Harvard University

Last updated

Harvard University
Harvard shield wreath.svg
Latin: Universitas Harvardiana
Former names
Harvard College
Motto Veritas [1] [2]
Motto in English
Type Private nonprofit university
Established1636 (1636) [3]
Endowment $40.9 billion [4]
President Lawrence Bacow
Academic staff
~2,400 faculty members (and >10,400 academic appointments in affiliated teaching hospitals) [5]
Students20,739 (Fall 2018) [6]
Undergraduates 6,788 (Fall 2018) [6]
Postgraduates 13,951 (Fall 2018) [6]
Location, ,
United States

42°22′28″N71°07′01″W / 42.37444°N 71.11694°W / 42.37444; -71.11694 Coordinates: 42°22′28″N71°07′01″W / 42.37444°N 71.11694°W / 42.37444; -71.11694
Campus Urban
209 acres (85 ha)
Newspaper The Harvard Crimson
Colors      Crimson [5]
Athletics NCAA Division IIvy League
Nickname Harvard Crimson
Affiliations NAICU
Website harvard.edu

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,800 undergraduate students and about 14,000 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning. [7] Its history, influence, wealth, and academic reputation have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]


The Massachusetts Great and General Court authorized Harvard's founding. In its early years, Harvard College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. [14] [15] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. [16] A. Lawrence Lowell, who succeeded Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical campus. James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II; he began to liberalize admissions after the war.

The university is composed of eleven principal academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout Greater Boston: [17] its 209-acre (85 ha) original undergraduate campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, approximately 3 miles (5 km) northwest of Boston; the business school and many athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical, dental, and public health schools are in the Longwood Medical Area. [18] Harvard's endowment is worth $40.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. [4] Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. [19] While the nominal cost of attendance is high, the university's sizeable endowment allows it to offer generous, no-loan financial aid packages and use need-blind admission. [20] The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. [21] [22] [23] [24]

Harvard's alumni include 8 U.S. presidents, more than 30 foreign heads of state, 188 living billionaires, 369 Rhodes Scholars, and 252 Marshall Scholars. [25] [26] [27] As of March 2020, 160 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, and 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. [28] In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold, 41 silver, and 21 bronze), and founded many notable companies worldwide. [29] [30] [31]



The official seal of the Harvard Corporation. Found on Harvard diplomas, it carries the university's original motto, Christo et Ecclesiae ("For Christ and Church"), later changed to Veritas ("Truth"). Harvard College Seal.png
The official seal of the Harvard Corporation. Found on Harvard diplomas, it carries the university's original motto, Christo et Ecclesiae ("For Christ and Church"), later changed to Veritas ("Truth").
Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere, 1767 A Westerly View of the Colledges in Cambridge New England by Paul Revere.jpeg
Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere, 1767

Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. [32] [33] In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his library of some 400 volumes. [34] The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.

A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust"; [35] in its early years trained many Puritan ministers. [36] It offered a classic curriculum on the English university modelmany leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches. [37]

Increase Mather served as president from 1681 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college away from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. [38]

19th century

John Harvard statue, Harvard Yard John Harvard statue at Harvard University.jpg
John Harvard statue, Harvard Yard

In the 19th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will were widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties. [39] :1–4 When Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and President Joseph Willard died a year later, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency two years later, signaling the shift from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas (defined by traditionalists as Unitarian ideas). [39] :4–5 [40] :24

In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences." Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time. The popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" probably also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the "official philosophy" of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school. [41]

Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions. Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God in each person. [42]

In 1876, Harvard became the first American university to award a PhD in economics. [43]

20th century

Richard Rummell's 1906 watercolor landscape view, facing northeast. Rummell, Richard Harvard University.jpg
Richard Rummell's 1906 watercolor landscape view, facing northeast.
Harvard Yard as seen from the Smith Campus Center Harvard square harvard yard.JPG
Harvard Yard as seen from the Smith Campus Center

During the 20th century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate college expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900. [16]

In the early 20th century, the student body was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians," a group later called "WASPs." A 1923 proposal by President A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from Harvard Yard, writing that "forcing" blacks and whites to live together "would increase a prejudice that ... is most unfortunate and probably growing." [45] [46] [47] [48]

President James Bryant Conant reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee Harvard's preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty to make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as at the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in 20th century American education. [49]

Between 1945 and 1960, admissions were opened up to bring in a more diverse group of students. No longer drawing mostly from rich alumni of select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college was now open to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics, or Asians. [50] Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Harvard became more diverse. [51]

Harvard's graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century. During World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women) began attending Harvard classes alongside men. [52] Women were first admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945. [53] Since 1971, Harvard has controlled essentially all aspects of undergraduate admission, instruction, and housing for Radcliffe women. In 1999, Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard. [54]

21st century

Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard's first woman president on July 1, 2007. [55] She was succeeded by Lawrence Bacow on July 1, 2018. [56]

In February 2020, the United States Department of Education started an investigation into whether Harvard University failed to properly report hundreds of millions of dollars in foreign gifts and contracts. This investigation is part of a growing probe by US federal agencies into whether China and other countries gained inappropriate influence and access into American higher education. [57]

With the launch of the Harvard Financial Aid Initiative in 2004, the 21st century also saw an increased emphasis on providing financial aid to promote access for students from all economic backgrounds. [58] Since 2004, there have been several significant expansions of Harvard's financial aid program. [59] [60] [61] As of 2020, more than half of Harvard College students receive loan-free scholarship aid from the university. [62]



Memorial Hall Sanders theater 2009y.JPG
Memorial Hall
University seal USA-Harvard University.jpg
University seal

Harvard's 209-acre (85 ha) main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about 3 miles (5 km) west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard itself contains key administrative offices such as University Hall and Massachusetts Hall; libraries such as Widener, Pusey, Houghton, and Lamont; Memorial Church; academic buildings such as Sever Hall and Harvard Hall; and most freshman dormitories. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the "Quad") which housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. Each residential house is a community with undergraduates, faculty deans, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall, library, and recreational spaces. [63] The houses were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness. [64]

Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now home to Harvard's Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, [65] is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common.

