one of the most widely used psychometric tests for measuring the severity of bipolar disorder and the fluctuation of symptoms over time. The GBI is intended to be administered for adult populations; however, it has been adapted into versions that allow for juvenile populations, as well as a short version that allows for it to be used as a screening test.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to bipolar disorder:

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Edward Shorter (2005). A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 165–166. ISBN   978-0-19-517668-1.
  2. Coyle N, Paice JA (2015). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing. Oxford University Press, Incorporated. p. 623. ISBN   9780199332342.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Anderson IM, Haddad PM, Scott J (December 27, 2012). "Bipolar disorder". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 345: e8508. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8508. PMID   23271744.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 American Psychiatry Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 123–154. ISBN   978-0-89042-555-8.
  5. 1 2 3 Schmitt A, Malchow B, Hasan A, Falkai P (February 2014). "The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders". Front Neurosci. 8 (19): 19. doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00019. PMC   3920481 . PMID   24574956.
  6. "DSM IV Criteria for Manic Episode". Archived from the original on July 31, 2017.
  7. Goodwin, Guy M. (2012). "Bipolar disorder". Medicine. 40 (11): 596–598. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.011.
  8. Charney A, Sklar P (2018). "Genetics of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder". In Charney D, Nestler E, Sklar P, Buxbaum J (eds.). Charney & Nestler's Neurobiology of Mental Illness (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 162.
  9. NIMH (April 2016). "Bipolar Disorder". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on July 27, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  10. Versiani M, Cheniaux E, Landeira-Fernandez J (June 2011). "Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic review". The Journal of ECT. 27 (2): 153–64. doi:10.1097/yct.0b013e3181e6332e. PMID   20562714.
  11. 1 2 3 4 Grande I, Berk M, Birmaher B, Vieta E (April 2016). "Bipolar disorder". Lancet (Review). 387 (10027): 1561–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00241-X. PMID   26388529.
  12. Diflorio A, Jones I (2010). "Is sex important? Gender differences in bipolar disorder". International Review of Psychiatry. 22 (5): 437–52. doi:10.3109/09540261.2010.514601. PMID   21047158.
  13. 1 2 Hirschfeld RM, Vornik LA (June 2005). "Bipolar disorder--costs and comorbidity". The American Journal of Managed Care. 11 (3 Suppl): S85–90. PMID   16097719.
  14. Akiskal, Hagop (2017). "13.4 Mood Disorders: Clinical Features". In Sadock, Benjamin; Sadock, Virginia; Ruiz, Pedro name-list-format = vanc (eds.). Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (10th ed.). New York: Wolters Kluwer.
  15. Grande I, Berk M, Birmaher B, Vieta E (April 2016). "Bipolar disorder". Lancet. 387 (10027): 1561–72. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00241-X. PMID   26388529.
  16. 1 2 3 Salvadore G, Quiroz JA, Machado-Vieira R, Henter ID, Manji HK, Zarate CA (November 2010). "The neurobiology of the switch process in bipolar disorder: a review". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 71 (11): 1488–501. doi:10.4088/JCP.09r05259gre. PMC   3000635 . PMID   20492846.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Barnett JH, Smoller JW (November 2009). "The genetics of bipolar disorder". Neuroscience. 164 (1): 331–43. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.03.080. PMC   3637882 . PMID   19358880.
  18. 1 2 Tarr GP, Glue P, Herbison P (November 2011). "Comparative efficacy and acceptability of mood stabilizer and second generation antipsychotic monotherapy for acute mania—a systematic review and meta-analysis". J Affect Disord. 134 (1–3): 14–9. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.11.009. PMID   21145595.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Beentjes TA, Goossens PJ, Poslawsky IE (October 2012). "Caregiver burden in bipolar hypomania and mania: a systematic review". Perspect Psychiatr Care. 48 (4): 187–97. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6163.2012.00328.x. PMID   23005586.
  20. Titmarsh S (May – June 2013). "Characteristics and duration of mania: implications for continuation treatment". Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry. 17 (3): 26–7. doi:10.1002/pnp.283.
  21. 1 2 Post RM, Kalivas P (March 2013). "Bipolar disorder and substance misuse: pathological and therapeutic implications of their comorbidity and cross-sensitisation". Br J Psychiatry. 202 (3): 172–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.116855. PMC   4340700 . PMID   23457180.
  22. Knowles R, McCarthy-Jones S, Rowse G (June 2011). "Grandiose delusions: a review and theoretical integration of cognitive and affective perspectives". Clin Psychol Rev. 31 (4): 684–96. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.02.009. PMID   21482326.
  23. Furukawa TA (2010). "Assessment of mood: Guides for clinicians". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 68 (6): 581–589. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.05.003. PMID   20488276.
  24. McKenna BS, Eyler LT (November 2012). "Overlapping prefrontal systems involved in cognitive and emotional processing in euthymic bipolar disorder and following sleep deprivation: a review of functional neuroimaging studies". Clin Psychol Rev. 32 (7): 650–63. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.07.003. PMC   3922056 . PMID   22926687.
  25. 1 2 Mansell W, Pedley R (March 2008). "The ascent into mania: a review of psychological processes associated with the development of manic symptoms". Clinical Psychology Review. 28 (3): 494–520. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2007.07.010. PMID   17825463.
  26. 1 2 3 Bowins B (2007). "Cognitive regulatory control therapies". Am J Psychother. 67 (3): 215–36. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2013.67.3.215. PMID   24236353.
