Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States, Canada and some other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom, Ireland and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who already hold a professional degree in medicine; in those countries, the equivalent professional degree is typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS).
A medical degree is a vocational or technical degree awarded for studies in fields associated with medicine and/or surgery.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, with 70% of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.
In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine.
The University of Glasgow is a public research university in Glasgow, Scotland. Founded by papal bull in 1451, it is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Along with the universities of Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and St. Andrews, the university was part of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual.
University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, and in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees (MB BS/MBChB/MB BChir/BM BCh etc.). North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century. The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York (which at the time was referred to as King's College of Medicine) was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB.
The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist in the present day. The majority of the ancient universities of the British Isles are located within Scotland, and have a number of distinctive features in common, being governed by a series of measures laid down in the Universities (Scotland) Acts 1858–1966. The Universities (Scotland) Act 1966 uses the term 'older universities' to refer to St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh. The same act provided for the independence from St Andrews of Dundee, which was then granted a similar form of governance under its royal charter.
Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, colloquially known as P&S and formerly Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, is the graduate professional medical school of Columbia University. Located at the Columbia University Irving Medical Center in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan with its affiliate New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Founded in 1767 by Samuel Bard as the medical department of King's College, the College of Physicians and Surgeons was one of the first medical schools in the thirteen colonies and hence, the United States, to award the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree. Beginning in 1993, P&S also was the first U.S. medical school to hold a white coat ceremony.
Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Penn, Harvard, Maryland, and McGill.These first few North American medical schools that were established were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had been trained in England and Scotland.
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce, government, and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum.
The University of Maryland, Baltimore, is a public university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1807, it comprises some of the oldest professional schools of dentistry, law, medicine, pharmacy, social work and nursing in the United States. It is the original campus of the University System of Maryland and has a strategic partnership with the University of Maryland, College Park. Located on 60 acres (242,811 m²) on the west side of downtown Baltimore, it is part of the University System of Maryland. Effective July 1, 2010, Jay A. Perman was appointed president of the university by William English Kirwan, chancellor of the University System of Maryland.
The Faculty of Medicine is one of the constituent faculties of McGill University. It was established in 1829 after the Montreal Medical Institution was incorporated into McGill College as the College's first faculty; it was the first medical faculty to be established in Canada. The Faculty awarded McGill's first degree, and Canada's first medical degree to William Leslie Logie in 1833. His dissertation, "Medical inaugural dissertation on Cynanche trachealis" can be found in the McGill Library institutional repository, eScholarship@McGill.
A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was also used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s.In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. Typically a doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction.
New England Female Medical College (NEFMC), originally Boston Female Medical College, was founded in 1848 by Samuel Gregory and was the first school to train women in the field of medicine. It merged with Boston University School of Medicine in 1874.
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 694,583 in 2018, making it also the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.
Residency or postgraduate training is a stage of graduate medical education. It refers to a qualified physician, podiatrist, dentist, veterinarian, or pharmacist who practices medicine, usually in a hospital or clinic, under the direct or indirect supervision of a senior clinician registered in that specialty such as an attending physician or consultant. In many jurisdictions, successful completion of such training is a requirement in order to obtain an unrestricted license to practice medicine, and in particular a license to practice a chosen specialty. An individual engaged in such training may be referred to as a resident, house officer, registrar or trainee depending on the jurisdiction. Residency training may be followed by fellowship or sub-specialty training.
In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country. Entry to medical school is competitive, and only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum (from 2016), during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency.
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China. Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range. Kabul serves as the capital and its largest city.
The MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine". After the civil wars, medical education has extremely changed, and the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor".
In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate (Spanish : Título de Médico) is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by usually three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation [ es ].
Historically, Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine (MD) for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's (Extended) degrees which permits the use of the term 'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have also renamed their previous medical research doctorates. The University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, and has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science (DMedSc).
In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would then have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country.
At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine (MD).
After 6 years of general medical education (a foundation year plus 5 years), all students will graduate with a Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSc, Khmer : បរិញ្ញាប័ត្រ វិទ្យាសាស្រ្តវេជ្ជសាស្ត្រ), equivalent to Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS). This degree does not allow graduates to work independently as a physician, but it is possible for those who wish to continue to master's degrees in other fields relating to medical sciences such as public health, epidemiology, biomedical science, and nutrition.
Medical graduates, who wish to be fully qualified as physicians or specialists must follow the process as below:
All medical graduates must complete a Thesis Defense and pass the National Exit Exam (Khmer: ប្រឡងចេញថ្នាក់ជាតិក្នុងវិស័យសុខាភិបាល) to become either GPs or medical or surgical specialists.
In Canada, the M.D. is the degree required to practice medicine. McGill University Faculty of Medicine is the only medical school in Canada that continues to award the M.D., C.M. degrees (abbreviated M.D.C.M.). M.D.C.M. is from the Latin Medicinae Doctor et Chirurgiae Magister meaning "Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery". Upon graduation, students enter into a residency phase of training. Prior to obtaining an independent practicing license from a provincial regulatory body, students must complete the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination to obtain the Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada (LMCC) qualification.
