Medical specialty

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A medical specialty is a branch of medical practice that is focused on a defined group of patients, diseases, skills, or philosophy. Examples include those branches of medicine that deal exclusively with children (paediatrics), cancer (oncology), laboratory medicine (pathology), or primary care (family medicine). After completing medical school or other basic training, physicians or surgeons and other clinicians usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple-year residency to become a specialist. [1]

Contents

History of medical specialization

To a certain extent, medical practitioners have long been specialized. According to Galen, specialization was common among Roman physicians.[ citation needed ] The particular system of modern medical specialties evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialties varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary. [2]

Classification of medical specialization

Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:

Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are those in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries, anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.

Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.

The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.

A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.

Specialties that are common worldwide

SpecialtyMay be subspecialty ofAge range
of patients
Diagnostic (D) or
therapeutic (T)
specialty
Surgical (S) or
internal medicine (I)
specialty
Organ-based (O)
or technique-based (T)
Allergy and immunology Internal medicine
Pediatrics
AllBothIO
Adolescent medicine Pediatrics
Family medicine
PediatricBothIT
Anesthesiology NoneAllTBothBoth
Aerospace medicine Family MedicineAllBothNeitherBoth
Bariatrics SeveralAllBothBothBoth
Cardiology Internal medicineAdultsTIO
Cardiothoracic surgery General surgeryAdultsTSO
Child and adolescent psychiatryPsychiatryPediatricTIT
Clinical neurophysiology NeurologyAllDIBoth
Colorectal surgery General SurgeryAllBothSO
Dermatology NoneAllTIO
Developmental pediatricsPediatricsPediatricTINeither
Emergency medicine Family MedicineAllBothBothBoth
Endocrinology Internal medicineAdultsBothIMultidisciplinary
Family Medicine NoneAllBothBothMultidisciplinary
Forensic pathology PathologyAllDNeitherT
Forensic psychiatry PsychiatryAllDIT
Gastroenterology Internal medicineAdultsTIO
General surgery NoneAdultsTST
General surgical oncologyGeneral surgeryAdultsTST
Geriatrics Family medicine
Internal medicine
GeriatricTIMultidisciplinary
Geriatric psychiatry Geriatrics
Psychiatry
GeriatricTINeither
Gynecologic oncology Obstetrics and gynecologyAllTSO
Hematology Internal medicine
pathology
AdultsDINeither
Hematologic pathologyHematology
Pathology
AllDNeitherT
Infectious disease Internal medicine
Pediatrics
AllBothINeither
Internal medicine NoneAdultsBothINeither
Interventional radiology RadiologyAllBoth-Multidisciplinary
Intensive care medicine Anesthesiology
Emergency medicine
Internal medicine
AllTBothBoth
Maternal-fetal medicine Obstetrics and gynecologyAdultsTSBoth
Medical biochemistry Internal medicineAllDINeither
Medical genetics NoneAllDINeither
Medical oncology Internal medicineAdultsDINeither
Neonatology PediatricsNeonatalTINeither
Nephrology Internal medicineAllTIO
Neurology Internal medicineAllBothIO
Neuropathology PathologyAllDNeitherT
Neurosurgery NoneAllTSO
Nuclear medicine (Nucleology) NoneAllBothIT
Obstetrics and gynecology Family medicineAllTSO
Occupational medicine Family medicine
Internal medicine
AdultsTIMultidisciplinary
Ophthalmology NoneAllTSO
Orthopedic surgery NoneAllTSO
Oral and maxillofacial surgery NoneAllTSO
Otorhinolaryngology NoneAllTSO
Palliative care Family Medicine
Internal medicine
Pediatrics
AllBothNeitherNeither
Pathology NoneAllDNeitherT
Pediatrics NonePediatricBothINeither
Pediatric allergy and immunologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric cardiologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric emergency medicine PediatricsPediatricBothBothBoth
Pediatric endocrinologyPediatricsPediatricBothIMultidisciplinary
Pediatric gastroenterologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric hematology and oncologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric infectious diseasePediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric nephrologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric respiratory medicinePediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric rheumatologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric surgery General surgeryPediatricTSO
Physical medicine and rehabilitation NoneAllTIMultidisciplinary
Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery General surgeryAllTSO
Psychiatry Family medicineAllBothIT
Public health Family medicineAllNeitherNeitherT
Radiation oncology NoneAllTNeitherT
Radiology NoneAllBothIT
Reproductive endocrinology and infertilityObstetrics and gynecologyAdultsTST
Pulmunology or Respiratory medicine Internal medicineAdultsTIO
Rheumatology Internal medicineAdultsTINeither
Sports medicine Family medicineAllBothNeitherMultidisciplinary
Thoracic surgery General surgeryAdultsTST
Toxicology Emergency MedicineAllBothNeitherO
Transfusion Medicine NoneAllBothNeitherBoth
Neuroradiology RadiologyAllBothIBoth
Urology NoneAllTSO
Vascular surgery General surgeryAllTSO