  27. Srivastava S, Ketter TA (December 2010). "The link between bipolar disorders and creativity: evidence from personality and temperament studies". Current Psychiatry Reports. 12 (6): 522–30. doi:10.1007/s11920-010-0159-x. PMID   20936438.
  28. "Bipolar Disorder: NIH Publication No. 95-3679". U.S. National Institutes of Health. September 1995. Archived from the original on April 29, 2008.
  29. "Bipolar II Disorder Symptoms and Signs". Web M.D. Archived from the original on December 9, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 Muneer A (June 2013). "Treatment of the depressive phase of bipolar affective disorder: a review". J Pak Med Assoc. 63 (6): 763–9. PMID   23901682.
  31. American Psychiatric Association (2006). "Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Bipolar Disorder Second Edition". APA Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Comprehensive Guidelines and Guideline Watches. 1. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890423363.50051. ISBN   978-0-89042-336-3.
  32. 1 2 Bowden CL (January 2001). "Strategies to reduce misdiagnosis of bipolar depression". Psychiatr Serv. 52 (1): 51–5. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.52.1.51. PMID   11141528.
  33. Muzina DJ, Kemp DE, McIntyre RS (October – December 2007). "Differentiating bipolar disorders from major depressive disorders: treatment implications". Ann Clin Psychiatry. 19 (4): 305–12. doi:10.1080/10401230701653591. PMID   18058287.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 Swann AC, Lafer B, Perugi G, Frye MA, Bauer M, Bahk WM, Scott J, Ha K, Suppes T (January 2013). "Bipolar mixed states: an international society for bipolar disorders task force report of symptom structure, course of illness, and diagnosis". Am J Psychiatry. 170 (1): 31–42. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12030301. PMID   23223893.
  35. MacQueen GM, Memedovich KA (January 2017). "Cognitive dysfunction in major depression and bipolar disorder: Assessment and treatment options". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (Review). 71 (1): 18–27. doi:10.1111/pcn.12463. PMID   27685435.
  36. Cipriani G, Danti S, Carlesi C, Cammisuli DM, Di Fiorino M (October 2017). "Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Dysfunction: A Complex Link". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease (Review). 205 (10): 743–756. doi:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000720. PMID   28961594.
  37. Goodwin & Jamison 2007, p. 338.
  38. Reinhardt MC, Reinhardt CA (March – April 2013). "Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, comorbidities, and risk situations". Jornal de Pediatria. 89 (2): 124–30. doi:10.1016/j.jped.2013.03.015. PMID   23642421.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 Kerner B (February 2014). "Genetics of bipolar disorder". Appl Clin Genet. 7: 33–42. doi:10.2147/tacg.s39297. PMC   3966627 . PMID   24683306.
  40. Cirillo PC, Passos RB, Bevilaqua MC, López JR, Nardi AE (December 2012). "Bipolar disorder and Premenstrual Syndrome or Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder comorbidity: a systematic review". Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 34 (4): 467–79. doi:10.1016/j.rbp.2012.04.010. PMID   23429819.
  41. Sagman D, Tohen M (2009). "Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder: The Complexity of Diagnosis and Treatment". Psychiatric Times. Archived from the original on April 28, 2009.
  42. 1 2 Nierenberg AA, Kansky C, Brennan BP, Shelton RC, Perlis R, Iosifescu DV (January 2013). "Mitochondrial modulators for bipolar disorder: a pathophysiologically informed paradigm for new drug development". Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 47 (1): 26–42. doi:10.1177/0004867412449303. PMID   22711881.
  43. 1 2 Edvardsen J, Torgersen S, Røysamb E, Lygren S, Skre I, Onstad S, Oien PA (2008). "Heritability of bipolar spectrum disorders. Unity or heterogeneity?". Journal of Affective Disorders. 106 (3): 229–240. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2007.07.001. PMID   17692389.
  44. Kieseppä T, Partonen T, Haukka J, Kaprio J, Lönnqvist J (2004). "High Concordance of Bipolar I Disorder in a Nationwide Sample of Twins". American Journal of Psychiatry. 161 (10): 1814–1821. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.10.1814. PMID   15465978.
  45. McGuffin P, Rijsdijk F, Andrew M, Sham P, Katz R, Cardno A (2003). "The Heritability of Bipolar Affective Disorder and the Genetic Relationship to Unipolar Depression". Archives of General Psychiatry. 60 (5): 497–502. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.5.497. PMID   12742871.
  46. Rapkin, AJ; Mikacich, JA; Moatakef-Imani, B; Rasgon, N (December 2002). "The clinical nature and formal diagnosis of premenstrual, postpartum, and perimenopausal affective disorders". Current Psychiatry Reports. 4 (6): 419–28. doi:10.1007/s11920-002-0069-7. PMID   12441021.
  47. Meinhard, Ninja; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj (March 19, 2013). "The role of estrogen in bipolar disorder, a review". Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 68 (2): 81–87. doi:10.3109/08039488.2013.775341. PMID   23510130.
  48. Reich T, Clayton PJ, Winokur G (April 1969). "Family history studies: V. The genetics of mania". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 125 (10): 1358–69. doi:10.1176/ajp.125.10.1358. PMID   5304735.
  49. 1 2 3 Craddock N, Sklar P (May 2013). "Genetics of bipolar disorder". Lancet. 381 (9878): 1654–62. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60855-7. PMC   1762980 . PMID   23663951.