Memorial Church Harvard memorial church winter 2009.JPG
Memorial Church

Between 2014 and 2016, Harvard University reported crime statistics for its main Cambridge campus that included 141 forcible sex offenses, 33 robberies, 46 aggravated assaults, 151 burglaries, and 32 cases of motor vehicle theft. [66]

Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge and Allston, on which it pays property taxes. [67] This includes the Allston Doubletree Hotel, The Inn at Harvard, and the Harvard Square Hotel. [68]


Harvard Business School and many athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a 358-acre (145 ha) campus in Allston, [69] a Boston neighborhood just across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses.

Intending a major expansion, Harvard now owns more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge. [70] A ten-year plan calls for 1.4 million square feet (130,000 square meters) of new construction and 500,000 square feet (50,000 square meters) of renovations, including new and renovated buildings at Harvard Business School, a hotel and conference center, a multipurpose institutional building, renovations to graduate student housing and Harvard Stadium, new athletics facilities, new laboratories and classrooms for the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), expansion of the Harvard Education Portal, and a district energy facility. [71]

In June 2020, SEAS will expand into the new, 500,000+ square foot Science and Engineering Complex (SEC) in Allston. [72] The SEC will be adjacent to the Enterprise Research Campus in synergy with Harvard Business School and the Harvard Innovation Lab to encourage technology- and life science-focused startups as well as collaborations with mature companies. [73]


Harvard Medical School, the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health are located on a 21-acre (8.5 ha) campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area in Boston about 3.3 miles (5.3 km) south of the Cambridge campus. [18] Several of Harvard's affiliated hospitals and research institutes are also in Longwood, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Additional affiliates, most notably Massachusetts General Hospital, are located throughout the Greater Boston area.


Harvard also owns and operates the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection in Washington, D.C., the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts, the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, Massachusetts, [74] the Villa I Tatti research center in Florence, Italy, [75] the Harvard Shanghai Center in Shanghai, China, [76] and the Arnold Arboretum in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston.

Organization and administration


College/schoolYear founded
Harvard College 1636
Medicine 1782
Divinity 1816
Law 1817
Dental Medicine 1867
Arts and Sciences 1872
Business 1908
Extension 1910
Design 1914
Education 1920
Public Health 1922
Government 1936
Engineering and Applied Sciences 2007
Harvard Medical School Harvard Medical School HDR.jpg
Harvard Medical School

Harvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University. [77] There are 16,000 staff and faculty, [78] including 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors. [79]

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences is the largest Harvard faculty and has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are nine other graduate and professional faculties as well as the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.

Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX.


Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world, valued at about $40.9 billion as of 2019. [4] During the Great Recession, it suffered significant losses that forced large budget cuts, but the endowment has since recovered. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] One of the most visible results of Harvard's attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting [84] of construction of the $1.2 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents. [86]

Since 2016, Narv Narvekar has been the CEO of the endowment. [87] Almost $2 billion annually is distributed from the endowment to fund operations. [87] Harvard's ability to fund its degree and financial aid programs is highly dependent on the performance of its endowment; a poor performance in fiscal year 2016 led to a 4.4% cut in the number of graduate students funded by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. [88] Endowment income is critical as only 22% of revenue is from tuition, fees, room, and board. [89]


Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard's endowment from holdings the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa, the tobacco industry, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, the fossil fuel industry, and the private prison industry. [90] [91]

During the divestment from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown. [92] [93] But the Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, responding that "operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups." [94] Eventually, the university reduced its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure. [92] [95]



Harvard's undergraduate admissions process is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation as "more selective, lower transfer-in." [19] Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities, and personal qualities. For the undergraduate class of 2022, Harvard had 42,749 applicants, accepting 2,024 (4.7%) and enrolling 1,653. [96] The middle 50% range of SAT scores of enrolled freshmen was 720–780 for reading and writing and 740–800 for math, while the middle 50% range of the ACT composite score was 33–35. [96] The average high school grade point average (GPA) was 4.18. [96]

Harvard College ended its early admissions program in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and minority applicants applying to selective universities, but for the class of 2016 and beyond, an early action program was reintroduced. [97] The freshman class that entered in the fall of 2017 was the first to be predominantly (50.8%) nonwhite. [98]

A federal lawsuit alleges that Harvard's admissions policies discriminate against Asian Americans, who tend to be overrepresented among students with high academic achievement. [99] [100] A 2019 district court decision in the case (which has since been appealed) found no evidence of explicit racial bias but did not rule out a small amount of implicit bias. [101] Harvard has implemented more implicit bias training for its admissions staff in accordance with the court's recommendations. [102] [103]

Harvard's admissions preference for children of alumni, employees, and donors has been criticized as favoring white and wealthy candidates. [104] [105] One study based on data made public by the lawsuit found that from 2014 to 2019, 43% of white students admitted were children of alumni or employees, relatives of donors, or recruited athletes. The authors estimated about three-quarters of these students would have been rejected had they been considered as white students not falling into one of these categories. [106]

As of the 2019–2020 academic year, Harvard College tuition was about $48,000, contributing to about $70,000 in billed costs. [20] Harvard's extensive fundraising allows it to offer one of the most generous financial aid programs in the country, with need-blind admission and 100% of demonstrated financial need met for both domestic and international students. [20] Families with incomes below $65,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, while families earning between $65,000 and $150,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes. [20] Financial aid is solely based on need; no merit or athletic scholarships are offered. [20]

Teaching and learning

Massachusetts Hall (1720), Harvard's oldest building Massachusetts Hall, Harvard University.JPG
Massachusetts Hall (1720), Harvard's oldest building
Harvard Yard HarvardYard.jpg
Harvard Yard

Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. [19] The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929 [108] and offers 50 undergraduate concentrations (majors), [109] 134 graduate degrees, [110] and 32 professional degrees. [111] For the 2018–2019 academic year, Harvard granted 1,665 baccalaureate degrees, 1,013 graduate degrees, and 5,695 professional degrees. [111]

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has an arts and sciences instructional focus. [19] Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration. [112] Between 2008 and 2019, undergraduate students were required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies of the World, and United States in the World. [113] In 2019, a new General Education program was implemented with four categories: "Aesthetics and Culture," "Ethics and Civics," "Histories, Societies, Individuals," and "Science and Technology in Society." [114] Although some introductory courses have large enrollments, most courses are small: the median class size is just 12 students. [115]

Harvard's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early September and ending in mid-May. [116] Undergraduates typically take four courses per term to graduate on time. [117] In most concentrations, students can pursue either a basic program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and advanced coursework. [118] Harvard hosts chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa as well as various committees and departments that award hundreds of named prizes annually. [119] Along with other universities, Harvard has been accused of grade inflation, [120] although there is evidence that the quality of its student body has also increased. [121] The number of students who receive Latin honors was reduced from 90% to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the honors of "John Harvard Scholar" and "Harvard College Scholar" are now given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class. [122] [123] [124] [125]

University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage a "culture of cheating." [126] [127] [128] In 2012, dozens of students were expelled for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students. [129] In 2013, a survey suggested that 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the university. [130] These incidents prompted the university to adopt an honor code, [128] [131] [132] and the number of alleged academic violations has since decreased. [133]

Harvard students (excluding Extension School and Summer School students) may cross-register for classes at the neighboring Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [134]


Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American Universities [135] and remains a preeminent research university with "very high" research activity (R1) and comprehensive doctoral programs across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine according to the Carnegie Classification. [19]

With Harvard Medical School consistently ranking first among medical schools for research, [136] biomedical research is an area of particular strength for the university. More than 11,000 faculty members and over 1,600 medical and graduate students contribute to discovery and innovation at Harvard Medical School as well as its 15 affiliated hospitals and research institutes. [137] Harvard Medical School and its affiliates attracted $1.65 billion in competitive research grants from the National Institutes of Health in 2019, more than twice as much as any other university. [138]

Research opportunities are available to undergraduates as well, as early as their freshman year. [139] Numerous mechanisms for funding and faculty mentorship are available during both term-time and the summer. [139]

Libraries and museums

Widener Library anchors the Harvard Library system. Widener Library.jpg
Widener Library anchors the Harvard Library system.

The Harvard Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items. [21] [22] [24] According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the world. [22] [5]

Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.

Henry Moore's sculpture Large Four Piece Reclining Figure, near Lamont Library Henry Moore sculpture, Harvard University.jpg
Henry Moore's sculpture Large Four Piece Reclining Figure, near Lamont Library

The Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum covers Asian, Mediterranean, and Islamic art, the Busch–Reisinger Museum (formerly the Germanic Museum) covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, the Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier and housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Semitic Museum featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.


University rankings
ARWU [140] 1
Forbes [141] 1
Times/WSJ [142] 1
U.S. News & World Report [143] 2
Washington Monthly [144] 2
ARWU [145] 1
QS [146] 3
Times [147] 7
U.S. News & World Report [148] 1

Among overall rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has ranked Harvard as the world's top university every year since it was released. [151] When QS and Times Higher Education collaborated to publish the Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009, Harvard held the top spot every year and continued to hold first place on THE World Reputation Rankings ever since it was released in 2011. [152] In 2019, it was ranked first worldwide by SCImago Institutions Rankings . [153]

Among rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both the University Ranking by Academic Performance (2019–2020) and Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies. [154] According to annual polls done by The Princeton Review , Harvard is consistently among the top two most commonly named "dream colleges" in the United States, both for students and parents. [155] [156] [157] Additionally, having made significant investments in its engineering school in recent years, Harvard was ranked third worldwide for Engineering and Technology in 2019 by Times Higher Education. [158]

Student life

Demographics of student body (Fall 2019) [159] [160] [161] [162]
UndergradGrad/profUS census
Hispanic or Latino11%7%16%
Two or more races8%3%9%

Student government

The Harvard Undergraduate Council and the Harvard Graduate Council are the chief organs of student government.


The Harvard Crimson fields 42 intercollegiate sports teams in the NCAA Division I Ivy League, more than any other NCAA Division I college in the country. [163] Every two years, the Harvard and Yale track and field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University and Cambridge University team, a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world. [164] As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships. [165]

The Cornell-Harvard hockey rivalry match, 2006 Bright Hockey Center, Harvard.JPG
The Cornell–Harvard hockey rivalry match, 2006

Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply "The Game." While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it often was a century ago during football's early days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both Harvard and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. The stadium's structure actually played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, Walter Camp, former captain of the Yale football team, suggested widening the field to open up the game. But the stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface, so other steps had to be taken. Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season. These included legalizing the forward pass, perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport's history. [166] [167]

Harvard Stadium, home of Harvard Crimson and the Boston Cannons Harvard stadium 2009h.JPG
Harvard Stadium, home of Harvard Crimson and the Boston Cannons
Harvard men's eight crew at Henley, 2004 Harvard Rowing Crew at Henley 2004 -2.JPG
Harvard men's eight crew at Henley, 2004

Even older than HarvardYale football rivalry, the Harvard–Yale Regatta is held each June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing. Other sports in which Harvard teams are particularly strong are men's ice hockey, squash, and men's and women's fencing. Harvard's men's ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989, and Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003. Harvard was the first Ivy League school to win an NCAA Championship in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won in 1990. [168]

Harvard Undergraduate Television has footage from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep rally before The Game.

The school color is crimson, which is also the name of Harvard's sports teams and the student newspaper, The Harvard Crimson . The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president (1869–1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta.