List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area

The European Union publishes a list of specialties recognized in the European Union, and by extension, the European Economic Area. [3] There is substantial overlap between some of the specialties and it is likely that for example "Clinical radiology" and "Radiology" refer to a large degree to the same pattern of practice across Europe.

List of North American medical specialties and others

In this table, as in many healthcare arenas, medical specialties are organized into the following groups:

SpecialtyCodeGroupSub-specialtiesFocus
Allergy and immunology Allergic reactions, asthma, and the immune system.
Anesthesiology AN, PANSurgery [4] [ citation needed ] Anesthesia
Bariatrics Deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity.
Cardiology Medicine Disease of the cardiovascular system.
Cardiovascular surgery Surgery The operation of heart and major blood vessels of the chest.
Clinical laboratory sciencesDiagnosticApplication of diagnostic techniques in medical laboratories such as assays, microscope analysis.
Dermatology D, DSMedicineDermatology, Mohs surgery Skin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc.).
Dietetics RD [5] Food and nutrition
Emergency medicine EMMedicineThe initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital emergency departments or the field.
Endocrinology MedicineThe endocrine system (i.e., endocrine glands and hormones) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.
Family medicine FMMedicine
  • Addiction medicine
  • Adolescent medicine
  • Anesthesia
  • Emergency medicine
  • Care of the elderly (geriatric medicine)
  • Clinical environmental health
  • Global health
  • HIV care
  • Hospital medicine
  • Indigenous health
  • Low-risk obstetrics
  • Medical education
  • Medical oncology
  • Medical simulation
  • Pain medicine
  • Palliative care
  • Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS)
  • Research
  • Sleep medicine
  • Sports and exercise medicine
  • Women's health
Continuing, comprehensive healthcare for the individual and family, integrating the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences to treat patients of all ages, sexes, organ systems, and diseases.
Forensic medicine Medicine
Gastroenterology GIMedicineThe alimentary tract
General surgery GSSurgery
  • Colorectal surgery
  • Gastrointestinal surgery
  • Transplant surgery
  • Trauma surgery
Geriatrics IMGMedicine [4] [ citation needed ]Elderly patients
Gynecology Female reproductive health
Hepatology MedicineThe liver and biliary tract, usually a part of gastroenterology.
Hospital medicine Medicine
Infectious disease IDMedicineDiseases caused by biological agents.
Intensive care medicine Medicine Life support and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU.
Internal medicine Medicine
Medical research Anatomy, Biochemistry, Embryology, Genetics, Pharmacology, Toxicology Care of hospitalized patients
Nephrology MedicineKidney diseases
Neurology NMedicineDiseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems.
Neurosurgery NSSurgeryDisease of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and spinal column.
Obstetrics and gynecology OB/GYNSurgery [4] [ citation needed ]
Oncology ONMedicine Cancer and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.
Ophthalmology OPHSurgeryDiseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery Maxfacs, OMSSurgery
  • Oral and Craniofacial surgery (Head and neck)
  • Facial cosmetic surgery
  • Craniomaxillofacial trauma
Disease of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Orthopedic surgery ORSSurgery Hand surgery, surgical sports medicine, adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgeryInjury and disease of the musculoskeletal system.
Otorhinolaryngology, or ENTORL, ENTSurgeryHead and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neurotology, LaryngologyTreatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty that is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.
Palliative care PLMMedicineA relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.
Pathology PTHDiagnosticUnderstanding disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty that uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information and the related scientific study of disease processes.
Pediatrics PDMedicineChildren. Like internal medicine, pediatrics has many sub-specialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most sub-specialties of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric oncology, pediatric ophthalmology, and neonatology.Deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16–21, depending on the country).