  50. Seifuddin F, Mahon PB, Judy J, Pirooznia M, Jancic D, Taylor J, Goes FS, Potash JB, Zandi PP (July 2012). "Meta-analysis of genetic association studies on bipolar disorder". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 159B (5): 508–18. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32057. PMC   3582382 . PMID   22573399.
  51. Gao J, Jia M, Qiao D, Qiu H, Sokolove J, Zhang J, Pan Z (March 2016). "TPH2 gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 171B (2): 145–52. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32381. PMID   26365518.
  52. Torkamani A, Topol EJ, Schork NJ (November 2008). "Pathway analysis of seven common diseases assessed by genome-wide association". Genomics. 92 (5): 265–72. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.07.011. PMC   2602835 . PMID   18722519.
  53. Pedroso I, Lourdusamy A, Rietschel M, Nöthen MM, Cichon S, McGuffin P, Al-Chalabi A, Barnes MR, Breen G (August 2012). "Common genetic variants and gene-expression changes associated with bipolar disorder are over-represented in brain signaling pathway genes". Biological Psychiatry. 72 (4): 311–7. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.12.031. PMID   22502986.
  54. Nurnberger JI, Koller DL, Jung J, Edenberg HJ, Foroud T, Guella I, Vawter MP, Kelsoe JR (June 2014). "Identification of pathways for bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis". JAMA Psychiatry. 71 (6): 657–64. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.176. PMC   4523227 . PMID   24718920.
  55. Segurado R, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Levinson DF, Lewis CM, Gill M, Nurnberger JI, et al. (2003). "Genome Scan Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Part III: Bipolar Disorder". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 73 (1): 49–62. doi:10.1086/376547. PMC   1180589 . PMID   12802785.
  56. Raza MU, Tufan T, Wang Y, Hill C, Zhu MY (August 2016). "DNA Damage in Major Psychiatric Diseases". Neurotox Res. 30 (2): 251–67. doi:10.1007/s12640-016-9621-9. PMC   4947450 . PMID   27126805.
  57. Frans EM, Sandin S, Reichenberg A, Lichtenstein P, Långström N, Hultman CM (2008). "Advancing Paternal Age and Bipolar Disorder". Archives of General Psychiatry. 65 (9): 1034–1040. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.65.9.1034. PMID   18762589.
  58. Serretti A, Mandelli L (2008). "The genetics of bipolar disorder: Genome 'hot regions,' genes, new potential candidates and future directions". Molecular Psychiatry. 13 (8): 742–771. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.29. PMID   18332878.
  59. 1 2 3 4 Geddes JR, Miklowitz DJ (May 11, 2013). "Treatment of bipolar disorder". Lancet. 381 (9878): 1672–82. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60857-0. PMC   3876031 . PMID   23663953.
  60. Brietzke E, Kauer Sant'anna M, Jackowski A, Grassi-Oliveira R, Bucker J, Zugman A, Mansur RB, Bressan RA (December 2012). "Impact of childhood stress on psychopathology". Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 34 (4): 480–8. doi:10.1016/j.rbp.2012.04.009. PMID   23429820.
  61. Miklowitz DJ, Chang KD (2008). "Prevention of bipolar disorder in at-risk children: Theoretical assumptions and empirical foundations". Development and Psychopathology. 20 (3): 881–897. doi:10.1017/S0954579408000424. PMC   2504732 . PMID   18606036.
  62. Murray ED, Buttner N, Price BH. (2012) Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice. In: Neurology in Clinical Practice, 6th Edition. Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J (eds.) Butterworth Heinemann. April 12, 2012. ISBN   1-4377-0434-4 | ISBN   978-1-4377-0434-1
  63. Bora E, Fornito A, Yücel M, Pantelis C (June 2010). "Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder". Biological Psychiatry. 67 (11): 1097–105. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.01.020. PMID   20303066.
  64. Kempton MJ, Geddes JR, Ettinger U, Williams SC, Grasby PM (September 2008). "Meta-analysis, database, and meta-regression of 98 structural imaging studies in bipolar disorder". Archives of General Psychiatry. 65 (9): 1017–32. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.65.9.1017. PMID   18762588.
  65. Arnone D, Cavanagh J, Gerber D, Lawrie SM, Ebmeier KP, McIntosh AM (September 2009). "Magnetic resonance imaging studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: meta-analysis". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 195 (3): 194–201. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.059717. PMID   19721106.
  66. Selvaraj S, Arnone D, Job D, Stanfield A, Farrow TF, Nugent AC, Scherk H, Gruber O, Chen X, Sachdev PS, Dickstein DP, Malhi GS, Ha TH, Ha K, Phillips ML, McIntosh AM (March 2012). "Grey matter differences in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies". Bipolar Disorders. 14 (2): 135–45. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.01000.x. PMID   22420589.
  67. Strakowski SM, Adler CM, Almeida J, Altshuler LL, Blumberg HP, Chang KD, DelBello MP, Frangou S, McIntosh A, Phillips ML, Sussman JE, Townsend JD (June 2012). "The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model". Bipolar Disorders. 14 (4): 313–25. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.01022.x. PMC   3874804 . PMID   22631617.
  68. Pavuluri M (January 2015). "Brain biomarkers of treatment for multi-domain dysfunction: pharmacological FMRI studies in pediatric mania". Neuropsychopharmacology. 40 (1): 249–51. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.229. PMC   4262909 . PMID   25482178.