Fight songs

Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" and "Harvardiana." While "Fair Harvard" is actually the alma mater, "Ten Thousand Men" is better known outside the university. The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs and other cheers at football and hockey games. These were parodied by Harvard alumnus Tom Lehrer in his song "Fight Fiercely, Harvard," which he composed while an undergraduate.

Notable people



Harvard's faculty includes numerous renowned scholars such as biologists E. O. Wilson and William Kaelin Jr.; biophysicists Adam Cohen and Xiaowei Zhuang; physicists Lisa Randall, Subir Sachdev, and Howard Georgi; astrophysicists Alyssa A. Goodman and John M. Kovac; mathematicians Shing-Tung Yau and Joe Harris; computer scientists Michael O. Rabin and Leslie Valiant; chemists Elias James Corey, Dudley R. Herschbach, and George M. Whitesides; literary critics Helen Vendler, Stephen Greenblatt, Louis Menand, and Stephanie Burt; composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands; lawyers Alan Dershowitz and Lawrence Lessig; historian Henry Louis Gates Jr.; psychologists Steven Pinker and Daniel Gilbert; economists Amartya Sen, Greg Mankiw, Robert Barro, Stephen Marglin, Jason Furman, Michael Kremer, Oliver Hart, Raj Chetty, Lawrence Summers, and Eric Maskin; philosophers Harvey Mansfield, Shirley Williams, Cornel West, and Michael J. Sandel; and political scientists Robert Putnam, Steven Levitsky, Danielle Allen, and Joseph Nye.

Past faculty members include Stephen Jay Gould, Robert Nozick, Stephan Thernstrom, Sanford J. Ungar, Michael Walzer, Martin Feldstein, Roy Glauber, and Stanley Hoffmann.

Tower at the University of Puerto Rico, showing (right) the emblem of Harvard University--the oldest in the United States--and (left) that of National University of San Marcos, Lima--the oldest in the Americas Clock Tower University of Puerto Rico-San Marcos-Harvard.jpg
Tower at the University of Puerto Rico, showing (right) the emblem of Harvard Universitythe oldest in the United Statesand (left) that of National University of San Marcos, Limathe oldest in the Americas

The perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said. [169]



Harvard's policy since 1970 has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere. [175] [176]

See also

Related Research Articles

Barnard College private womens liberal arts college in the United States

Barnard College is a private women's liberal arts college located in Manhattan, New York City. Founded in 1889 by Annie Nathan Meyer, who named it after Columbia University's 10th president, Frederick Barnard, it is one of many women's colleges founded in the nineteenth century. Barnard College is one of Columbia University's four official undergraduate colleges. The acceptance rate of the Class of 2023 was 11.3%, the most selective and diverse class in the college's 129-year history.

Ivy League Athletic conference of 8 American universities

The Ivy League is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States. The term Ivy League is typically used to refer to those eight schools as a group of elite colleges beyond the sports context and has connotations of academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, and social elitism. Its members in alphabetical order are Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Yale University.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology University in Massachusetts

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university, with an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the Charles River. The Institute also encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Bates Center, and the Haystack Observatory, as well as affiliated laboratories such as the Broad and Whitehead Institutes. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It has since played a key role in the development of many aspects of modern science, engineering, mathematics, and technology, and is widely known for its innovation and academic strength, making it one of the most prestigious institutions of higher learning in the world.

Princeton University University in Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The institution moved to Newark in 1747, then to the current site nine years later, and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896.

Tufts University Private research university in Medford/Somerville, Massachusetts

Tufts University is a private research university in Medford and Somerville, Massachusetts. Tufts College was founded in 1852 by Christian universalists who worked for years to open a nonsectarian institution of higher learning. It was a small New England liberal arts college until its transformation into a larger research university in the 1970s. Tufts emphasizes active citizenship and public service in all its disciplines, and is known for its internationalism and study abroad programs.

Radcliffe College Former womens college in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and functioned as the female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College. It was one of the Seven Sisters colleges and held the popular reputation of having a particularly intellectual, literary, and independent-minded female student body. Radcliffe conferred Radcliffe College diplomas to undergraduates and graduate students for approximately the first 70 years of its history and then joint Harvard-Radcliffe diplomas to undergraduates beginning in 1963. A formal "non-merger merger" agreement with Harvard was signed in 1977, with full integration with Harvard completed in 1999. Today, within Harvard University, Radcliffe's former administrative campus is home to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and former Radcliffe housing at the Radcliffe Quadrangle has been incorporated into the Harvard College house system. Under the terms of the 1999 consolidation, the Radcliffe Yard and the Radcliffe Quadrangle retain the "Radcliffe" designation in perpetuity.

Harvard College Main undergraduate school of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Harvard College is the undergraduate college of Harvard University, an Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636, Harvard College is the original school of Harvard University, which is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world.

Clark University Private research university in Worcester, Massachusetts

Clark University is a private research university in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded in 1887 with a large endowment from its namesake Jonas Gilman Clark, a prominent businessman, Clark was one of the first modern research universities in the United States. Originally an all-graduate institution, Clark's first undergraduates entered in 1902 and women were first enrolled in 1942. The university now offers 46 majors, minors, and concentrations in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering and allows students to design specialized majors and engage in pre-professional programs. It is noted for its programs in the fields of psychology, geography, physics, biology, and entrepreneurship and is a member of the Higher Education Consortium of Central Massachusetts which enables students to cross-register to attend courses at other area institutions including Worcester Polytechnic Institute and the College of the Holy Cross. As a liberal arts–based research university, Clark makes substantial research opportunities available to its students, notably at the undergraduate level through LEEP project funding, yet is also respected for its intimate environment as the second smallest university counted among the top 66 national universities by U.S. News & World Report and as one of 40 Colleges That Change Lives.

