Rugby league

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Rugby league
Lance hohaia running into the defence (rugby league).jpg
An attacking player attempts to evade two defenders
Highest governing body Rugby League International Federation
NicknamesLeague, RL, Rugby XIII (used throughout Europe) League, footy, football (used throughout the Oceania regions)
First played7 September 1895, Yorkshire Northern England. (Post schism)
Characteristics
Contact Full contact
Team membersThirteen
Mixed gender Single
Type Team sport, Outdoor
Equipment Rugby League ball
Venue Rugby league playing field

Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. [1] [2] [3] One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players. [4] Its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. [5]

Contact sports are sports that emphasize or require physical contact between players. Some sports, such as mixed martial arts, are scored on impacting an opponent, while others, including rugby, require tackling of players. These sports are often known as full-contact, as the sport cannot be undertaken without contact. Other sports have contact, but such events are illegal under the rules of the game or are accidental and do not form part of the sport.

Rugby league playing field

The rugby league playing field, also referred to as a pitch or paddock, is the playing surface for the sport of rugby league football and is surfaced exclusively with grass.

A comparison of rugby league and rugby union is possible because of the games' similarities and shared origins.

Contents

In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; this is called a try , and is the primary method of scoring. [3] The opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. [3] In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. [3] Kicks at goal may also be awarded for penalties, and field goals can be attempted at any time.

Try way of scoring points in rugby league and rugby union football

A try is a way of scoring points in rugby union and rugby league football. A try is scored by grounding the ball in the opposition's in-goal area. Rugby union and league differ slightly in defining 'grounding the ball' and the 'in-goal' area.

Drop goal method of scoring points in rugby, scored by drop-kicking the ball over the crossbar and between the goalposts

A drop goal, field goal, dropped goal, or pot is a method of scoring points in rugby union and rugby league and also, rarely, in American football and Canadian football. A drop goal is scored by drop kicking the ball over the crossbar and between the goalposts. After the kick, the ball must not touch the ground before it goes over and through, although it may touch the crossbar. If the drop goal attempt is successful, play stops and the non-scoring team restarts play with a kick from halfway. If the kick is unsuccessful, the offside rules for a kick apply and play continues until a normal stoppage occurs. Because of the scoring attempt this is usually from the kicked ball going dead or into touch. Defenders may tackle the kicker while he is in possession of the ball, or attempt to charge down or block the kick.

Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, [6] [7] [8] and is a popular sport in Northern England, [9] the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, [10] South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon. [11]

Rugby league is a popular team sport in Papua New Guinea, and is the national sport. Papua New Guinea has a reputation for being the most passionate supporter of the game in the world.

Northern England Place in England

Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area. It extends from the Scottish border in the north to near the River Trent in the south, although precise definitions of its southern extent vary. Northern England approximately comprises three statistical regions: the North East, North West and Yorkshire and the Humber. These have a combined population of around 14.9 million as of the 2011 Census and an area of 37,331 km2. Northern England contains much of England's national parkland but also has large areas of urbanisation, including the conurbations of Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Teesside, Tyneside, Wearside, and South and West Yorkshire.

Queensland North-east state of Australia

Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland. The state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 sq mi).

The Super League and the National Rugby League (NRL) are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European, Australasian and Pacific Island countries, and is governed by the Rugby League International Federation. The first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954; the current holders are Australia. [12]

Super League professional rugby league

Super League is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern hemisphere. The league has twelve teams: eleven from England and one from France.

National Rugby League Australasian rugby league football competition

The National Rugby League (NRL) is a league of professional men's rugby league teams in Australia. Run by the Australian Rugby League Commission, the NRL's main competition is known as the Telstra Premiership due to sponsorship from Telstra Corporation and is contested by sixteen teams, fifteen of which are based in Australia with one based in New Zealand. It is the most viewed and attended rugby league club competition in the world.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Etymology

Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain, Australia and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908.

Football Group of related team sports

Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word football is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports commonly called football in certain places include association football ; gridiron football ; Australian rules football; rugby football ; and Gaelic football. These different variations of football are known as football codes.

The first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union (RFU). Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules almost immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules. [13] In 1922, the Northern Union also changed its name to the Rugby Football League [14] and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football.

Rugby Football Union rugby union governing body of England, Guernsey and the Isle of Man

The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the governing body for rugby union in England. It was founded in 1871, and was the sport's international governing body prior to the formation of what is now known as World Rugby (WR) in 1886. It promotes and runs the sport, organises international matches for the England national team, and educates and trains players and officials.