  69. Manji HK, Zarate CA (2011). Behavioral neurobiology of bipolar disorder and its treatment. Berlin: Springer. pp. 231–240. ISBN   9783642157561.
  70. Chen CH, Suckling J, Lennox BR, Ooi C, Bullmore ET (February 2011). "A quantitative meta-analysis of fMRI studies in bipolar disorder". Bipolar Disorders. 13 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00893.x. PMID   21320248.
  71. Houenou J, Frommberger J, Carde S, Glasbrenner M, Diener C, Leboyer M, Wessa M (August 2011). "Neuroimaging-based markers of bipolar disorder: evidence from two meta-analyses". Journal of Affective Disorders. 132 (3): 344–55. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.03.016. PMID   21470688.
  72. Nusslock R, Young CB, Damme KS (November 2014). "Elevated reward-related neural activation as a unique biological marker of bipolar disorder: assessment and treatment implications". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 62: 74–87. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2014.08.011. PMID   25241675.
  73. Bender RE, Alloy LB (April 2011). "Life stress and kindling in bipolar disorder: review of the evidence and integration with emerging biopsychosocial theories". Clin Psychol Rev. 31 (3): 383–98. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.01.004. PMC   3072804 . PMID   21334286.
  74. Lee HJ, Son GH, Geum D (September 2013). "Circadian Rhythm Hypotheses of Mixed Features, Antidepressant Treatment Resistance, and Manic Switching in Bipolar Disorder". Psychiatry Investig. 10 (3): 225–32. doi:10.4306/pi.2013.10.3.225. PMC   3843013 . PMID   24302944.
  75. Brown & Basso 2004, p. 16.
  76. Dallaspezia S, Benedetti F (December 2009). "Melatonin, circadian rhythms, and the clock genes in bipolar disorder". Curr Psychiatry Rep. 11 (6): 488–93. doi:10.1007/s11920-009-0074-1. PMID   19909672.
  77. Lahera G, Freund N, Sáiz-Ruiz J (January – March 2013). "Salience and dysregulation of the dopaminergic system". Rev Psquiatr Salud Ment. 6 (1): 45–51. doi:10.1016/j.rpsm.2012.05.003. PMID   23084802.
  78. Berk M, Dodd S, Kauer-Sant'anna M, Malhi GS, Bourin M, Kapczinski F, Norman T (2007). "Dopamine dysregulation syndrome: implications for a dopamine hypothesis of bipolar disorder". Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 116 (Supplement s434): 41–49. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01058.x. PMID   17688462.
  79. Michael N, Erfurth A, Ohrmann P, Gössling M, Arolt V, Heindel W, Pfleiderer B (2003). "Acute mania is accompanied by elevated glutamate/glutamine levels within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex". Psychopharmacology. 168 (3): 344–346. doi:10.1007/s00213-003-1440-z. PMID   12684737.
  80. Benes FM, Berretta S (2001). "GABAergic interneurons: implications for understanding schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". Neuropsychopharmacology. 25 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00225-1. PMID   11377916.
  81. Manji HK, Lenox RH (September 2000). "Signaling: cellular insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder". Biological Psychiatry. 48 (6): 518–30. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00929-X. PMID   11018224.
  82. ed, Husseini K. Manji; Carlos A. Zarate (2011). Behavioral neurobiology of bipolar disorder and its treatment. Berlin: Springer. pp. 143, 147. ISBN   9783642157561.
  83. Kapczinski F, Frey BN, Zannatto V (October 2004). "[Physiopathology of bipolar disorders: what have changed in the last 10 years?]". Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 26 Suppl 3: 17–21. doi:10.1590/S1516-44462004000700005. PMID   15597134.
  84. Berns GS, Nemeroff CB (November 2003). "The neurobiology of bipolar disorder". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics. 123C (1): 76–84. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.1033.7393 . doi:10.1002/ajmg.c.20016. PMID   14601039.
  85. Manji HK, Quiroz JA, Payne JL, Singh J, Lopes BP, Viegas JS, Zarate CA (October 2003). "The underlying neurobiology of bipolar disorder". World Psychiatry. 2 (3): 136–46. PMC   1525098 . PMID   16946919.
  86. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Price AL, Marzani-Nissen GR (March 2012). "Bipolar disorders: a review". American Family Physician. 85 (5): 483–93. PMID   22534227. Archived from the original on March 24, 2014.
  87. Phillips ML, Kupfer DJ (May 2013). "Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions". Lancet. 381 (9878): 1663–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60989-7. PMC   5858935 . PMID   23663952.
  88. Youngstrom, Eric Arden; Genzlinger, Jacquelynne E; Egerton, Gregory A.; Van Meter, Anna R. (2015). "Multivariate Meta-Analysis of the Discriminative Validity of Caregiver, Youth, and Teacher Rating Scales for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Mother Knows Best About Mania". Archives of Scientific Psychology. 3 (1): 112–137. doi:10.1037/arc0000024 . Retrieved December 7, 2016.
  89. Perugi, G.; Ghaemi, S. N.; Akiskal, H. (2006). "Diagnostic and Clinical Management Approaches to Bipolar Depression, Bipolar II and Their Comorbidities". Bipolar Psychopharmacotherapy. Caring for the Patient. pp. 193–234. doi:10.1002/0470017953.ch11. ISBN   978-0-470-01795-1.