Pediatric surgery SurgeryTreats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal (and sometimes urologic) diseases of childhood.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation Or PhysiatryPM&RMedicine
  • Cancer Rehabilitation
  • Pain Management
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Sports Medicine
  • Pediatrics
  • Hospice & Palliative Medicine
Concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.
Plastic surgery PSSurgery
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Burn
  • Microsurgery
  • Hand surgery
  • Craniofacial surgery
Elective cosmetic surgery as well as reconstructive surgery after traumatic or operative mutilation.
Podiatry PODSurgery
  • Forefoot surgery
  • Midfoot surgery
  • Rearfoot surgery
  • Ankle surgery
  • Soft tissue leg surgery
Elective podiatric surgery of the foot and ankle, lower limb diabetic wound and salvation, peripheral vascular disease limb preservation, lower limb mononeuropathy conditions. Reconstructive foot & ankle surgery.
Proctology PROMedicine(or Colorectal Surgery) Treats disease in the rectum, anus, and colon.
Psychiatry PMedicineThe bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders. Related fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
Pulmonology MedicineThe lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
Public Health Public health focuses on the health of populations. Physicians employed in this field work in policy, research or health promotion, taking a broad view of health that encompasses the social determinants of health.
Radiology R, DRDiagnostic and Therapeutic
  • Interventional radiology is concerned with using expert imaging of the human body, usually via CT, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or MRI to perform a breadth of intravascular procedures (angioplasty, arterial stenting, thrombolysis, uterine fibroid embolization), biopsies and minimally invasive oncologic procedures (radiofrequency and cryoablation of tumors & transarterial chemoembolization)
  • Nuclear medicine uses radioactive substances for in vivo and in vitro diagnosis either using imaging of the location of radioactive substances placed into a patient or using in vitro diagnostic tests utilizing radioactive substances.
The use of expertise in radiation in the context of medical imaging for diagnosis or image guided minimally invasive therapy. X-rays, etc.
Rheumatology RHUMedicine Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.
Surgical oncology SOSurgeryCurative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment.
Thoracic surgery TSSurgerySurgery of the organs of the thoracic cavity: the heart, lungs, and great vessels.
Transplant surgery TTSSurgeryTransplantation of organs from one body to another.
ToxicologyDiagnostic and Therapeutic
  • Environmental
  • Forensic
  • Occupational
  • Pediatric
Poisonings, Overdoses; Environmental, and Occupational Exposures
Urgent Care MedicineUCMMedicineImmediate medical care offering outpatient care for the treatment of acute and chronic illness and injury.
Urology USurgery Urinary tracts of males and females, and the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology ("men's health").
Vascular surgery VSSurgeryThe peripheral blood vessels – those outside the chest (usually operated on by cardiovascular surgeons) and outside the central nervous system (treated by neurosurgery).

Salaries

According to the 2022 Medscape Physician Compensation Report, physicians on average earn $339K annually. Primary care physicians earn $260K annually while specialists earned $368K annually. [6]

The table below details the average range of salaries for physicians in the US of medical specialties: [7] [8]

SpecialtyAverage salary (USD)Average hours

work/week

Average salary/hour (USD)
Allergy & Immunology$298K
Anesthesiology $405K59
Dermatology $438K44103
Emergency medicine $373K44180
Endocrinology$257K
Cardiac Surgery 218,684 to $500,000
Cardiology$490K55
Critical care$369K
Infectious disease$260K
Internal medicine $264K5558
Family medicine $255K5158
Nephrology$329K
Neurology $301K5493
Obstetrics and Gynecology $336K5983
Oncology$411K
Ophthalmology $417K45
Orthopedic surgery $557K56
Otolaryngology $469K52
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 360,000 to $625,21053
Pathology$334K44
Pediatrics 244K5269
Rheumatology$289K
Physical Medicine & Rehabiliation$322K
Podiatry 170,800 to $315,1504580
Preventative medicine$243K
Pulmonary medicine$353K55
Psychiatry $287K4672
Radiology (diagnostic)$437K56
Surgery (general)$402K58
Urology $461K59
Neurosurgery 350,000 to $705,000132
Plastic surgery $576K114
Gastroenterology $453K5593