In China, many prestigious research universities such as Peking Union Medical College, Peking University Health Science Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and many more current days, offer the 8-year Doctor of Medicine program. In the meantime, the majority of primary medical training comes in the form of a 5-year Bachelor of Medicine degree, which includes 2.5 years of basic science and biomedical science training and 2.5 years of clerkship training. Graduates from such programs are eligible to sit for Medical Doctor License Examination in China providing they are working as resident physicians in a hospital. Many of the young doctors do seek further training by entering a 3-year Master of Medicine (clinical track) program or 5-year Doctor of Medicine (clinical track). Some take a job/promotion after the 3-year program and work for a number of years and then take on another 3 years of training to get the ultimate Doctor of Medicine degree.
In Croatia, the title of "doktor medicine" (abbreviated "dr. med.") is awarded upon completion of six years of study at a Faculty of Medicine ("medicinski fakultet") immediately after high school.
In the Dominican Republic, it is known as "Doctor en Medicina" (Doctor in Medicine). In 1511 the Spanish Catholic church founded the first university of the Americas in Santo Domingo present capital of modern-day Dominican Republic and name it Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino (today Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo). In 1630 this university graduated the first medical doctors of the Americas and amongst the graduates some Native Americans included.
In Ecuador medical school is began after graduating high-school. There are two options; applying to public or private universities. Both private and public university select their candidates based on entrance exams. Public universities are free while private universities cost around 6,000 - 12,000 USD a year. In most universities the carrier lasts for 6 years. After graduating students obtain a degree of “medico cirujano”, which is equivalent to doctor in medicine (MD).
After graduating from high school with a Baccalaureat, any student can register at a university of medicine (there are about 30 of them throughout the country). At the end of first year, an internal ranking examination takes place in each of these universities in order to implement the numerus clausus . First year consists mainly of theoretical classes such as biophysics and biochemistry, anatomy, ethics or histology. Passing first year is commonly considered very challenging, requiring hard and continuous work. Each student can only try twice. For example, the Université René Descartes welcomes about 2,000 students in first year and only 300 after numerus clausus.
The second and third year are usually mainly quite theoretical although the teachings are often accompanied by placements in the field (e.g., internships as nurses or in the emergency room, depending on the university).
During fourth, fifth and sixth years, medical students get a special status called "externe" (In some universities, such as Pierre et Marie Curie, the externe status is given starting in the third year). They work as interns every morning at the hospital plus a few night shifts a month and study in the afternoon. Each internship lasts between three and four months and takes place in a different department. Med students get five weeks off a year.
At the end of the sixth year, they need to pass a national ranking exam, which will determine their specialty. The first student gets to choose first, then the second, et cetera. Usually, students work hard during fifth and sixth years in order to train properly for the national ranking exam. During these years, actual practice at the hospital and some theoretical courses are meant to balance the training. Such externs' average wage stands between 100 and 300 euros a month.
After that ranking exams, students can start as residents in the specialty they have been able to pick. That is the point from which they also start getting paid.
Towards the end of the medical program, French medical students are provided with more responsibilities and are required to defend a thesis; however, unlike a PhD thesis, no original research is actually necessary to write an MD thesis. At the conclusion of the thesis defense, French medical students receive a State Diploma of Doctor of Medicine (MD, French : diplôme d'Etat de docteur en médecine). Every new doctor must then proceed to a Diploma of Specialised Studies (DES, French: diplôme d'Etudes spécialisées) to mark their specialty. Some students may also receive a Diploma of Complementary Specialized Studies (DESC, French: diplôme d'Etudes spécialisées complémentaires).
In Georgia, medical universities in Georgia offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award Doctor of Medicine (MD) "Physician" "Medical Doctor (MD), a European medical degree which is valid throughout the world. Some of the reputed medical universities include Tbilisi state Medical University and Petre Shotadze Tbilisi Medical Academy
After at least six years of medical school, the students graduate with a final federal medical exam (Dritter Abschnitt der ärztlichen Prüfung) . Graduates receive their license to practice medicine and the professional title of physician (Arzt). About 80% of them additionally obtain the academic MD-like degree Doctor of Medicine (Dr. Med.).The corresponding "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study. Obtaining the title is a practical necessity because many medical laypersons incorrectly assume that a doctorate is required for the practice of medicine. The European Research Council decided in 2010 that those Dr. med. doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree.
In Guyana, Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree is awarded after the completion of 4 years or 5 years of study. Texila American University, Green Heart University, American International School of Medicine, Alexander American University, Lincoln American University provides medicine programs.
In Hungary, after six years of medical school, which include a sixth-year internship, students are awarded the degree of 'OrvosDoktor' (Doctor of Medicine) degrees.
In Indonesia, the title of "dokter" (dr.) is awarded after 3-3.5 years of study (at least) and 1.5–2 years of clinical course in university hospitals. After a medical student finished those five years of study, they need to take "Uji Kompetensi Mahasiswa Program Profesi Dokter" (UKMPPD). If they pass the test, they can take Hippocrates Oath and the title of Dokter (dr.) is entitled before their name. Then they need to take a year-long internship course in primary health care clinics (also known as Puskesmas) or primary hospitals all over the country to practice as general practitioner under supervision of senior doctors. Those who wished to further their study into specialties can take graduate course of medicine of their preference and will be entitled with "Specialist of ..." after their name (e.g.: Sp.A for Spesialis Anak = Pediatrician). Graduate course of medicine is equal with residency program which is required the candidates to study for four years and hospital internship. Note that "dr." is used for medical graduates, while Dr. (or wrongfully DR., Doktor) is used for PhD holders.