  90. 1 2 3 Carvalho AF, Takwoingi Y, Sales PM, Soczynska JK, Köhler CA, Freitas TH, Quevedo J, Hyphantis TN, McIntyre RS, Vieta E, et al. (February 2015). "Screening for bipolar spectrum disorders: A comprehensive meta-analysis of accuracy studies". Journal of Affective Disorders. 172: 337–46. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.024. PMID   25451435.
  91. 1 2 Picardi A (January 2009). "Rating scales in bipolar disorder". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 22 (1): 42–9. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e328315a4d2. PMID   19122534.
  92. 1 2 Baldessarini RJ, Faedda GL, Offidani E, Vázquez GH, Marangoni C, Serra G, Tondo L (May 2013). "Antidepressant-associated mood-switching and transition from unipolar major depression to bipolar disorder: a review". J Affect Disord. 148 (1): 129–35. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.10.033. PMID   23219059.
  93. Sood AB, Razdan A, Weller EB, Weller RA (2005). "How to differentiate bipolar disorder from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other common psychiatric disorders: A guide for clinicians". Current Psychiatry Reports. 7 (2): 98–103. doi:10.1007/s11920-005-0005-8. PMID   15802085.
  94. Magill CA (2004). "The boundary between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder: Current concepts and challenges". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 49 (8): 551–556. doi:10.1177/070674370404900806. PMID   15453104.
  95. Bassett D (2012). "Borderline personality disorder and bipolar affective disorder. Spectra or spectre? A review". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 46 (4): 327–339. doi:10.1177/0004867411435289. PMID   22508593.
  96. Peet M, Peters S (February 1995). "Drug-induced mania". Drug Safety. 12 (2): 146–53. doi:10.2165/00002018-199512020-00007. PMID   7766338.
  97. Korn ML. "Across the Bipolar Spectrum: From Practice to Research". Medscape. Archived from the original on December 14, 2003.
  98. Beesdo K, Höfler M, Leibenluft E, Lieb R, Bauer M, Pfennig A (September 2009). "Mood episodes and mood disorders: patterns of incidence and conversion in the first three decades of life". Bipolar Disord. 11 (6): 637–49. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00738.x. PMC   2796427 . PMID   19689506.
  99. Publishing, Harvard Health. "Bipolar disorder". Harvard Health. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  100. Durand, V. Mark. (2015). Essentials of abnormal psychology. [Place of publication not identified]: Cengage Learning. ISBN   1305633687. OCLC   884617637.
  101. 1 2 Renk K, White R, Lauer BA, McSwiggan M, Puff J, Lowell A (February 2014). "Bipolar Disorder in Children". Psychiatry J. 2014 (928685): 928685. doi:10.1155/2014/928685. PMC   3994906 . PMID   24800202.
  102. Van Meter AR, Youngstrom EA, Findling RL (June 2012). "Cyclothymic disorder: a critical review". Clin Psychol Rev. 32 (4): 229–43. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.02.001. PMID   22459786.
  103. Angst J, Sellaro R (2000). "Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder". Biological Psychiatry. 48 (6): 445–457. doi:10.1016/s0006-3223(00)00909-4. PMID   11018218.
  104. Bauer M, Beaulieu S, Dunner DL, Lafer B, Kupka R (February 2008). "Rapid cycling bipolar disorder – diagnostic concepts". Bipolar Disorders. 10 (1 Pt 2): 153–62. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00560.x. PMID   18199234.
  105. Tillman R, Geller B (2003). "Definitions of Rapid, Ultrarapid, and Ultradian Cycling and of Episode Duration in Pediatric and Adult Bipolar Disorders: A Proposal to Distinguish Episodes from Cycles". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 13 (3): 267–271. doi:10.1089/104454603322572598. PMID   14642014.
  106. Fountoulakis KN, Kontis D, Gonda X, Yatham LN (March 2013). "A systematic review of the evidence on the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder". Bipolar Disord. 15 (2): 115–37. doi:10.1111/bdi.12045. PMID   23437958.
  107. Miklowitz DJ, Chang KD (Summer 2008). "Prevention of bipolar disorder in at-risk children: theoretical assumptions and empirical foundations". Development and Psychopathology. 20 (3): 881–97. doi:10.1017/s0954579408000424. PMC   2504732 . PMID   18606036.
  108. Khan MA, Akella S (December 2009). "Cannabis-Induced Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: A Case Report". Psychiatry (Edgmont). 6 (12): 44–8. PMC   2811144 . PMID   20104292.
  109. Becker T, Kilian R (2006). "Psychiatric services for people with severe mental illness across western Europe: What can be generalized from current knowledge about differences in provision, costs and outcomes of mental health care?". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 113 (429): 9–16. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00711.x. PMID   16445476.
  110. McGurk SR, Mueser KT, Feldman K, Wolfe R, Pascaris A (2007). "Cognitive Training for Supported Employment: 2–3 Year Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial". American Journal of Psychiatry. 164 (3): 437–441. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.3.437. PMID   17329468.
  111. Lam et al., 1999; Miklowitz & Goldstein, 1997; Frank, 2005.[ full citation needed ]
  112. Leahy & Johnson 2003.
  113. Basco & Rush 2005.
  114. Zaretsky AE, Rizvi S, Parikh SV (2007). "How well do psychosocial interventions work in bipolar disorder?". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 52 (1): 14–21. doi:10.1177/070674370705200104. PMID   17444074.