Specialties by country

Australia and New Zealand

There are 15 recognised specialty medical Colleges in Australia. [9] [10] [11] The majority of these are Australasian Colleges and therefore also oversee New Zealand specialist doctors. These Colleges are:

Specialist CollegeMajor Subspecialties Approximate number of specialist doctors/trainees
Australasian College for Emergency Medicine Paediatric emergency medicine5,000
Australasian College of Dermatologists 700
Australasian College of Sport and Exercise Physicians Exercise medicine 350
Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Pain medicine7,000
Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine 4,500
College of Intensive Care Medicine Paediatric Intensive care1,200
Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators 800
Royal Australasian College of Physicians Addiction medicine, Adolescent and young adult medicine, Cardiology, Clinical Genetics, Clinical haematology, Clinical pharmacology, Community child health, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, General and acute care medicine, General paediatrics Geriatric medicine, Haematology, Infectious diseases, Immunology and allergy, Neonatal and perinatal medicine, Nephrology, Neurology, Nuclear medicine, Occupational medicine, Oncology, Paediatric emergency medicine, Palliative medicine, Public health, Rehabilitation, Respiratory and sleep medicine, Rheumatology, Sexual Health28,000
Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Cardiothoracic, General surgery, Head & neck, Neurosurgery, Orthopaedics, Paediatric surgery, Plastics, Urology, Vascular9,000
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Obstetrics, Gynaecology, Fertility medicine, Obstetric ultrasound, Gynaecological oncology, Urogynaecology2,500
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists 1,100
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 5,000
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Diagnostic, Interventional, Ultrasound, Nuclear medicine3,500
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners 40,000
Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Anatomical, Chemical, Clinical, Forensic, Genetic, Haematological, Immunological, Microbiological Pathology1,000

In addition, the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons supervises training of specialist medical practitioners specializing in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in addition to its role in the training of dentists. There are approximately 260 faciomaxillary surgeons in Australia. [12]

The Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners is a distinct body from the Australian Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. There are approximately 5100 members of the RNZCGP.

Within some of the larger Colleges, there are sub-faculties, such as: Australasian Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine Archived 2014-12-11 at the Wayback Machine within the Royal Australasian College of Physicians

There are some collegiate bodies in Australia that are not officially recognised as specialities by the Australian Medical Council but have a college structure for members, such as: Australasian College of Physical Medicine

There are some collegiate bodies in Australia of Allied Health non-medical practitioners with specialisation. They are not recognised as medical specialists, but can be treated as such by private health insurers, such as: Australasian College of Podiatric Surgeons

Canada

Specialty training in Canada is overseen by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the College of Family Physicians of Canada. For specialists working in the province of Quebec, the Collège des médecins du Québec also oversees the process.

Germany

In Germany these doctors use the term Facharzt .

India

Specialty training in India is overseen by the Medical Council of India, responsible for recognition of post graduate training and by the National Board of Examinations. Education of Ayurveda in overseen by Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), the council conducts UG and PG courses all over India, while Central Council of Homoeopathy does the same in the field of Homeopathy.

Sweden

In Sweden, a medical license is required before commencing specialty training. Those graduating from Swedish medical schools are first required to do a rotational internship of about 1.5 to 2 years in various specialties before attaining a medical license. The specialist training lasts 5 years. [13]

United States

There are three agencies or organizations in the United States that collectively oversee physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the United States in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the country. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association (AMA); the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists (AAPS). Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.

Certifying boardNational organizationPhysician type
ABMSAMAMD and DO
ABPSAAPSMD and DO
AOABOSAOADO only

All boards of certification now require that medical practitioners demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years.