In Iran, Medical education begins after high school. No pre-med course or BSc degree is required. The eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam being held every year throughout the country. The entry to medical school is competitive and only students with the highest rank are accepted into medical program. The primary medical degree is completed in 7–7.5 years. On the final years (last 1–2 years) medical students need to do a research on a medical topic and provide thesis as part of their trainings. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, called "Professional Doctorate in Medicine" validated by the "Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran". All physicians will obtain license and medical council registration number from the "Medical Council of Iran" before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications.
There are five university medical schools in Israel, including the Technion in Haifa, Ben Gurion University in Be'er Sheva, Tel Aviv University, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Medical school of the Bar-Ilan University in Safed. They all follow the European 6-year model except Bar-Ilan University, which has a four-year program similar to the US system. [ citation needed ] The Technion Medical School, Ben Gurion University, and Tel Aviv University Sackler Faculty of Medicine offer 4-year MD programs for American students who have American college degrees and have taken the MCAT interested in completing rigorous medical education in Israel before returning to the US or Canada. In Israel, the degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD) is considered to be equivalent to a Master's degree academically and legally.However, as of 2009, Tel Aviv University has introduced a four-year program similar to the US system for students with a bachelor's degree in certain biological sciences. The entrance requirements of the various schools of medicine are very strict. Israeli students require a high school Baccalaureate average above 100 and psychometric examination grade over 740. The demand for medical education is strong and growing, and there is a lack of doctors in Israel.
In Italy, the title of "Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia" (literally Doctor in Medicine and Surgery, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor et Chirurgiae Magister meaning "Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery ) is awarded after completion of a Master's course in medicine and surgery (lasting at least six years of study and clinical training) in a university and after the submission of a thesis, that consists of a new research undertaken. After obtaining this degree, graduates do not have a licence to practice, that is awarded only after an additional period (at least 6 months-1 year) of study and clinical training and after passed a state examination (called "abilitazione alla professione medica", which translates to habilitation exam to medical practice) through which they acquire the full licence to practice and the right to work as a medical doctor.
Admission to medical school is highly competitive, based on a ranking examination in order to implement the numerus clausus. Only about 15%  of applicants pass this examination and has the right to register at a university of medicine.
Spurred by the Bologna process, a major reform was instituted in 1999 to align University programmes with the more universal system of undergraduate (Bachelor's degree) and postgraduate studies (Master's and Doctoral degrees).
In this context, the new Laurea Magistrale a ciclo unico in Medicina e Chirurgia is a six years second cycle degree, equivalent to a master's degree (360 ECTS credits) which can be earned in a six-year programme and requires a scientific research thesis.
Consequently, the degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD) in Italy is considered to be equivalent to a Master's degree academically and legally .
In Japan, the title "Doctor of Medicine (MD)" is awarded by the government, after graduating from a medical university or college with a 6-year curriculum and passing the national examination.
In Latvia, the duration of basic medical education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Doctor of Medicine.
In Malaysia, MD are awarded by both private and public universities, mostly are trained as a 5-year course, however with the establishment of Perdana University, it became the first university in Malaysia to provide a 4-year graduate entry course. Examples of universities in Malaysia offering the M.D degree are University Sains Malaysia, National University of Malaysia, University Putra Malaysia, UCSI University, etc.
In the Philippines, the MD is a first professional degree in medicine. In order to be accepted in Philippine medical schools, one must have finished a college degree before one can proceed to have a medical education. It is attained by either completing a 4-year degree or a 5-year degree (with internship included) from an accredited institution by the Association of Philippine Medical Colleges and the Commission on Higher Education. An MD degree does not permit the practice of medicine but qualifies the degree-holder to apply for registration to the Professional Regulatory Commission. Registration to the Commission through completion of internship and examinations will grant the privilege of practicing medicine in the Philippines.
In Poland the title of lekarz (physician, medical doctor) or "lek." is granted after completing a 6-year medical program (students apply to it directly after graduating high school).Many medical schools in Poland also offer medicine programs in English, which award the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. In contrast, a higher doctoral academic research degree in medicine resembling a PhD is named "dr n. med." or doktor nauk medycznych (Doctor of Medical Sciences). Specialization is valued similarly to a specialization in the English system and is a pre-requisite for a "dr. n. med." which is usually defined within the same field.
Romanian medical programs last for 6 years (including clinical practice), which is the long-cycle first professional degree and concludes with a final licensing examination (licența), based on the dissertation of the student's original research. The degree awarded is 'Doctor-Medic' and graduates are entitled to use the title "Dr."
Medical universities in Russia offer a six-year curriculum leading to award a professional graduate degree, called qualification (degree)of "specialist" (Diploma of Specialist; in medicine, Diploma of Physician (Doctor of Medicine)).
