Diploma

Last updated

A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study. The word diploma also refers to an academic award which is given after the completion of study in different courses such as diploma in higher education, diploma in graduation or diploma in post graduation etc. Historically, it can also refer to a charter or official document, [1] thus diplomatic, [2] diplomat [3] and diplomacy [4] via the Codex Juris Gentium Diplomaticus. [2]

Diplomat person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with another state or international organization

A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state; initiation and facilitation of strategic agreements; treaties and conventions; promotion of information; trade and commerce; technology; and friendly relations. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organizations as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are members of foreign services and diplomatic corps of various nations of the world.

Diplomacy art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states

Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" also covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials.

Contents

The diploma (as a document certifying a qualification) may also be called a testamur, Latin for "we testify" or "certify" (testari), so called from the word with which the certificate begins; [5] this is commonly used in Australia to refer to the document certifying the award of a degree. [6] [7] [8] Alternatively, this document can simply be referred to as a degree certificate or graduation certificate, or as a parchment. [9] The certificate that a Nobel laureate receives is also called a diploma.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Nobel Prize set of annual international awards, primarily 5 established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

The term diploma is also used in some historical contexts, to refer to documents signed by a King affirming a grant or tenure of specified land and its conditions (see Anglo-Saxon Charters and Diplomatics).

Diplomatics, or diplomatic, is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of documents: especially, historical documents. It focuses on the conventions, protocols and formulae that have been used by document creators, and uses these to increase understanding of the processes of document creation, of information transmission, and of the relationships between the facts which the documents purport to record and reality.

Sheepskin diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin) SheepskinDiploma.jpg
Sheepskin diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin)
Diploma from a Spanish university in B4 size paper Diploma de Especialista Universitario de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid.jpg
Diploma from a Spanish university in B4 size paper
Diploma from a Portuguese university in A4 size paper Diploma Pos Graduacao Parte Curricular Mestrado.jpg
Diploma from a Portuguese university in A4 size paper

Usage

Australia

In Australia, there are three varieties of Diploma currently recognized by the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF):

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Australian Qualifications Framework organization

The Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) specifies the standards for educational qualifications in Australia. It is administered nationally by the Australian Government's Department of Industry, with oversight from the States and Territories, through the Standing Council of Tertiary Education Skills and Employment. While the AQF specifies the standards, education and training organisations are authorised by accrediting authorities to issue a qualification.

The "Vocational Graduate Diploma" was a short lived AQF qualification equivalent to the "Graduate Diploma", intended to be delivered exclusively in the VET sector. On January 1, 2015, all such qualifications being offered lost the word "Vocational" from their title.

Canada

In Ontario, Canada, diplomas are awarded by colleges of applied arts and technology whereas bachelor degrees are awarded by universities. In Canada, depending on the provincial legislation, there may also be a difference between a college and a university.

Germany and the German academic education system in Europe

In Germany, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary and other countries that adopted the German academic education system, diploma (in German Diplom ) is the standard academic degree, needing at least 3.5 years to complete it, being comparable with a Bachelor's and Master's degree in one.


Greece

In Greece, diplomas can be awarded by educational institutes as a proof of a certain educational level. The diploma in engineering is a degree provided by Greek technical universities and universities after the successful completion of a five-year integrated study program and it is equivalent to the Master of Engineering degree, which is awarded by the European universities.

Also in Greece there are the Vocational Training Diploma [10] (Post-Secondary Education EQF 5 level) provided by the National Qualifications and Vocational Guidance Organization (E.O.P.P.E.P.) to the Vocational Training Institutes IEK, following certification exams carried out by the E.O.P.P.E.P. [11]

Greek Vocational Training Diploma Diploma-IEK.jpg
Greek Vocational Training Diploma

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, Diploma or Advanced Diploma/Certificate (Qualifications Frameworks Level 4), Professional Diploma/Certificate (Qualifications Frameworks Level 4), Higher Diploma, and Associate Degree are below the level of the Bachelor Degree.

Certificate (not Post-Graduate Certificate) Qualifications Frameworks Level 3 or below; are below the level of Diploma, Advanced or Professional Diploma/Certificate (Qualifications Frameworks Level 4), Higher Diploma or Associate Degree.

Postgraduate Certificates and Postgraduate Diplomas are usually granted after the Bachelor Degree. It's more vocational oriented than a Master's Degree.

India

In India, a diploma is a specific academic award usually earned in professional/vocational courses, e.g., Diploma in Engineering, Diploma in Nursing, Diploma in Pharmacy etc. Engineering diploma is concentrated for the area of study, e.g., diploma in Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering etc.

Postgraduate Diploma or PGD are ranked higher than the Bachelor's degree as they are completed after graduation. These are normally a year's worth of coursework after a university degree.