Rugby Football League governing body for professional rugby league football in England

The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England. The name Rugby Football League previously also referred to the main league competition run by the organisation. This has since been supplanted by Super League, the Championship and League 1.

History

The first ever Challenge Cup Final, 1897: Batley (left) vs St Helens (right) Challenge cup 1897.jpg
The first ever Challenge Cup Final, 1897: Batley (left) vs St Helens (right)
George Hotel, Huddersfield The George Hotel, Huddersfield - geograph.org.uk - 676033.jpg
George Hotel, Huddersfield

In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union (NRFU). [15] Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams typically had more working class players (coal miners, mill workers etc.) who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. [4] In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs (including Stockport, who negotiated by telephone) meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". [16] Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.

In 1897, the line-out was abolished [17] and in 1898 professionalism introduced. [18] In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. [19]

A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Sydney, Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. [20] Rugby league then went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. [21]

On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 (official figure 102,569) spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, Bradford, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. [20] Also in 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed. This was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover. [22] 1967 saw the first professional Sunday matches of rugby league played.

The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer. The media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an extremely competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed. The NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures. [23]

Rules

Laws of the game

The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries, goals (also known as conversions) and field goals (also known as drop goals) than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declared, or the game may enter extra time under the golden point rule, depending on the relevant competition's format.

The try is the most common form of scoring, [24] and a team will usually attempt to score one by running and kicking the ball further upfield or passing from player-to-player in order to manoeuvre around the opposition's defence. A try involves touching the ball to the ground on or beyond the defending team's goal-line and is worth four points. A goal is worth two points and may be gained from a conversion or a penalty. A field goal, or drop goal, is only worth one point and is gained by dropping and then kicking the ball on the half volley between the uprights in open play.

Field position is crucial in rugby league, [25] achieved by running with or kicking the ball. Passing in rugby league may only be in a backward or sideways direction. Teammates, therefore, have to remain on-side by not moving ahead of the player with the ball. However the ball may be kicked ahead for teammates, but again, if they are in front of the kicker when the ball is kicked, they are deemed off-side. Tackling is a key component of rugby league play. Only the player holding the ball may be tackled. A tackle is complete, for example, when the player is held by one or more opposing players in such a manner that he can make no further progress and cannot part with the ball, or when the player is held by one or more opposing players and the ball or the hand or arm holding the ball comes into contact with the ground. [26] An attacking team gets a maximum of six tackles to progress up the field before possession is changed over. Once the tackle is completed, the ball-carrier must be allowed to get to his feet to 'play-the-ball'. Ball control is also important in rugby league, as a fumble of the ball on the ground forces a handover, unless the ball is fumbled backwards. The ball can also be turned over by going over the sideline.

Comparison with rugby union

The comparison with rugby union is possible because of the games' similarities and shared origins, however they remain two distinctly different sports.

The inherent similarities between rugby league and rugby union have at times led to the possibility of a merger of the two variants [27] and experimental hybrid games have been played that use a mix of the two sports' rules. [28]

Positions

Leeds playing at the 2008 Boxing Day friendly against Wakefield Trinity at Headingley Leeds Rhinos1.jpg
Leeds playing at the 2008 Boxing Day friendly against Wakefield Trinity at Headingley

Players on the pitch are divided into forwards and backs, although the game's rules apply to all players the same way. Each position has a designated number to identify himself from other players. These numbers help to identify which position a person is playing. The system of numbering players is different depending on which country the match is played in. In Australia and New Zealand, each player is usually given a number corresponding to their playing position on the field. However, since 1996 European teams have been able to grant players specific squad numbers, which they keep without regard to the position they play, similarly to association football. [29]

Substitutes (generally referred to as "the bench") are allowed in the sport, and are typically used when a player gets tired or injured, although they can also be used tactically. Each team is currently allowed four substitutes, and in Australia and New Zealand, these players occupy shirt numbers 14 to 22. [30] There are no limitations on which players must occupy these interchangeable slots. Generally, twelve interchanges are allowed in any game from each team, although in the National Rugby League, this was reduced to ten prior to the 2008 season [31] and further reduced to eight prior to the 2016 season. If a team has to interchange a player due to the blood bin rule or due to injury, and this was the result of misconduct from the opposing team, the compromised team does not have to use one of its allocated interchanges to take the player in question off the field.

Backs

The backs are generally smaller, faster and more agile than the forwards. They are often the most creative and evasive players on the field, relying on running, kicking and handling skills, as well as tactics and set plays, to break the defensive line, instead of brute force. Generally forwards do the majority of the work (hit-ups/tackling).