  115. Havens LL, Ghaemi SN (2005). "Existential despair and bipolar disorder: The therapeutic alliance as a mood stabilizer". American Journal of Psychotherapy. 59 (2): 137–147. doi:10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.2005.59.2.137. PMID   16170918.
  116. Brown KM, Tracy DK (June 2013). "Lithium: the pharmacodynamic actions of the amazing ion". Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. 3 (3): 163–76. doi:10.1177/2045125312471963. PMC   3805456 . PMID   24167688.
  117. Cipriani A, Hawton K, Stockton S, Geddes JR (June 2013). "Lithium in the prevention of suicide in mood disorders: updated systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ. 346: f3646. doi:10.1136/bmj.f3646. PMID   23814104.
  118. McCloud TL, Caddy C, Jochim J, Rendell JM, Diamond PR, Shuttleworth C, Brett D, Amit BH, McShane R, Hamadi L, Hawton K, Cipriani A (September 2015). "Ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators for depression in bipolar disorder in adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD011611. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011611.pub2. PMID   26415966.
  119. 1 2 3 Post, RM (March 2016). "Treatment of Bipolar Depression: Evolving Recommendations". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America (Review). 39 (1): 11–33. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2015.09.001. PMID   26876316.
  120. Post RM, Ketter TA, Uhde T, Ballenger JC (2007). "Thirty years of clinical experience with carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar illness: Principles and practice". CNS Drugs. 21 (1): 47–71. doi:10.2165/00023210-200721010-00005. PMID   17190529.
  121. Rapoport SI, Basselin M, Kim HW, Rao JS (October 2009). "Bipolar disorder and mechanisms of action of mood stabilizers". Brain Res Rev. 61 (2): 185–209. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2009.06.003. PMC   2757443 . PMID   19555719.
  122. Macritchie K, Geddes JR, Scott J, Haslam D, de Lima M, Goodwin G (2003). "Valproate for acute mood episodes in bipolar disorder". In Reid K (ed.). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. pp. CD004052. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004052. PMID   12535506.
  123. Geddes JR, Calabrese JR, Goodwin GM (2008). "Lamotrigine for treatment of bipolar depression: Independent meta-analysis and meta-regression of individual patient data from five randomised trials". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 194 (1): 4–9. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.048504. PMID   19118318.
  124. van der Loos ML, Kölling P, Knoppert-van der Klein EA, Nolen WA (2007). "Lamotrigine in the treatment of bipolar disorder, a review". Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie. 49 (2): 95–103. PMID   17290338.
  125. Vasudev K, Macritchie K, Geddes J, Watson S, Young A (2006). "Topiramate for acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder". In Young AH (ed.). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. pp. CD003384. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003384.pub2. PMID   16437453.
  126. Cipriani A, Rendell JM, Geddes J (2009). Cipriani A (ed.). "Olanzapine in long-term treatment for bipolar disorder". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD004367. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004367.pub2. PMID   19160237.
  127. El-Mallakh RS, Elmaadawi AZ, Loganathan M, Lohano K, Gao Y (July 2010). "Bipolar disorder: an update". Postgraduate Medicine. 122 (4): 24–31. doi:10.3810/pgm.2010.07.2172. PMID   20675968.
  128. "Benzodiazepines for Bipolar Disorder". WebMD.com. Archived from the original on February 25, 2013. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
  129. Hegerl, Ulrich; Sander, Christian; Hensch, Tilman. "Arousal Regulation in Affective Disorders". In Frodl, Thomas (ed.). Systems Neuroscience in Depression. Elsevier Science. p. 353. In conclusion, stimulants in bipolar disorder seem to be relatively safe, and there are even several case reports suggesting rapid antimanic effects of psychostimulants (Beckmann & Heinemann, 1976; Garvey, Hwang, Teubner-Rhodes, Zander, & Rhem, 1987; Max, Richards, & Hamdanallen, 1995). In a study by Bschor, Müller-Oerlinghausen, and Ulrich (2001), improvement of manic symptoms occurred about 2   h after oral intake of methylphenidate in a manic patient with signs of unstable EEG-vigilance regulation. Three months later, when the patient was admitted anew, a rapid antimanic effect was again shown after re-exposition to methylphenidate
  130. 1 2 3 Montgomery P, Richardson AJ (April 2008). Montgomery P (ed.). "Omega-3 fatty acids for bipolar disorder". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD005169. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005169.pub2. PMID   18425912. Currently, there is simply not enough existing evidence, and what evidence is currently available is of such a varied and often-times questionable nature that no reliable conclusions may be drawn.
  131. Ciappolino V, Delvecchio G, Agostoni C, Mazzocchi A, Altamura AC, Brambilla P (December 2017). "The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) in affective disorders". Journal of Affective Disorders (Review). 224: 32–47. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.034. PMID   28089169.
  132. 1 2 3 4 Muneer, Ather (2016), "Staging Models in Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature", Clinical Psychopharmacology & Neuroscience, 14 (2): 117–30, doi:10.9758/cpn.2016.14.2.117, PMC   4857867 , PMID   27121423
  133. 1 2 Jann, Michael W. (2014), "Diagnosis and Treatment of Bipolar Disorders in Adults: A Review of the Evidence on Pharmacologic Treatments", American Health & Drug Benefits, 7 (9): 489–499, PMC   4296286 , PMID   25610528
  134. 1 2 Tsitsipa E, Fountoulakis KN (December 1, 2015). "The neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of data". Annals of General Psychiatry. 14: 42. doi:10.1186/s12991-015-0081-z. PMC   4666163 . PMID   26628905.