Whereas, the title of Doctor of Medical Sciences (Russian : доктор медицинских наук, "doktor medicinskix nauk" abbreviated д. м. н. ) is a higher research doctoral degree, which may be earned after the Candidate of Medical Sciences (the latter is informally regarded in Russia as equivalent to the Ph.D.).
In Serbia, MD degree is awarded upon completion of six years of study at a Faculty of Medicine immediately after high school.
The American Duke University has a medical school based in Singapore (Duke-NUS Medical School), and follows the North-American model of styling its first professional degree "Doctor of Medicine" ("MD"), consid.By contrast, the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore confers MB BS as the first professional degree.
Slovakia’s medical education is offered at three medical schools in the country. Two of them are faculties of the Comenius University, which are the Faculty of Medicine in Bratislava and the Jessenius School of Medicine in Martin, while the third one is the Faculty of Medicine at the Pavol Josef Šafarik University in Košice. Both the Jessenius School of Medicine and the Faculty of Medicine in Košice has several international students. The Jessenius School of Medicine has almost a thousand international students, most from Norway.
Admission to the medical schools is based on both high school grades and a yearly entrance examination that can be undergone once a year. The program is a 6 year program in general medicine with a strictly preclinical and clinical division. The preclinical years are the two first, and are purely theoretical. They consist of subjects such as cell biology, genetics, biophysics, medical chemistry, anatomy, biochemistry, histology, embryology and so on. From the third year onwards, the study is integrated with practical learning at the faculty’s associated teaching hospital, including major multi-year subjects such internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, etc. In the sixth and final year, the student must pass four final state examinations and defend a self-composed thesis in order to graduate with a professional doctorate granting them the title of MUDr. for practicing in Slovakia or the Czech Republic or MD when practicing outside of Slovakia.
In Slovenia, the title of "doktor medicine" (abbreviated "dr. med.") is awarded upon completion of six years of study at one of the two Slovenian Faculties of Medicine ("medicinska fakulteta") in Ljubljana or Maribor. Studying at these faculties is only possible if the student has finished a gymnasium/grammar school ("gimnazija") with a general diploma called "splošna matura".
In South Korea, there is a Medical Doctor (MD) license.
The medical educations in South Korea (Republic of Korea) are 6 or 4 years in duration, 6-year courses starting right after high schools, and 4-year course starting after 4-year's university education (to start the 4-year course, the student needs a bachelor's degree). The first 2 years in the 6-year system is composed of basic sciences and liberal art courses.
In Taiwan, the MD is a first awarded professional degree that goes up and beyond the limits of upper education.
The Thai medical education follows the 6-year European system, consisting of 1 year in basic-science, 2 years in pre-clinical training, and 3 years for clinical training. Upon graduation, all medical students must pass national medical licensing examinations and a university-based comprehensive test. After medical school, newly graduated doctor are under contract to spend a year of internship and 2 years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for any other residency positions or specialized training. The students will receive Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. However, the degree is equivalent to master's degree in Thailand. Specialty training after the MD degree requires at least 4–6 years residency program in the training university hospitals and must pass the board examination. Board certified specialized degree is equivalent to doctorate degree.
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In Tunisia, education is free for all Tunisian citizens and for foreigners who have scholarships. The oldest Medical school is a faculty of the University of Tunis. There are four medicine faculties situated in the major cities of Tunis, Sfax, Sousse and Monastir. Admission is bound to the success and score in the baccalaureate examination. Admission score threshold is very high, based on competition among all applicants throughout the nation. Medical school curriculum consists of five years. The first two years are medical theory, containing all basic sciences related to medicine, and the last three years consists of clinical issues related to all medical specialties. During these last three years, the student gets the status of "Externe". The student has to attend at the university hospital every day, rotating around all wards. Every period is followed by a clinical exam regarding the student's knowledge in that particular specialty. After those five years, there are two years on internship, in which the student is a physician but under the supervision of the chief doctor; the student rotates over the major and most essential specialties during period of four months each. After that, student has the choice of either passing the residency national exam or extending his internship for another year, after which he gains the status of family physician. The residency program consists of four to five years in the specialty he qualifies, depending on his score in the national residency examination under the rule of highest score chooses first. Whether the student chooses to be a family doctor or a specialist, he has to write a doctoral thesis, which he will be defending in front of a jury, after which he gains his degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD).
In Turkey, the title of "Tıp Doktoru" (literally "Doctor of Medicine")is awarded upon completion of six years continuous study started with five years university education include three years basic sciences, two years clinical courses followed by one year of internship in university hospitals.
In Ukraine, by 2018, graduates of the school with completed secondary education who have cope with the relevant exams (in the disciplines designated by these universities) in the nationwide system for assessing graduates' knowledge - EIT (Ukrainian : ЗНО, External independent testing) based on the rating - may be admitted to the Medical Universities.