Usually, the stand-off/five-eighth and scrum-half/half-back are a team's creative unit or 'playmakers'. During the interactions between a team's 'key' players (five-eighth, half-back, fullback, lock forward, and hooker), the five-eighth and half-back will usually be involved in most passing moves. These two positions are commonly called the "halves".

Forwards

Rugby league is noted for its hard physical play Ftwins.jpg
Rugby league is noted for its hard physical play

The forwards' two responsibilities can be broken into "normal play" and "scrum play". For information on a forward's role in the scrum see rugby league scrummage. Forward positions are traditionally named after the player's position in the scrum yet are equal with respect to "normal play" with the exception of the hooker. Forward positions are traditionally assigned as follows:

Rugby league worldwide

Rugby league is played in over 70 nations throughout the world, Australia, Canada, England, France, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Wales have teams that play at a professional level while the rest are completely amateur, 36 are ranked by the RLIF and a further 32 are officially recognized and unranked. [32] The strongest rugby league nations are Australia, England and New Zealand. The Rugby League World Cup is the highest form of representative rugby league and currently features 14 teams. Those which have contested World Cups are; Australia, New Zealand, England, France, Fiji, Wales, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Ireland, USA, Scotland, Italy, Tonga, Cook Islands, Lebanon, Russia and South Africa. The current World Champions are Australia, who won the 2017 Rugby League World Cup.

Oceania and South Pacific

The Asia-Pacific Rugby League Confederation's purpose is to spread the sport of rugby league throughout their region along with other governing bodies such as the ARL and NZRL. [33] Since rugby league was introduced to Australia in 1908, it has become the largest television sport and 3rd most attended sport in Australia. [34] Neighbouring Papua New Guinea is one of two countries to have rugby league as its national sport (with Cook Islands). [7] [8] Australia's elite club competition also features a team from Auckland, New Zealand's biggest city. Rugby league is the dominant winter sport in the eastern Australian states of New South Wales and Queensland. [35] The game is also among the predominant sports of Tonga [36] and is played in other Pacific nations such as Samoa and Fiji. In Australia, and indeed the rest of the region, the annual State of Origin series ranks among the most popular sporting events. [37] [38]

Europe

The Rugby League European Federation are responsible for developing rugby league in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, [39]

In England, rugby league has traditionally been associated with the northern counties of Yorkshire, Lancashire and Cumbria where the game originated, especially in towns along the M62 corridor. [9] Its popularity has also increased elsewhere. [40] [41] [42] Currently, only one of the twelve Super League teams is based outside of these traditional counties: Catalans Dragons (Perpignan). Two other teams from outside the United Kingdom, the Toronto Wolfpack and Toulouse Olympique, also compete in the English Rugby League system. Both teams will play in the Rugby League Championship in 2018.

Super League average attendances are in the 8 to 9,500 range. The average Super League match attendance in 2014 was 8,365. [43] Ranked the eighth most popular sport in the UK overall, [44] rugby league is the 27th most popular participation sport in England according to figures released by Sport England; the total number of rugby league participants in England aged 16 and over was 44,900 in 2017. [45] This is a 39% drop from 10 years ago. [45] While the sport is largely concentrated in the north of England there have been complaints about its lack of profile in the British media. On the eve of the 2017 Rugby League World Cup Final where England would face Australia, English amateur rugby league coach Ben Dawson stated, “we’re in the final of a World Cup. First time in more than 30 years and there's no coverage anywhere.” [46]

France vs New Zealand in the 2013 Rugby League World Cup at Parc des Sports (Avignon). Thomas Bosc 2013 (1).JPG
France vs New Zealand in the 2013 Rugby League World Cup at Parc des Sports (Avignon).

France first played rugby league as late as 1934, where in the five years prior to the Second World War, the sport's popularity increased as Frenchmen became disenchanted with the state of French rugby union in the 1930s. [47] However, after the Allied Forces were defeated by Germany in June 1940, the Vichy regime in the south seized assets belonging to rugby league authorities and clubs and banned the sport for its association with the left-wing Popular Front government that had governed France before the war. [47] The sport was unbanned after the Liberation of Paris in August 1944 and the collapse of the Vichy regime, although it was still actively marginalised by the French authorities until the 1990s. [47] Despite this, the national side appeared in the finals of the 1954 and 1968 World Cups, and the country hosted the 1954 event. [48] [49] In 1996, a French team, Paris Saint-Germain was one of eleven teams which formed the new Super League, although the club was dissolved in 1997. [50] In 2006, the Super League admitted the Catalans Dragons, a team from Perpignan in the southern Languedoc-Roussillon region. [51] They have subsequently reached the 2007 Challenge Cup Final and made the playoffs of the 2008 Super League XIII season. The success of the Dragons in Super League has initiated a renaissance in French rugby league, with new-found enthusiasm for the sport in the south of the country where most of the Elite One Championship teams are based. In other parts of Europe, the game is played at semi-professional and amateur level.