  135. 1 2 Maciukiewicz M, Pawlak J, Kapelski P, Łabędzka M, Skibinska M, Zaremba D, Leszczynska-Rodziewicz A, Dmitrzak-Weglarz M, Hauser J (2016). "Can Psychological, Social and Demographical Factors Predict Clinical Characteristics Symptomatology of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia?". Psychiatr Q. 87 (3): 501–13. doi:10.1007/s11126-015-9405-z. PMC   4945684 . PMID   26646576.
  136. Kennedy KP, Cullen KR, DeYoung CG, Klimes-Dougan B (September 2015). "The genetics of early-onset bipolar disorder: A systematic review". Journal of Affective Disorders. 184: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.017. PMC   5552237 . PMID   26057335.
  137. Serafini G, Pompili M, Borgwardt S, Houenou J, Geoffroy PA, Jardri R, Girardi P, Amore M (November 2014). "Brain changes in early-onset bipolar and unipolar depressive disorders: a systematic review in children and adolescents". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 23 (11): 1023–41. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0614-z. PMID   25212880.
  138. Bortolato B, Miskowiak KW, Köhler CA, Vieta E, Carvalho AF (2015). "Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review of meta-analyses". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 11: 3111–25. doi:10.2147/NDT.S76700. PMC   4689290 . PMID   26719696.
  139. Johnson, Sheri L. (2005), "Mania and Dysregulation in Goal Pursuit: A Review", Clinical Psychology Review, 25 (2): 241–62, doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2004.11.002, PMC   2847498 , PMID   15642648
  140. 1 2 Tse S, Chan S, Ng KL, Yatham LN (2014). "Meta-analysis of predictors of favorable employment outcomes among individuals with bipolar disorder". Bipolar Disord. 16 (3): 217–29. doi:10.1111/bdi.12148. PMID   24219657.
  141. Tohen M, Zarate CA, Hennen J, Khalsa HM, Strakowski SM, Gebre-Medhin P, Salvatore P, Baldessarini RJ (2003). "The McLean-Harvard First-Episode Mania Study: Prediction of recovery and first recurrence". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 160 (12): 2099–2107. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.12.2099. hdl:11381/1461461. PMID   14638578.
  142. Jackson A, Cavanagh J, Scott J (2003). "A systematic review of manic and depressive prodromes". Journal of Affective Disorders. 74 (3): 209–217. doi:10.1016/s0165-0327(02)00266-5. PMID   12738039.
  143. Lam D, Wong G (2005). "Prodromes, coping strategies and psychological interventions in bipolar disorders". Clinical Psychology Review. 25 (8): 1028–1042. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2005.06.005. PMID   16125292.
  144. Sadock, Kaplan & Sadock 2007, p. 388.
  145. Roger S. McIntyre, MD; Joanna K. Soczynska & Jakub Konarski. "Bipolar Disorder: Defining Remission and Selecting Treatment". Psychiatric Times, October 2006, Vol. XXIII, No. 11. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  146. Boland EM, Alloy LB (February 2013). "Sleep disturbance and cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder: toward an integrated examination of disorder maintenance and functional impairment". Clinical Psychology Review. 33 (1): 33–44. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.10.001. PMC   3534911 . PMID   23123569.
  147. Moreira AL, Van Meter A, Genzlinger J, Youngstrom EA (2017). "Review and Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies of Adult Bipolar Disorder". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 78 (9): e1259–e1269. doi:10.4088/JCP.16r11165. PMID   29188905.
  148. Judd LL, Akiskal HS (January 2003). "The prevalence and disability of bipolar spectrum disorders in the US population: re-analysis of the ECA database taking into account subthreshold cases". Journal of Affective Disorders. 73 (1–2): 123–31. doi:10.1016/s0165-0327(02)00332-4. PMID   12507745.
  149. Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Petukhova M, Kessler RC (May 2007). "Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey replication". Archives of General Psychiatry. 64 (5): 543–52. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.543. PMC   1931566 . PMID   17485606.
  150. Phelps J (2006). "Bipolar Disorder: Particle or Wave? DSM Categories or Spectrum Dimensions?". Psychiatric Times. Archived from the original on December 4, 2007.
  151. Farren CK, Hill KP, Weiss RD (December 2012). "Bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorder: a review". Current Psychiatry Reports. 14 (6): 659–66. doi:10.1007/s11920-012-0320-9. PMC   3730445 . PMID   22983943.
  152. Ferrari AJ, Baxter AJ, Whiteford HA (November 2011). "A systematic review of the global distribution and availability of prevalence data for bipolar disorder". Journal of Affective Disorders. 134 (1–3): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.11.007. PMID   21131055.
  153. Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis. "Global burden of bipolar disorder in the year 2000" (PDF). World Health Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2012.
  154. Kurasaki, Karen S. (2002). Asian American Mental Health: Assessment Theories and Methods. pp. 14–15. ISBN   9780306472688.
  155. Christie KA, Burke JD, Regier DA, Rae DS, Boyd JH, Locke BZ (1988). "Epidemiologic evidence for early onset of mental disorders and higher risk of drug abuse in young adults". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 145 (8): 971–975. doi:10.1176/ajp.145.8.971. PMID   3394882.