Ukrainian medical universities offer a 6-year curriculum, which should end with the passing of the State Complex Examination. The graduate receives the Diploma of the State Standard with the title "Specialist Diploma", which specifies a specialty and qualification (for example, "Physician"), or "Magister's Diploma" also of a state standard. After that, the graduate according to the rating division (at the university) is required to undergo a practical internship course (working as a doctor under the supervision of an experienced doctor) with a duration of 2 to 3 years, in the corresponding specialty. Successful completion of internship implies that an intern passes an examination on a specialty, including testingand receives a certificate of a specialist physician of the Ministry of Health, which is a formal permission for practical activity.
Thus, the American MD and the Ukrainian Physician have identical titles. On the other hand, the colloquial (not official terminology) Doctor of Medicine means that a Physician with a higher education successfully defended his thesis, after a 2-year postgraduate course and corresponding term of research (Candidate of Medical Sciences before 2015, or Ph.D. after 2015 - till 2020), which is closer to the English system of degrees.
In the United States, the M.D. awarded by medical schools is a "Professional Doctorate"(as opposed to the Doctor of Philosophy degree which requires a focus on research) and is accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), an independent body sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the American Medical Association (AMA).
Admission to medical school in the United States is highly competitive, and in the United States about 17,800 out of approximately 47,000 applicants (≈38%)[ citation needed ] received at least one acceptance to any medical school in recent application years.[ vague ] Before entering medical school, students are required to complete a four-year undergraduate degree and take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT); however, some combined undergraduate-medical programs exist. Before graduating from a medical school and being awarded the Doctor of Medicine degree, students are required to take the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and both the clinical knowledge and clinical skills parts of Step 2. The MD degree is typically earned in four years. Following the awarding of the MD, physicians who wish to practice in the United States are required to complete at least one internship year (PGY-1) and pass the USMLE Step 3. In order to receive board eligible or board accredited status in a specialty of medicine such as general surgery or internal medicine, physicians undergo additional specialized training in the form of a residency. Those who wish to further specialize in areas such as cardiology or interventional radiology then complete a fellowship. Depending upon the physician's chosen field, residencies and fellowships involve an additional three to eight years of training after obtaining the MD. This can be lengthened with additional research years, which can last one, two, or more years.[ citation needed ]
Even though the M.D. is a professional degree and not a research doctorate (i.e., a Ph.D.), many holders of the M.D. degree conduct clinical and basic scientific research and publish in peer-reviewed journals during training and after graduation; an academic physician whose work emphasizes basic research is called a physician-scientist. Combined medical and research training is offered through programs granting an MD-PhD. The National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its Medical Scientist Training Program, funds M.D.-Ph.D. training programs at many universities. Some M.D.s choose a research career and receive funding from the NIH as well as other sources such as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.The United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation do not include the M.D. or other professional doctorates among the degrees that are equivalent to research doctorates.
After graduating from high school in Venezuela students can apply for federal appointment to a six year medical program within an University.Only Public Universities offer this degree in Venezuela. Any student can apply for federal appointment by Ministry of Higher Education. So that, the student is allowed to register at university and follow a medical program. This a six year program divided within three cycles. First cycle: Theory and lectures (1-2), second cycle: pre-clinical training (3-4) and third cycle: clinical training (5-6).
First year consists mainly of theoretical classes, however there are practice since first day in laboratories and institutes, such as biochemistry, anatomy which included lectures and teaching sessions with cadavers in dissection tables, Molecular Biology, histology, embryology and many others general subjects.
The second year is usually mainly quite theoretical although most teaching sessions takes place in laboratories. After completing these years the student know how the human body is and how it works. Also, any extrinsic agent that can modify its functions. There is also Medical Exercise demonstration which included guided visit to primarily care centers during a complete semester or year-round depending on universities.
During third year medical students start studying pharmacology, pathology and physical examination. Passing successfully first, second and third year is commonly considered a filter, almost half of previously admitted students leave voluntarily.
The fourth year medical students enter on the field starting to visit hospitals and healthcare services. This is called Pre-Clinical Cycle were they acquire deep knowledge about clinical examination visiting specialized units such as Internal Medicine, Trauma and orthopedics, surgery and gynecology and obstetrics. They start to be member of a medical team. Every morning at the hospital, plus one night shifts per week, and lectures in the afternoon. Each internship lasts between six and four months and takes place in a different department.
The fifth and sixth year are very similar but this time they applied their previously earned clinical knowledge and skills starting to follow patients independently. At the end of the sixth year, they need to pass a highly supervised medical practice examination in an unserved outpatient center or specialized hospital in order to earn the degree. During these years, there is training at the hospital almost exclusively. Very little theoretical courses are meant to balance the training. Once completed they earn an university degree and a title granted by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela as "Medical Surgeon" this is considered equivalent to a M.D degree.
There is also a five years program the "Médico Integral Comunitario" title and degree granted by newly created universities and headed by cuban nationals from the Cuba - Venezuela cooperation agreements.This program have been object of politics propaganda, debates and polemics in the country over the legitimacy of the Cuban doctors' licensure for teaching and practice medicine.
After graduation, recently graduate doctors acquire the right to use Dr. before their names but still must follow a one year exercise in the countryside or a two years training in a specialized hospital. So that, They can be enabled to practice medicine with a full licence in Venezuela and the right to work as a medical doctor, generally as a general practitioner (Artículo 8).That is the point from which they also start getting paid.