The Seven Sisters are seven highly selective and prestigious liberal arts colleges in the Northeastern United States that are historically women's colleges. Five of the seven institutions continue to offer all-female undergraduate programs: Barnard College, Bryn Mawr College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, and Wellesley College. Vassar College has been co-educational since 1969. Radcliffe College shared common and overlapping history with Harvard College from the time it was founded as "the Harvard Annex" in 1879. Harvard and Radcliffe effectively merged in 1977, but Radcliffe continued to be the sponsoring college for women at Harvard until its dissolution in 1999. Barnard College was Columbia University's women's liberal arts undergraduate college until its all-male coordinate school Columbia College went co-ed in 1983; to this day, Barnard continues to be a women's undergraduate college affiliated with Columbia.

University of Alabama Public university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, U.S.

The University of Alabama is a public research university in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Established in 1820, the University of Alabama is the oldest and largest of the public universities in Alabama as well as the flagship of the University of Alabama System. The university offers programs of study in 13 academic divisions leading to bachelor's, master's, education specialist, and doctoral degrees. The only publicly supported law school in the state is at UA. Other academic programs unavailable elsewhere in Alabama include doctoral programs in anthropology, communication and information sciences, metallurgical engineering, music, Romance languages, and social work.

Northeastern University Private university in Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Northeastern University is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, established in 1898. It is categorized as an R1 institution by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in Boston. The university has satellite campuses in Charlotte, North Carolina; Seattle, Washington; San Jose, California; Toronto, Vancouver, and Portland, Maine that exclusively offer graduate degrees. In 2019, Northeastern purchased the New College of the Humanities in London, England. The university's enrollment is approximately 18,000 undergraduate students and 8,000 graduate students.

University at Buffalo Public research university in Buffalo, New York

The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York. It is the flagship campus of the State University of New York (SUNY) system, with the largest enrollment, largest endowment, and research funding as a comprehensive university center. The university was founded in 1846 as a private medical college, but in 1962 merged with the SUNY system.

Southern Methodist University Private university in Dallas, Texas, United States

Southern Methodist University (SMU) is a private research university in University Park, Texas, with satellite campuses in Plano, Texas and Taos, New Mexico. SMU was founded in April 17, 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South—now part of the United Methodist Church—in partnership with Dallas civic leaders. However, it is nonsectarian in its teaching and enrolls students of all religious affiliations. It is classified among "R-2: Doctoral Universities – High Research Activity".

Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS) is the largest of the twelve faculties that constitute Harvard University.

LeBaron Russell Briggs American educator

LeBaron Russell Briggs was an American educator. He was appointed the first Dean of Men at Harvard College, where he also served as dean of the faculty. He was also president of Radcliffe College and the National Collegiate Athletic Association, among other offices.

Harvard Extension School one of twelve degree-granting schools at Harvard

Harvard Extension School (HES) is the extension school and one of the twelve degree-granting schools that compose Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Under the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, individual courses among the school's liberal arts and professional offerings, a number of which have Harvard College equivalents, are open-enrollment. However, the Extension School also offers undergraduate degrees, graduate degrees, and certificates in more than 60 fields of study, provided that a qualifying test is passed, satisfactory grades are obtained in prior Harvard coursework, and a formal application is accepted. Degree candidates and alumni enjoy access to Harvard's many amenities and opportunities.

Lawrence "Larry" Seldon Bacow is an American lawyer, economist, author and university administrator, and currently the 29th President of Harvard University. He assumed office on July 1, 2018, succeeding Drew Gilpin Faust. Prior to assuming the presidency, Bacow was the Hauser leader-in-residence at the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He was previously at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and has been a member of the President and Fellows of Harvard College, one of the university's governing boards, since 2011.

Pforzheimer House

Pforzheimer House, nicknamed PfoHo (FOE-hoe), is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University. It was named in 1995 for Carol K. and Carl H. Pforzheimer, Jr., major University and Radcliffe College benefactors, and their family.

History of Harvard University

Harvard College, around which Harvard University eventually grew, was founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States.

This outline is provided as an overview of, and topical guide to Harvard University:


  1. 1 2 Harvard's Veritas appears on the university's arms; heraldically speaking, however, a 'motto' is a word or phrase displayed on a scroll in conjunction with a shield of arms. Since 1692, University seals have borne Christo et Ecclesiae (for Christ and the Church) in this manner, arguably making that phrase the university's motto in a heraldic sense. This legend is otherwise not in general use today.
  2. 1 2 3 Julie A. Reuben (1996). The Making of the Modern University: Intellectual Transformation and the Marginalization of Morality. University of Chicago Press. p. 1. ISBN   978-0-226-71020-4.
  3. An appropriation of £400 toward a "school or college" was voted on October 28, 1636 (OS), at a meeting which convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28. Some sources consider October 28, 1636 (OS) (November 7, 1636 NS) to be the date of founding. Harvard's 1936 tercentenary celebration treated September 18 as the founding date, though 1836 bicentennial was celebrated on September 8, 1836. Sources: meeting dates, Quincy, Josiah (1860). History of Harvard University. 117 Washington Street, Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co.CS1 maint: location (link), p. 586, "At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month (October, 1636)... the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year...." Tercentenary dates: "Cambridge Birthday". Time. September 28, 1936. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2006.: "Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding. This was Sept. 8, 1637 under the Julian calendar. Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept. 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;" "on Oct. 28, 1636 ... £400 for that 'school or college' [was voted by] the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony." Bicentennial date: Marvin Hightower (September 2, 2003). "Harvard Gazette: This Month in Harvard History". Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006. Retrieved September 15, 2006., "Sept. 8, 1836 – Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard's Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres "Fair Harvard." ... guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr., Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, 'that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8, 1936.'" Tercentary opening of Quincy's sealed package: The New York Times, September 9, 1936, p. 24, "Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard. It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary": "September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard's tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the 'mysterious' package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836."
  4. 1 2 3 Zhang, Cindy. "Harvard Endowment Returns 6.5 Percent for Fiscal Year 2019". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  5. 1 2 3 "Harvard at a Glance". Harvard University. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  6. 1 2 3 "Harvard Common Data Set 2018-2019, Part B" (PDF). Harvard University.
  7. Rudolph, Frederick (1961). The American College and University. University of Georgia Press. p. 3. ISBN   0-8203-1285-1.
  8. Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University. Oxford University Press. pp. 463–481. ISBN   0-19-514457-0. Harvard's professional schools... won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. [...] Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes.
  9. Spaulding, Christina (1989). "Sexual Shakedown". In Trumpbour, John (ed.). How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp.  326–336. ISBN   0-89608-284-9. ... [Harvard's] tremendous institutional power and prestige [...] Within the nation's (arguably) most prestigious institution of higher learning ...
  10. David Altaner (March 9, 2011). "Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 1, 2012.
  11. Collier's Encyclopedia. Macmillan Educational Co. 1986. Harvard University, one of the world's most prestigious institutions of higher learning, was founded in Massachusetts in 1636.
  12. Newport, Frank. "Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place". Gallup.
  13. Leonhardt, David (September 17, 2006). "Ending Early Admissions: Guess Who Wins?". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved March 27, 2020. The most prestigious college in the world, of course, is Harvard, and the gap between it and every other university is often underestimated.
  14. Story, Ronald (1975). "Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865". Journal of Social History. 8 (3): 94–121. doi:10.1353/jsh/8.3.94.
  15. Farrell, Betty G. (1993). Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston. State University of New York Press. ISBN   0-7914-1593-7.
  16. 1 2 "Member Institutions and years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  17. "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  18. 1 2 "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 "Carnegie Classifications – Harvard University". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 "How Aid Works" . Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  21. 1 2 "Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013". Harvard University Library. 2013. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  22. 1 2 3 "The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held". American Library Association. May 2009. Retrieved August 19, 2009.
  23. "Speaking Volumes". Harvard Gazette. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. February 26, 1998. Archived from the original on September 9, 1999.
  24. 1 2 Harvard Media Relations. "Quick Facts" . Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  25. "Five Harvard students named Rhodes Scholars". The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  26. Kathleen Elkins (May 18, 2018). "More billionaires went to Harvard than to Stanford, MIT and Yale combined". CNBC . Retrieved October 1, 2019.
  27. "Statistics". www.marshallscholarship.org.
  28. "The complete list of Fields Medal winners". areppim AG. 2014. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  29. "Pulitzer Prize Winners". Harvard University. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  30. "Harvard Olympians". gocrimson.com. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  31. "Companies - Entrepreneurship - Harvard Business School". entrepreneurship.hbs.edu. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  32. "The instrument behind New England's first literary flowering". Harvard University. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  33. "Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers, The First North American Printing Press" (PDF). Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  34. "John Harvard Facts, Information". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2009. He bequeathed £780 (half his estate) and his library of 320 volumes to the new established college at Cambridge, Mass., which was named in his honor.
  35. Wright, Louis B. (2002). The Cultural Life of the American Colonies. p. 116. ISBN   978-0-486-42223-7.
  36. Grigg, John A.; Mancall, Peter C. (2008). British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. 47. ISBN   978-1-59884-025-4.
  37. Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs (July 26, 2007). "Harvard guide intro". Harvard University. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  38. John Leverett - History - Office of the President Archived June 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  39. 1 2 Gary J. Dorrien. The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion, 1805–1900, Volume 1. Westminster John Knox Press, 2001
  40. Peter S. Field Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Making of a Democratic Intellectual Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 ISBN   978-0847688425
  41. Nartonis, David K. (2005). "Louis Agassiz and the Platonist Story of Creation at Harvard, 1795–1846". Journal of the History of Ideas. 66 (3): 437–449. doi:10.1353/jhi.2005.0045. JSTOR   3654189.
  42. Shoemaker, Stephen P. (2006–2007). "The Theological Roots of Charles W. Eliot's Educational Reforms". Journal of Unitarian Universalist History. 31: 30–45.
  43. American Women and the Professionalization of Economics
  44. "Arader Galleries Iconic College Views", Rummell, Richard, Littig & Co. 1915
  45. Jerome Karabel (2006). The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. p. 23. ISBN   9780618773558.
  46. Steinberg, Stephen (September 1, 1971). "How Jewish Quotas Began". Commentary. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  47. Johnson, Dirk (March 4, 1986). "YALE'S LIMIT ON JEWISH ENROLLMENT LASTED UNTIL EARLY 1960'S, BOOK SAYS". The New York Times.
  48. "Lowell Tells Jews Limits at Colleges Might Help Them". The New York Times. June 17, 1922.