In the United States there are hierarchies of medical specialties in the cities of a region. Small towns and cities have primary care, middle sized cities offer secondary care, and metropolitan cities have tertiary care. Income, size of population, population demographics, distance to the doctor, all influence the numbers and kinds of specialists and physicians located in a city. [14]

Demography

A population's income level determines whether sufficient physicians can practice in an area and whether public subsidy is needed to maintain the health of the population. Developing countries and poor areas usually have shortages of physicians and specialties, and those in practice usually locate in larger cities. For some underlying theory regarding physician location, see central place theory. [14]

The proportion of men and women in different medical specialties varies greatly. [15] Such sex segregation is largely due to differential application. [16]

Satisfaction and burnout

A survey of physicians in the United States came to the result that dermatologists are most satisfied with their choice of specialty followed by radiologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, and gastroenterologists. [17] In contrast, primary care physicians were the least satisfied, followed by nephrologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, and pulmonologists. [17] Surveys have also revealed high levels of depression among medical students (25 - 30%) as well as among physicians in training (22 - 43%), which for many specialties, continue into regular practice. [18] [19] A UK survey conducted of cancer-related specialties in 1994 and 2002 found higher job satisfaction in those specialties with more patient contact. Rates of burnout also varied by specialty. [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medicine</span> Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness

Medicine is the science and practice of caring for a patient, managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment, palliation of their injury or disease, and promoting their health. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Physician</span> Professional who practices medicine

A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a health professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines, such as anatomy and physiology, underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emergency medicine</span> Medical specialty concerned with care for patients who require immediate medical attention

Emergency medicine is the medical speciality concerned with the care of illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention. Emergency physicians specialize in providing care for unscheduled and undifferentiated patients of all ages. As first-line providers, in coordination with emergency medical services, they are primarily responsible for initiating resuscitation and stabilization and performing the initial investigations and interventions necessary to diagnose and treat illnesses or injuries in the acute phase. Emergency medical physicians generally practice in hospital emergency departments, pre-hospital settings via emergency medical services, and intensive care units. Still, they may also work in primary care settings such as urgent care clinics.

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) or family physician is a physician who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients of all ages. GPs' duties are not confined to specific fields of medicine, and they have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues. They are trained to treat patients to levels of complexity that vary between countries. The term "primary care physician" is more usually used in the US. In Asian countries like India, this term has been replaced mainly by Medical Officers, Registered Medical Practitioner etc.

Internal medicine, also known as general internal medicine in Commonwealth nations, is a medical specialty for medical doctors focused on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of internal diseases in adults. Medical practitioners of internal medicine are referred to as internists, or physicians in Commonwealth nations. Internists possess specialized skills in managing patients with undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes. They provide care to both hospitalized (inpatient) and ambulatory (outpatient) patients and often contribute significantly to teaching and research. Internists are qualified physicians who have undergone postgraduate training in internal medicine, and should not be confused with "interns”, a term commonly used for a medical doctor who has obtained a medical degree but does not yet have a license to practice medicine unsupervised.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dentist</span> Health care occupations caring for the mouth and teeth

A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a health care professional who specializes in dentistry, the branch of medicine focused on the teeth, gums, and mouth. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and sometimes dental therapists.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Podiatrist</span> Medical professional devoted to the medical treatment of disorders of the foot

A podiatrist is a medical professional devoted to the treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and related structures of the leg. The term originated in North America but has now become the accepted term in the English-speaking world for all practitioners of podiatric medicine. The word chiropodist was previously used in the United States, but it is now regarded as antiquated.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anesthesiology</span> Medical specialty concerned with anesthesia and perioperative care

Anesthesiology, anaesthesiology, or anaesthesia is the medical specialty concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before, during and after surgery. It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine, critical emergency medicine, and pain medicine. A physician specialized in anesthesiology is called an anesthesiologist, anaesthesiologist, or anaesthetist, depending on the country. In some countries the terms are synonymous, while in other countries they refer to different positions and anesthetist is only used for non-physicians, such as nurse anesthetists.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Podiatry</span> Medicine branch focusing on the human lower extremities

Podiatry, or podiatric medicine and surgery, is a branch of medicine devoted to the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the foot and ankle. The healthcare professional is known as a podiatrist. The US podiatric medical school curriculum includes lower extremity anatomy, general human anatomy, physiology, general medicine, physical assessment, biochemistry, neurobiology, pathophysiology, genetics and embryology, microbiology, histology, pharmacology, women's health, physical rehabilitation, sports medicine, research, ethics and jurisprudence, biomechanics, general principles of orthopedic surgery, plastic surgery, and foot and ankle surgery.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Residency (medicine)</span> Postgraduate medical training