They can follow specialized studies which usually last between 3 or 5 years depending on specializationand furthermor a phD for relevant research activities which usually take at least three years more.
The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery) degree represents the first (undergraduate) level of training required to be licensed as a physician (other degrees in alternative medicine are present like BAMS, BHMS, BSMS etc.) and the MS or MD degree is a postgraduate degree, representative of specialty training. The equivalent training in the US or Canada would be the completion of a medical (post-graduate) degree. Eligibility for the MS or MD course is restricted to medical graduates holding the MBBS degree.
The MBBS course is for five and a half years, and training imparted is as follows:
After three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a non-surgical nature [e.g. Anatomy (since the subject deals with study of anatomy through dissecting cadavers, thus given an MD degree), Physiology, Pharmacology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Pathology, Microbiology] the candidate receives MD degree, whereas in a clinical subject of a surgical nature (e.g. General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Ophthalmology), the candidate receives the equivalent degree Master of Surgery (MS).
A second alternate qualification termed DNB [Diplomate of National Board], is considered equivalent to the MD and MS degrees. This can be obtained by passing the exam conducted by the National Board of Examinations after completing 3 years of post-MBBS residency training in teaching hospitals recognised by the board. The College of Physicians & Surgeons of Bombay, India (Established 1912) also awards higher postgraduate degrees in clinical and pre-clinical specialties, called FCPS; it involves three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, and a research thesis and a viva. The FCPS is representative of specialty clinical training, and equivalent to MD/MS/DNB/Ph.D Medical in Medical Doctorate in other parts of the world. Until 2007, the Government of India and the Medical Council of India recognised the FCPS qualification - since then, this is being done by State Medical Councils.
After obtaining the first postgraduate degree, that is MD/MS/FCPS/DNB/Ph.D Medical, one can go for further specialisation in medical or surgical fields. This involves a highly competitive entrance examination. This course has three years of additional training and requires the submission of a dissertation (thesis). This is considered a clinical doctorate as the focus is on preapring a super-specialist with adequate clinical as well as research training. After the dissertation is approved and the exit examination (theory and practical) is cleared, the degree awarded is DM (Doctor of Medicine), Ph.D Medical . Based on the specific field of training, the degree awarded is DM in Cardiac Anaesthesia, Cardiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Gastroenterology, Neuroradiology, Critical Care, Pulmonology, Hematology, Medical Oncology, Clinical Pharmacology, Pediatric Critical Care, Pediatric Neurology, Neonataology, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Neuroanaesthesia, etc. For surgical superspecialities the degree awarded is MCh (Magister Chirurgiae), like MCh in Cardio-thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Endocrine Surgery, Neurosurgery, Surgical Gastroenterology, Urology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatric Surgery etc. DM and MCh are the clinical equivalent of a Doctorate degree. A third alternate qualification is DNB (superspecialties), offered by National Board of Examinations, like DNB in Cardiology, Neurology, Cardiac Surgery, Neurosurgery.
Following DM or MCh, one can further go for postdoctoral fellowship programs of one-year duration in specific subspecialties like Cardiac Electrophysiology, Invasive cardiology, Pediatric cardiology, Epilepsy, stroke, electroencephalography, movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, cerebrovascular surgery, skull base surgery, neurocritical care, pediatric cardiac surgery etc. offered by prestigious government institutes and abroad.
In Pakistan the MD is a higher doctorate, awarded by medical universities based on successful completion of a residency program of four to six years' duration in a university hospital.Many universities are offering MD. Parallel to MD, MS is a higher doctorate awarded on successful completion of four to six years' duration of a residency program in surgical field.
Slovakia’s medical education is offered at three medical schools in the country. Two of them are faculties of the Comenius University, which are the Faculty of Medicine in Bratislava and the Jessenius School of Medicine in Martin, while the third one is the Faculty of Medicine at the Pavol Josef Šafarik University in Košice. Both the Jessenius School of Medicine and the Faculty of Medicine in Košice has several international students. The Jessenius School of Medicine has almost a thousand international students, most from Norway. Admission to the medical schools is based on both high school grades and a yearly entrance examination that can be undergone once a year. The program is a 6 year program in general medicine with a strictly preclinical and clinical division. The preclinical years are the two first, and are purely theoretical. They consist of subjects such as cell biology, genetics, biophysics, medical chemistry, anatomy, biochemistry, histology, embryology and so on. From the third year onwards, the study is integrated with practical learning at the faculty’s associated teaching hospital, including major multi-year subjects such internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, etc. In the sixth and final year, the student must pass four final state examinations and defend a self-composed thesis in order to graduate with a professional doctorate granting them the title of MUDr. for practicing in Slovakia or the Czech Republic or MD when practicing outside of Slovakia.