  49. Anita Fay Kravitz, "The Harvard Report of 1945: An historical ethnography", Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1994, 367 pages; AAT 9427558
  50. Malka A. Older. (1996). Preparatory schools and the admissions process. The Harvard Crimson, January 24, 1996
  51. Powell, Alvin (October 1, 2018). "An update on Harvard's diversity, inclusion efforts". The Harvard Gazette.
  52. Schwager, Sally (2004). "Taking up the Challenge: The Origins of Radcliffe". In Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (ed.). Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 115. ISBN   1-4039-6098-4.
  53. First class of women admitted to Harvard Medical School, 1945 (Report). Countway Repository, Harvard University Library. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  54. Radcliffe Enters Historic Merger With Harvard (Report). Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  55. Associated Press (February 11, 2007). "Harvard Board Names First Woman President". NBC News. Retrieved August 8, 2015.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  56. "Harvard University names Lawrence Bacow its 29th president". Fox News. February 11, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  57. Staff, Writer (February 12, 2020). "US investigates Harvard, Yale for failure to report foreign gifts". Al Jazeera . Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  58. "Harvard Financial Aid Initiative". Harvard College Admissions & Financial Aid. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  59. "Harvard expands financial aid for low- and middle-income families". The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  60. "Harvard committed record $414 million to financial aid in 2016-17". The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  61. "40,246 apply to College Class of '24". The Harvard Gazette. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  62. "Financial Aid". Harvard College Griffin Financial Aid Office. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  63. "The Houses". Harvard College Dean of Students Office. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  64. "History of Harkness: The Men Behind the Plan" (PDF).
  65. Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard. Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard. President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016
  66. "17 asr final cambridge criminal statistics rev 102017.pdf" (PDF). Harvard University Police Department. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  67. "Institutional Ownership Map – Cambridge Massachusetts" (PDF).
  68. "Harvard Purchases Doubletree Hotel Building – News – The Harvard Crimson". www.thecrimson.com.
  69. Harvard continues its march into Allston, with science complex Tim Logan. Boston Globe. April 14, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016
  70. "Allston Planning and Development / Office of the Executive Vice President". Harvard University. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  71. Harvard unveils big campus expansion Svea Herbst-Bayliss. Reuters. January 12, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2016
  72. Haili, Ruth A.; Jia, Amy L. (October 22, 2019). "SEAS Students Conflicted About Allston Expansion". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  73. "Our Campus" . Retrieved December 20, 2019.
  74. "Concord Field Station". mcz.harvard.edu. Harvard University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  75. "Villa I Tatti: The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies". Itatti.it. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  76. "Shanghai Center". Harvard.edu.
  77. Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; Shenton, Robert (2009). Harvard A to Z. Harvard University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN   978-0-674-02089-4.
  78. Burlington Free Press, June 24, 2009, page 11B, ""Harvard to cut 275 jobs" Associated Press
  79. Office of Institutional Research (2009). Harvard University Fact Book 2009–2010 (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2011. ("Faculty")
  80. "Harvard Endowment Rises $4.4 Billion to $32 Billion". Harvard Magazine. Vol. November–December. 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  81. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
  82. Beth Healy (January 28, 2010). "Harvard endowment leads others down". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
  83. Hechinger, John (December 4, 2008). "Harvard Hit by Loss as Crisis Spreads to Colleges". Wall Street Journal. p. A1.
  84. 1 2 Munk, Nina (August 2009). "Nina Munk on Hard Times at Harvard". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  85. Andrew M. Rosenfield (March 4, 2009). "Understanding Endowments, Part I". Forbes. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  86. Vidya B. Viswanathan and Peter F. Zhu (March 5, 2009). "Residents Protest Vacancies in Allston". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
  87. 1 2 "A Singular Mission" . Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  88. "Admissions Cuts Concern Some Graduate Students" . Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  89. "Financial Report" (PDF). Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  90. Alli Welton (November 20, 2012). "Harvard Students Vote 72 Percent Support for Fossil Fuel Divestment". The Nation. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  91. Chaidez, Alexandra A. (October 22, 2019). "Harvard Prison Divestment Campaign Delivers Report to Mass. Hall". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  92. 1 2 Michael C. George; David W. Kaufman (May 23, 2012). "Students Protest Investment in Apartheid South Africa". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  93. Anjali Cadambi (September 19, 2010). "Harvard University community campaigns for divestment from apartheid South Africa, 1977–1989". Global Nonviolent Action Database. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  94. John Trumpbour (1989). How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp. 402–418. ISBN   978-0-89608-283-0.
  95. Robert Anthony Waters Jr. (March 20, 2009). Historical Dictionary of United States-Africa Relations. Scarecrow Press. p. 77. ISBN   978-0-8108-6291-3.
  96. 1 2 3 "Harvard Common Data Set 2018-2019" (PDF). Harvard University.
  97. Finder, Alan; Arenson, Karen W. (September 12, 2006). "Harvard Ends Early Admission". The New York Times .
  98. Fernandes, Deirdre (August 3, 2017). "The majority of Harvard's incoming class is nonwhite". The Boston Globe . Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  99. "Harvard's Ongoing Anti-Asian-American Micro-Aggression". National Review. June 19, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  100. "A lawsuit reveals how peculiar Harvard's definition of merit is". The Economist. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  101. "Harvard Won a Key Affirmative Action Battle. But the War's Not Over". New York Times. October 2, 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  102. Local Reaction To The Ruling In The Harvard Admission's Case
  103. "In Wake of Admissions Lawsuit Decision, Khurana Agrees Harvard Must Become Aware of Biases". The Crimson. October 23, 2019. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
  104. Golden, Daniel (January 15, 2003). "Admissions Preferences Given to Alumni Children Draws Fire". The Wall Street Journal.
  105. Golden, Daniel (2006). The Price of Admission: How America's Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Colleges—and Who Gets Left Outside the Gates. ISBN   1-4000-9796-7.
  106. A new statistic reveals the startling privilege of white kids admitted to Harvard
  107. Harvard College. "A Brief History of Harvard College". Harvard College. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  108. "Roster of Institutions". Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Archived from the original on August 28, 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  109. "Liberal Arts & Sciences". Harvard College. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  110. "Degree Programs" (PDF). Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Handbook. pp. 28–30. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 9, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  111. 1 2 "Degrees Awarded". Office of Institutional Research, Harvard University. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