Residency or postgraduate training is a stage of graduate medical education. It refers to a qualified physician, veterinarian, dentist, podiatrist (DPM) or pharmacist (PharmD) who practices medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, podiatry, or clinical pharmacy, respectively, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior medical clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant. In many jurisdictions, successful completion of such training is a requirement in order to obtain an unrestricted license to practice medicine, and in particular a license to practice a chosen specialty. In the meantime, they practice "on" the license of their supervising physician. An individual engaged in such training may be referred to as a resident, registrar or trainee depending on the jurisdiction. Residency training may be followed by fellowship or sub-specialty training.

A number of professional degrees in dentistry are offered by dental schools in various countries around the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medical education in Australia</span> Summary of education and training of medical practitioners (doctors) in Australia.

Medical education in Australia includes the educational activities involved in the initial and ongoing training of Medical Practitioners. In Australia, medical education begins in Medical School; upon graduation it is followed by a period of pre-vocational training including Internship and Residency; thereafter, enrolment into a specialist-vocational training program as a Registrar eventually leads to fellowship qualification and recognition as a fully qualified Specialist Medical Practitioner. Medical education in Australia is facilitated by Medical Schools and the Medical Specialty Colleges, and is regulated by the Australian Medical Council (AMC) and Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA) of which includes the Medical Board of Australia where medical practitioners are registered nationally.

A medicalintern is a physician in training who has completed medical school and has a medical degree, but does not yet have a license to practice medicine unsupervised. Medical education generally ends with a period of practical training similar to internship, but the way the overall program of academic and practical medical training is structured differs depending upon the country, as does the terminology used.

Addiction medicine is a medical subspecialty that deals with the diagnosis, prevention, evaluation, treatment, and recovery of persons with addiction, of those with substance-related and addictive disorders, and of people who show unhealthy use of substances including alcohol, nicotine, prescription medicine and other illicit and licit drugs. The medical subspecialty often crosses over into other areas, since various aspects of addiction fall within the fields of public health, psychology, social work, mental health counseling, psychiatry, and internal medicine, among others. Incorporated within the specialty are the processes of detoxification, rehabilitation, harm reduction, abstinence-based treatment, individual and group therapies, oversight of halfway houses, treatment of withdrawal-related symptoms, acute intervention, and long term therapies designed to reduce likelihood of relapse. Some specialists, primarily those who also have expertise in family medicine or internal medicine, also provide treatment for disease states commonly associated with substance use, such as hepatitis and HIV infection.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Royal Australasian College of Surgeons</span> Leading advocate for surgical standards in Australia and New Zealand

The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is the leading advocate for surgical standards, professionalism and surgical education in Australia and New Zealand.

A clinical officer (CO) is a gazetted officer who is qualified and licensed to practice medicine.

Master of Medicine (MMed) is a postgraduate professional clinical degree awarded by medical schools to physicians following a period of instruction, supervised clinical rotations, and examination. The degree usually takes three years to complete, but may take up to four years in some countries. It is awarded by only medical subspecialties and usually includes a dissertation component.before enrollment in this program,medical graduate has to pass the entrance test. The degree may complement an existing fellowship in the chosen specialty or be the sole qualification necessary for registration as a specialist.

Phlebology is a medical speciality that is concerned with venous issues including the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the veins. A medical specialist in this field is known as a phlebologist. The specialty of phlebology has developed to enable physicians sharing an interest in venous disease and health to share knowledge and experience despite being trained in a variety of backgrounds such as dermatology, vascular surgery, haematology, interventional radiology or general medicine. Diagnostic techniques used include the patient's history and physical examination, venous imaging techniques in particular vascular ultrasound and laboratory evaluation related to venous thromboembolism. The American Medical Association and the American Osteopathic Association have added phlebology to their list of self-designated practice specialties.

In the United States and Canada, there are twelve recognized dental specialties in which some dentists choose to train and practice, in addition to or instead of general dentistry. In the United Kingdom and Australia, there are thirteen.

References

  1. "Different Types of Doctors: Find the Specialist You Need". webmd.com. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
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