In Sri Lanka, the MD degree is a higher postgraduate degree that is awarded by the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine after completion of a postgraduate course, examinations and speciality training. The MD degree in Sri Lanka is representative of specialty training in clinical, para clinical, and preventive medicine (e.g., general medicine, cardiology, nephrology, oncology, para clinical such as microbiology, haematology and preventive such as community medicine). Entry for the MD course is open only for medical graduates holding the MBBS degree (with a duration of five and a half years), and training is obtained in medical disciplines that are non-surgical in nature (e.g., internal medicine, radiology, pathology, etc.) After three or four years of study and the successful completion of an examination with written as well as cases and via examinations, the MD degree in the respective field of study is awarded. In community medicine and medical administration, part I examination consists of a theoretical exam while the degree is conferred after completion of a thesis as a PhD. This thesis has to be completed within a period of five years. After successfully defending the academic thesis, the MD degree is conferred to the candidate. The MD degree holder is certified as a board certified specialist by the respective board of study of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine after he or she undergoes 2–4 years of local and foreign training depending on the specialty/subspecialty selected.
In Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery B.A.M.S in Unani, Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery BUMS in Sidha, Bachelor of Sidha Medicine and Surgery BSMS are the basic qualification for practicing Ayurveda, Unani,&Sidha. The B.A.M.S, B.U.M.S, and B.S.M.S are 6-year degree (including internship) courses accepted by the University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka). M.D (Ayu)(Ayurveda vachaspati) can be done after B.A.M.S, as a specialty, and it takes 3 years (including submission of a thesis) to complete the course. Ayurveda M.D (Ayu) (Ayurveda vachaspati) is a master's degree accepted by University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka), after completion of MPhil can follow Ph.D. level programmes in Sri Lanka.
The entry-level first professional degree in these countries for the practice of medicine is that of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MB, MB BCh BAO, BMBS, MBBChir, or MBChB). This degree typically requires between four and six years of study and clinical training, and is equivalent to the North American MD degree. Due to the UK code for higher education, first degrees in medicine comprise an integrated programme of study and professional practice spanning several levels. These degrees may retain, for historical reasons, "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" and are abbreviated to MBChB, MBBS or BMBS.
In the UK, Ireland and many Commonwealth countries, the MD is a postgraduate research degree in medicine. At some universities, this takes the form of a first doctorate, analogous to the Ph.D., awarded upon submission of a thesis and a successful viva. The thesis may consist of new research undertaken on a full- or part-time basis, with much less supervision (in the UK) than for a Ph.D., or a portfolio of previously published work.
In order to be eligible to apply for an MD degree from a UK or Commonwealth University one must hold either a "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" (MBBS, MBChB, BMBS for example) degree, or an equivalent U.S.-MD degree and must usually have at least five years of postgraduate experience. Therefore, graduates from the MBBS/MBChB/BMBS degrees do not hold doctorates; however, physicians holding these degrees are referred to as "doctor" as they are fully licensed as medical practitioners. In some commonwealth nations, these interns are designated as "house officers".
At some other universities (especially older institutions, such as Oxford, Dublin, Cambridge and St Andrews), the MD is a higher doctorate (similar to a DSc) awarded upon submission of a portfolio of published work representing a substantial contribution to medical research.The University of Cambridge has introduced a new degree of MedScD (more akin to the ScD degree) awarded on the basis of a career's contribution to the science or art of medicine, rather than a thesis, for which a candidate may be awarded the MD degree. Oxford did not do the same but instead demoted the rank of the degree the same level as the DPhil but retaining its original academic dress.
In the case where the MD is awarded (either as a first or higher doctorate) for previously published research, the candidate is usually required to be either a graduate or a full-time member of staff, of several years' standing of the university in question.
There is also a similar advanced professional degree to the postgraduate MD: the Master of Surgery (usually ChM or MS, but MCh in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and at Oxford and MChir at Cambridge). The equivalence of these degrees, but their differing names, prevents the need for surgeons (addressed as Mr. in the UK) having to revert to the title Dr., which they once held as new MBBS graduates.
In Ireland, where the basic medical qualification includes a degree in obstetrics, there is a similar higher degree of Master of the Art of Obstetrics (MAO). A Master of Midwifery was formerly examined by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London (hence MMSA) but fell into abeyance in the 1960s; in this case, the term Master referred not to a university degree but rather a professional rank that is common among craft guilds.
In East Africa, the medical schools in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda award the degree of Master of Medicine (MMed) degree in both surgical and medical specialty disciplines following a three to six-year period of instruction.
In West Africa, the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons award the Fellowship of the West African College of Physicians (FWACP) and the Fellowship of the West African College of Surgeons (FWACS) in medical and surgical disciplines respectively after a minimum of four-year residency training period.
The Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine or DO degree allows the same practice rights in the United States and Canada to the MD degree and Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine are fully licensed physicians. Holders of the MD degree must pass MD level board exams while DO holders can pass either the DO (COMLEX) exam or MD exam (USMLE). [ citation needed ] The American MD degree is also recognized by most countries in the world. While DO physicians are only licensed to practice the full scope of medicine and surgery in 65 countries. [ not in citation given ]Similarly, MDs must attend MD rated residency and fellowship programs while DOs can attend either MD programs or Osteopathic (DO) programs. As a result of this, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are currently transitioning to a single accreditation system for medical residencies in the U.S. On average, MD matriculants score 510 on MCAT examinations and have an average GPA of 3.70 while DO matriculants score 504 and have an average GPA of 3.56.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Doctor of Medicine (MD), or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). Many medical schools offer additional degrees, such as a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D), Master's degree (M.Sc), a physician assistant program, or other post-secondary education.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin: Medicinae Baccalaureus Baccalaureus Chirurgiae, are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom (UK). The historical degree nomenclature suggests that they are two separate undergraduate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and conferred together, and may also be awarded at graduate-level medical schools. In countries that follow the system in the United States, the equivalent medical degree is awarded as Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO).