  112. "Academic Information: The Core Curriculum Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  113. "Academic Information: Program in General Education Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  114. "Requirements" . Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  115. "How large are classes?". Harvard College. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  116. "5 Year Academic Calendar". Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  117. "The Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science Degrees". Harvard College. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  118. "Academic Information: The Concentration Requirement". Handbook for Students. Harvard College. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  119. "Prizes". Faculty of Arts & Sciences. Harvard University. 2010.
  120. Primack, Phil (October 5, 2008). "Doesn't Anybody Get a C Anymore?". The Boston Globe.
  121. Kohn, A (November 8, 2002). "The Dangerous Myth of Grade Inflation". The Chronicle of Higher Education . Archived from the original on April 9, 2006.
  122. No author given. (2003). Brevia Archived March 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . Harvard Magazine, January–February 2003.
  123. Milzoff, R. M., Paley, A. R., & Reed, B. J. (2001). Grade Inflation is Real. Fifteen Minutes March 1, 2001.
  124. Bombardieri, M. & Schweitzer, S. (2006). "At Harvard, more concern for top grades." The Boston Globe , February 12, 2006. p. B3 (Benedict Gross quotes, 23.7% A/25% A- figures, characterized as an "all-time high.").
  125. Associated Press. (2004). Princeton becomes first to formally combat grade inflation. USA Today, April 26, 2004.
  126. Davis, Kevin S. (February 15, 1994). "How Does Harvard Define Cheating?". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013. ...Cheating incidences that appear before the Ad Board almost always result in requirement to withdraw by the student...
  127. Curry, Coleen (August 31, 2012). "Harvard Students Accused of Cheating on Final Exam Reflects 'Culture of Cheating,' Grad Says". ABC News. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  128. 1 2 Hu, Melody Y.; Newcomer, Eric P. (March 24, 2010). "Administrators Discuss College Honor Code". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013. "...one thing remains certain: many College administrators are looking for a way to combat academic dishonesty at Harvard—which Harris recently called a real problem"...
  129. Perez-Pena, Richard (February 1, 2013). "Students Disciplined in Harvard Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  130. Moya-Smith, Simon (September 6, 2013). "Survey: 42 percent of Harvard's incoming freshman class cheated on homework". NBC News. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  131. Harrington, Rebecca (September 14, 2012). "Song of the Cheaters". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2013. "...an honor code, a system ... Harvard has long resisted
  132. "Harvard College's Honor Code". Harvard Magazine. May 7, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  133. "Honor Council Reports Drop in Academic Violation Cases". December 11, 2019.
  134. "Instructions for Harvard students". MIT Registrar's Office. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 3, 2020.
  135. "Member Institutions and Years of Admission". Association of American Universities. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  136. "Best Medical Schools: Research". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  137. "Research at Harvard Medical School". Harvard Medical School. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  138. "Which schools get the most research money?". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  139. 1 2 "Research". Harvard College. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  140. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  141. "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  142. "U.S. College Rankings 2020". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  143. "Best Colleges 2020: National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  144. "2019 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  145. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  146. "QS World University Rankings® 2020". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2019. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  147. "World University Rankings 2020". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  148. "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2020". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  149. "Harvard University's Graduate School Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  150. "Harvard University – U.S. News Global University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
  151. "Academic Ranking of World Universities——Harvard University Ranking Profile". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  152. "World Reputation Rankings 2016". Times Higher Education . 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  153. "SCImago Institutions Rankings - Higher Education - All Regions and Countries - 2019 - Overall Rank". www.scimagoir.com.
  154. "World Ranking". University Ranking by Academic Performance. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
  155. "College Hopes & Worries Press Release". PR Newswire. 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  156. "Princeton Review's 2012 "College Hopes & Worries Survey" Reports on 10,650 Students' & Parents' Top 10 "Dream Colleges" and Application Perspectives". PR Newswire. 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  157. "2019 College Hopes & Worries Press Release". 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  158. "Harvard is #3 in World University Engineering Rankings". 2019. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
  159. "Degree Student Head Count: Fall 2010" (PDF). Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  160. See Demographics of the United States for references.
  161. "Fall Headcount Enrollment, 2008–2012" (PDF). The Office of the Provost. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  162. "Student Enrollment Data". Office of Institutional Research. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
  163. "Harvard : Women's Rugby Becomes 42nd Varsity Sport at Harvard University". Gocrimson.com. August 9, 2012. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  164. "Yale and Harvard Defeat Oxford/Cambridge Team". Yale University Athletics. Archived from the original on October 13, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
  165. "The Harvard Guide: Financial Aid at Harvard". Harvard University. September 2, 2006. Archived from the original on September 2, 2006. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  166. "History of American Football". Newsdial.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  167. Nelson, David M., Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game, 1994, pp. 127–128
  168. "Teammates for Life". Harvard Magazine. June 5, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  169. Thomas, Sarah (September 24, 2010). "'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role". Boston.com. 'In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness.... Someone from Missouri who has never lived in Boston ... can get this idea that it's all trust fund babies and ivy-covered walls.'
  170. King, Michael (2002). Wrestling with the Angel. p. 371. ...praised as an iconic chronicle of his generation and his WASP-ish class.
  171. Halberstam, Michael J. (February 18, 1953). "White Shoe and Weak Will". Harvard Crimson. The book is written slickly, but without distinction.... The book will be quick, enjoyable reading for all Harvard men.
  172. Yardley, Jonathan (December 23, 2009). "Second Reading". The Washington Post. '...a balanced and impressive novel...' [is] a judgment with which I [agree].
  173. Du Bois, William (February 1, 1953). "Out of a Jitter-and-Fritter World". The New York Times. p. BR5. exhibits Mr. Phillips' talent at its finest
  174. "John Phillips, The Second Happiest Day". Southwest Review. 38. p. 267. So when the critics say the author of "The Second Happiest Day" is a new Fitzgerald, we think they may be right.
  175. Schwartz, Nathaniel L. (September 21, 1999). "University, Hollywood Relationship Not Always a 'Love Story'". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  176. Sarah Thomas (September 24, 2010). "'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role". boston.com.
  177. "Never Having To Say You're Sorry for 25 Years..." Harvard Crimson. June 3, 1996. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  178. Vinciguerra, Thomas (August 20, 2010). "The Disease: Fatal. The Treatment: Mockery". The New York Times.
  179. Gewertz, Ken (February 8, 1996). "A Many-Splendored 'Love Story'. Movie filmed at Harvard 25 years ago helped to define a generation". Harvard University Gazette.
  180. Walsh, Colleen (October 2, 2012). "The Paper Chase at 40". Harvard Gazette.
  181. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0111732/?ref_=ttls_li_tt
  182. Nanos, Janelle (January 2, 2013). "Good Will Hunting: An Oral History". Boston Magazine. Retrieved December 23, 2019.