There are two types of diplomas/certificate issuance which are issued in formal education sector & non formal education sector. Formal education sector diploma/certificates are issued by govt. approved/recognized institution, colleges and universities etc. and non formal education sector diploma/certificates are issued by NGOs, companies and societies etc. outside formal education sector.

Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, a National Diploma was awarded before 2004. It was at the same level as the ordinary bachelor's degree and below the honours Bachelor's degree, whilst the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor's degree. There is BTEC Extended Diploma also after which one gets progression to a Degree(University).

Latin America

In Mexico and other Latin American countries, a diploma may be awarded for short courses of vocational training. The university-issued diplomas finalizing higher education are most often called título (title) or certificado (certificate). A "Diplomado" can also be a short, specialized executive education program for experienced professionals.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, a diploma is a specific academic award usually earned in professional/vocational courses e.g. Diploma in Engineering, Diploma in Nursing, Diploma in Pharmacy etc. Engineering diploma is called Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE) and is concentrated for the area of study, e.g., Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Civil Engineering etc. DAE holders are often called associate engineers in Pakistan.

Postgraduate Diploma or PGD are ranked higher than the Bachelor's degree as they are completed after graduation. These are normally a year's worth of coursework after a university degree.

Singapore

In Singapore, most diplomas are awarded after a three-year course, offered by the various polytechnics (e.g. Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore Polytechnic, etc.) or the two arts institutions (e.g. Nanyang Academy of Fine Arts, LASALLE College of the Arts). Other private schools also offer diploma programmes for just one year. (e.g. Kaplan / MDIS/ PSB Academy) In Singapore, a diploma is able to land you in a job to start your career. However, many people are not satisfied with the diploma and move on to pursue their bachelor's degree. Diplomas in Singapore are well recognised by various other countries, due to Singapore's high standards or education.

Spain

In the Kingdom of Spain, university diplomas are issued in the name of the King. As such, they are Public Official documents, strictly regulated and protected by the law. They are internationally recognized by the Hague Convention of October 5, 1961.

United Kingdom

In the UK, diploma can refer to several different types of qualification. A Diploma can be a qualification worth 37 or more credits on the Regulated Qualifications Framework, e.g. Entry Level Diploma, Level 3 Diploma. The Diploma of Higher Education is a higher education award below the standard of a bachelor's degree, at the same level as a Foundation Degree. The Higher National Diploma is a vocational qualification at the same level. A Graduate Diploma is a one-year qualification at bachelor's degree level, normally taken by those who have already obtained a degree. A Postgraduate Diploma is an award at the level of a master's degree, but normally taking less time to complete. [12]

Some universities may offer other qualifications, such as the University of Cambridge's Undergraduate Diploma (a 1-year, part-time cost at the same level as a Diploma of Higher Education) [13] and Advanced Diploma (equivalent to a Graduate Diploma). [14]

The document certifying the award of a degree is normally called a degree certificate in the UK, and details are printed in English, not in Latin. [15]

United States

In the USA, the word diploma usually refers to the actual document received at the end of high school, undergraduate studies, or graduate/professional school. This can lead to some confusion when persons who obtained US degrees are presenting their academic credentials in other countries.

Diploma also can refer to a specific academic or training award. An example of the former is in the field of Nursing where the Diploma in Nursing was offered by hospital based schools.

In an even wider fashion, a diplomat can refer to a person holding a specific accreditation. It can also mean what colleges will be willing to take you in freshman year of college.

International

The International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma is a pre-university qualification normally taken by students in the final two years of high school. [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

Apprenticeship System of employment

An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study. Apprenticeship also enables practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated profession. Most of their training is done while working for an employer who helps the apprentices learn their trade or profession, in exchange for their continued labor for an agreed period after they have achieved measurable competencies. Apprenticeships typically last 3 to 7 years. People who successfully complete an apprenticeship reach the "journeyman" or professional certification level of competence.

A master's degree is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.

An associate degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study intended to usually last two years or more. It is considered to be a higher level of education than a high school diploma or GED. The first associate degrees were awarded in the UK in 1873 before spreading to the US in 1898. In the United States, the associate degree may allow transfer into the third year of a bachelor's degree. Associate degrees have since been introduced in a small number of other countries.

A graduate diploma is generally a qualification taken after completion of a first degree, although the level of study varies in different countries from being at the same level as the final year of a bachelor's degree to being at a level between a master's degree and a doctorate. In some countries the graduate diploma and postgraduate diploma are synonymous, while in others the postgraduate diploma is a higher qualification.

A higher diploma is an academic award in Iraq, Libya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Ireland and Oman. In Iraq, it's one year after bachelor's degree. In Ireland it is a postgraduate qualification at the same level of the honours bachelor's degree. In the United Kingdom, the diploma is equivalent to higher tier (A*-C) GCSE.

A postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree. It can be contrasted with a graduate diploma. Countries that award postgraduate diplomas include but are not limited to Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Germany, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Spain, South Africa, India, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Republic of Panama the Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Pakistan, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago. Level of education and recognition differ per issuing country.

A Higher National Diploma (HND) is a higher education qualification of the United Kingdom. A qualification of the same title is also offered in Argentina, Finland, India, Malta, Nigeria, Ghana and some other countries with British ties. This qualification can be used to gain entry into universities at an advanced level, and is considered equivalent to the second year of a three-year university degree course, or the third year of a four-year university degree course, or in some cases equivalent to a university degree.

A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries. The term is also used for a person who holds this degree. The term derives from Latin licentia, "freedom", which is applied in the phrases licentia docendi meaning permission to teach and licentia ad practicandum signifying someone who holds a certificate of competence to practise a profession. Many countries have degrees with this title, but they may represent different educational levels.

The term "honours degree" has various meanings in the context of different degrees and education systems. Most commonly it refers to a variant of the undergraduate bachelor's degree containing a larger volume of material or a higher standard of study, or both, rather than an "ordinary", "general" or "pass" bachelor's degree. Honours degrees are sometimes indicated by "Hons" after the degree abbreviation, with various punctuation according to local custom, e.g. "BA (Hons)", "B.A., Hons", etc.

A postgraduate certificate (abbreviated as PGCert, PgCert, PG Cert, PGC, or PgC is a postgraduate qualification at the level of a master's degree.

Academic certificate document that certifies that a person has received specific education or has passed a test or series of tests.

An academic certificate is a document that certifies that a person has received specific education or has passed a test or series of tests.

The Malaysian Qualifications Framework or the MQF is a unified system of post secondary qualifications offered on a national basis in Malaysia. It is administered by the Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA), a statutory body under the purview of the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE).

In the UK education sector, there are a wide range of qualification types offered by the United Kingdom awarding bodies. Qualifications range in size and type, can be academic, vocational or skills-related, and are grouped together into different levels of difficulty. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, qualifications are divided into Higher Education qualifications, which are on the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) and are awarded by bodies with degree awarding powers, and Regulated qualifications, which are on the Regulated Qualifications Framework (RQF) and are accredited by Ofqual in England, the Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment in Northern Ireland and Qualifications Wales in Wales. In Scotland, qualifications are divided into Higher Education qualifications, Scottish Qualifications Authority qualifications and Scottish Vocational Qualifications/Modern Apprenticeships, all of which are on the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF). Scottish Higher Education Qualifications are on both the SCQF and the FHEQ.

A graduate certificate is an educational credential representing completion of specialized training at the college or university level. A graduate certificate can be awarded by universities upon completion of certain coursework indicating mastering of a specific subject area. Graduate certificates represent training at different levels in different countries and can be at bachelor's degree or master's degree level.

Alternative pathways in education are alternative means of obtaining educational qualifications, other than the traditional means of gaining access to or completing the required study to obtain the educational qualifications.

Post-secondary qualifications are qualifications typically studied for after successful completion of secondary school. In Mauritius, this is usually after successful completion of the Higher School Certificate or its equivalent, although select qualifications may permit early school leaving or require additional study. A variety of different post-secondary qualifications are offered in Mauritius.

The national qualification frameworks in the United Kingdom are qualifications frameworks that define and link the levels and credit values of different qualifications.

Post-secondary qualifications are qualifications typically studied for after successful completion of secondary school. In Sri Lanka, this is usually after successful completion of the General Certificate of Education. A variety of different post-secondary qualifications are offered in Sri Lanka.

References

  1. "Diploma". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  2. 1 2 "Diplomatic". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  3. "Diplomat". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  4. "Diplomacy". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  5. "Testamur". Collins Dictionary. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  6. "Testamur (degree certificates)". Monash University . Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  7. "My Graduation Certificate". University of Melbourne . Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  8. "Testamur (certificate)". University of Wollongong . Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  9. "Parchment". Merriam-Webster . Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  10. http://proson.eoppep.gr/en/QualificationTypes/Details/56
  11. https://eoppep.gr/index.php/en/
  12. "What qualification levels mean". Gov.uk. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  13. "Undergraduate Certificates and Diplomas". Institute of Continuing Education. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  14. "Advanced Diploma in Economics". Faculty of Economics. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  15. "Advice and Guidance on Degree Fraud" (PDF). Higher Education Degree Datacheck. Prospects. 2016. It has not been practice for UK providers to issue degree certificates in Latin for at least 10 years. Contemporary certificates are in English. Latin versions are occasionally issued as mementos, but are supplementary to the English version.
  16. "International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme". Retrieved 2007-05-08.