There are a number of professional degrees in dentistry offered by dental schools in various countries around the world.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor. In Europe, the discipline is often referred to as general practice and a practitioner as a general practice doctor or GP; this name emphasises the holistic nature of this speciality, as well as its roots in the family. Family practice is a division of primary care that provides continuing and comprehensive health care for the individual and family across all ages, genders, diseases, and parts of the body; family physicians are often primary care physicians. It is based on knowledge of the patient in the context of the family and the community, emphasizing disease prevention and health promotion. According to the World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA), the aim of family medicine is to provide personal, comprehensive, and continuing care for the individual in the context of the family and the community. The issues of values underlying this practice are usually known as primary care ethics.
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician, or additional training thereafter.
In India, a medical college is an educational institution that provides medical education. These institutions may vary from stand-alone colleges that train doctors to conglomerates that offer training related in all aspects of medical care. The term is synonymous with "medical school" as used in the US and some other countries.
Medical education in Australia includes the educational activities involved in the initial and ongoing training of Medical Practitioners. In Australia, medical education begins in Medical School; upon graduation it is followed by a period of pre-vocational training including Internship and Residency; thereafter, enrolment into a specialist-vocational training program as a Registrar eventually leads to fellowship qualification and recognition as a fully qualified Specialist Medical Practitioner. Medical education in Australia is facilitated by Medical Schools and the Medical Specialty Colleges, and is regulated by the Australian Medical Council (AMC) and Australian Health Practitioners Regulatory Agency (AHPRA) of which includes the Medical Board of Australia where medical practitioners are registered nationally.
Medical education in the United States includes educational activities involved in the education and training of physicians in the United States, from entry-level training through to continuing education of qualified specialists.
Medical education in the United Kingdom includes educational activities involved in the education and training of medical doctors in the United Kingdom, from entry-level training through to continuing education of qualified specialists. A typical outline of the medical education pathway is presented here. However training schemes vary and different pathways may be available.
Medical intern is a term used in some countries to describe a physician in training who has completed medical school and has a medical degree, but does not yet have a full license to practice medicine unsupervised. Medical education generally ends with a period of practical training similar to internship, but the way the overall program of academic and practical medical training is structured differs depending upon the country, as does the terminology used.
Modern medical education in Hong Kong started with the founding of the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887. Currently, six institutes of higher education are engaged in the training of medical practitioners in Hong Kong.
Government Medical College, formerly known as Glancy Medical College, was established in 1864 in Lahore, British India and located to Amritsar, India in 1920.
In Canada, a medical school is a faculty or school of a university that trains future medical doctors and usually offers a three- to five-year Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery degree. Although presently most students enter medicine having previously earned another degree, the M.D. is technically considered an undergraduate degree in Canada. There are currently seventeen medical schools in Canada. Some faculties, such as Manitoba, McMaster, and Toronto, in addition to training would-be medical doctors, offer two-year bachelor's or master's degrees to train physician assistants.
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States. A DO graduate may become licensed as an osteopathic physician, having equivalent rights, privileges, and responsibilities as a physician who has earned the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. DO physicians are licensed to practice the full scope of medicine and surgery in 65 countries, and in all 50 US states. They constitute 11% of all US physicians. As of 2018, there were more than 145,000 osteopathic medical physicians and osteopathic medical students in the United States.
Compulsory Rotatory Residential Internship (CRRI) refers to one-year compulsory work in the hospital attached to the medical college or in any other approved hospital as allowed in some medical colleges, for a period of one year. This is required for the award of the Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery medical degree in India.
A clinical officer (CO) is a gazetted officer who is qualified and authorized to practice medicine. A clinical officer observes, interviews and examines sick and healthy individuals in all specialties to determine and document their health status and applies relevant pathological, radiological, psychiatric and community health techniques, procedures and findings needed to establish a provisional or final diagnosis upon which to prescribe, initiate, carry out or terminate treatment or therapy based on their specialized knowledge, skills and experience in clinical pharmacology, use of clinical guidelines, best practices and disease patterns as well as individual patient and community characteristics while being actively pharmacovigilant to prevent, identify, minimize and manage drug reactions, drug errors, side effects and poisoning, overdiagnosis, overscreening, overtreatment and futile care. A clinical officer performs general and specialized medical duties such as diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury, ordering and interpreting medical tests, performing routine medical and surgical procedures, referring patients to other practitioners and managing health departments, institutions, projects and systems.
The University of Health Sciences is a public university offering degrees in health sciences in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Kathmandu Medical College And Teaching Hospital (KMCTH) is a medical school located in Kathmandu the capital city of Nepal.