  156. Goodwin & Jamison 2007, p. 1945.
  157. Monczor M (2010). "Bipolar disorder in the elderly". Vertex (Buenos Aires, Argentina). 21 (92): 275–283. PMID   21188315.
  158. Liddell & Scott 1980.
  159. 1 2 3 Angst J, Marneros A (December 2001). "Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: conception, birth and rebirth". Journal of Affective Disorders. 67 (1–3): 3–19. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00429-3. PMID   11869749.
  160. Borch-Jacobsen M (October 2010). "Which came first, the condition or the drug?". London Review of Books. 32 (19): 31–33. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. at the beginning of the 19th century with Esquirol's 'affective monomanias' (notably 'lypemania', the first elaboration of what was to become our modern depression)
  161. Pichot P. (2004). "150e anniversaire de la Folie Circulaire" [Circular insanity, 150 years on]. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de Médecine (in French). 188 (2): 275–284. PMID   15506718.
  162. Millon 1996, p. 290.
  163. Kraepelin, Emil (1921), Manic–depressive Insanity and Paranoia, ISBN   978-0-405-07441-7
  164. Goodwin & Jamison 2007, Chapter 1.
  165. Bipolar Depression: Molecular Neurobiology, Clinical Diagnosis and Pharmacotherapy Archived May 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Carlos A. Zarate Jr., Husseini K. Manji, Springer Science & Business Media, April 16, 2009
  166. The course of bipolar disorder Archived August 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Kate E. A. Saunders and Guy M. Goodwin, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2010) 16: 318-328 doi : 10.1192/apt.bp.107.004903
  167. DAVID L.DUNNER Interviewed by Thomas A. Ban Archived May 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine for the ANCP, Waikoloa, Hawaii, December 13, 2001
  168. "More Than a Girl Singer". www.cancertodaymag.org. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  169. Elgie R. Morselli PL (February – March 2007). "Social functioning in bipolar patients: the perception and perspective of patients, relatives and advocacy organizations – a review". Bipolar Disorders. 9 (1–2): 144–57. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00339.x. PMID   17391357.
  170. Jamison 1995.
  171. Joseph 2008.
  172. Robinson 2003, pp. 78–81.
  173. Robinson 2003, pp. 84–85.
  174. McKinley, Jesse (February 28, 1999). "Get That Man Some Prozac; If the Dramatic Tension Is All in His Head". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 1, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  175. "The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive". BBC. 2006. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  176. "Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation special 90210 website". CABF. 2009. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved April 7, 2009.
  177. "EastEnders' Stacey faces bipolar disorder". BBC Press Office. May 14, 2009. Archived from the original on May 18, 2009. Retrieved May 28, 2009.
  178. Tinniswood, Rachael (May 14, 2003). "The Brookie boys who shone at soap awards show". Liverpool Echo . Mirror Group Newspapers. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  179. "Pilot". Homeland. Season 1. Episode 1. October 2, 2011. Showtime.
  180. "Catherine Black by Kelly Reilly". abc.go.com. ABC. Archived from the original on May 23, 2014. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
  181. Gram, David (December 27, 2013). "For this orchestra, playing music is therapeutic". The Boston Globe.
  182. Strasser, Franz; Botti, David (January 7, 2013). "Conductor with bipolar disorder on music and mental illness". BBC News.
  183. Akiskal H, Akiskal K (2010). "The Genius-Insanity Debate: Focus on Bipolarity, Temperament, Creativity and Leadership". In Lakshmi Y (ed.). Bipolar Disorder: Clinical and Neurobiological Foundations. Wiley. pp. 83–89. doi:10.1002/9780470661277.ch9. ISBN   9780470661277.
  184. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 McClellan J, Kowatch R, Findling RL (2007). Work Group on Quality Issues. "Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 46 (1): 107–125. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000242240.69678.c4. PMID   17195735.
  185. Anthony, J.; Scott, P. (1960). "Manic–depressive Psychosis in Childhood". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1: 53–72. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1960.tb01979.x.
  186. "Pediatric Bipolar Affective Disorder". March 28, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  187. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Leibenluft E, Rich BA (2008). "Pediatric Bipolar Disorder". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. 4: 163–187. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.4.022007.141216. PMID   17716034.
  188. Cosgrove VE, Roybal D, Chang KD (April 2013). "Bipolar depression in pediatric populations: epidemiology and management". Paediatr Drugs. 15 (2): 83–91. doi:10.1007/s40272-013-0022-8. PMID   23529869.
  189. 1 2 Fristad MA, MacPherson HA (2014). "Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent bipolar spectrum disorders". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 43 (3): 339–55. doi:10.1080/15374416.2013.822309. PMC   3844106 . PMID   23927375.
  190. Roy AK, Lopes V, Klein RG (September 2014). "Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: a new diagnostic approach to chronic irritability in youth". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 171 (9): 918–24. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13101301. PMC   4390118 . PMID   25178749.
  191. Vasudev A, Thomas A (July 2010). "'Bipolar disorder' in the elderly: what's in a name?". Maturitas. 66 (3): 231–5. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.02.013. PMID   20307944.
  192. Depp CA, Jeste DV (2004). "Bipolar disorder in older adults: A critical review". Bipolar Disorders. 6 (5): 343–367. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2004.00139.x. PMID   15383127.
  193. Trinh NH, Forester B (2007). "Bipolar Disorder in the Elderly: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment". Psychiatric Times. 24 (14). Archived from the original on June 21, 2009.

Footnotes

Further reading

Classification
D
External resources