North America

The Toronto Wolfpack are North America's only professional Rugby League team, competing in the English Rugby League system. The Wolfpack won the 2017 Kingstone Press League 1 in their inaugural season and earned promotion to the 2018 Rugby League Championship. The Wolfpack play their home games at Lamport Stadium in Toronto. [52]

Other countries

The early 21st century has seen other countries take up the game and compete in international rugby league with the Rugby League European Federation and Asia-Pacific Rugby League Confederation expanding the game to new areas such as Canada, Ghana, Philippines, Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Spain, Hungary, Turkey, Thailand, Chile, Brazil and Argentina to name a few. [53] [54] [55]

Domestic professional competitions

The two most prominent full-time professional leagues are the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League and to a lesser extent the semi professional French Elite One Championship and Elite Two Championship. Domestic leagues, with some full-time exceptions, exist at a semi-professional level below the NRL and Super League, in Australia the Queensland Cup (which includes a team from Papua New Guinea) and NSW Cup, which provides players to various NRL teams. In the United Kingdom below Super League is the Championship and League 1 (the professional system includes 2 Welsh teams, 2 French and 1 Canadian team). The Papua New Guinea National Rugby League operates as a semi-professional competition as does the USA Rugby League in the United States runs semi-professional clubs to some extent in providing supported accommodation for foreign players. In other countries, the game is played at an amateur level.

Attendances

International

The top five attendances for rugby league test matches (International) are:

GameDateResultVenueCityCrowd
2013 World Cup Final 30 November 2013 Australia def. New Zealand 34–2 Old Trafford Manchester 74,468
1992 World Cup Final 24 October 1992Australia def. Great Britain 10–6 Wembley Stadium London 73,631
1932 Ashes series, Game 16 June 1932 England def. Australia 8–6 Sydney Cricket Ground Sydney 70,204
1962 Ashes series, Game 19 June 1962Great Britain def. Australia 31–12Sydney Cricket GroundSydney70,174
1958 Ashes series, Game 114 June 1958Australia def. Great Britain 25–8Sydney Cricket GroundSydney68,777

Domestic

The top five attendances for domestic based rugby league matches are:

GameDateResultVenueCityCrowd
1999 NRL Grand Final 26 September 1999 Melbourne def. St George Illawarra 20–18 Stadium Australia Sydney 107,999
1999 NRL season Round 16 March 1999 Newcastle Knights def. Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles 41–18
Parramatta Eels def. St George Illawarra Dragons 20–10
Stadium AustraliaSydney104,583*
1954 Challenge Cup Final replay 5 May 1954 Warrington def. Halifax 8–4 Odsal Stadium Bradford 102,569*
1985 Challenge Cup Final 4 May 1985 Wigan def. Hull F.C. 28–24 Wembley Stadium London 99,801
1966 Challenge Cup Final 21 May 1966 St. Helens def. Wigan 21–2Wembley StadiumLondon98,536

* NRL double header played to open Round 1 of the 1999 NRL season. Figure shown is the total attendance which is officially counted for both games. [56] [57]
* The official attendance of the 1954 Challenge Cup Final replay was 102,569. Unofficial estimates put the attendance as high as 150,000, Bradford Police confirming 120,000.

See also

Related Research Articles

Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union. Legend claims that Rugby football was started around the time of 1845 in Rugby School, Rugby, Warwickshire, England, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby eventually split into two sports in 1895 when twenty one clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Union in the George Hotel, Huddersfield, Northern England over the issue of payment to players, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay its players, rugby union turned fully professional in 1995. Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby and the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. Although rugby league initially used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football.

Rugby union team sport, code of rugby football

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world simply as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts on each try line.

1995 Rugby League World Cup

The 1995 Rugby League World Cup was held during October in the United Kingdom. It was the eleventh staging of the Rugby League World Cup and was marketed as the Halifax Centenary World Cup, reflecting the tournament's sponsorship and the fact that 1995 marked the 100th birthday of the sport. Envisaged as a celebration of rugby league football, the size of the competition was doubled, with four additional teams invited and Great Britain split into England and Wales

Rugby union positions

In the game of rugby union, there are 15 players on each team, comprising eight forwards and seven backs. In addition, there may be up to eight replacement players "on the bench", numbered 16–23. Players are not restricted to a single position, although they generally specialise in just one or two that suit their skills and body types. Players that play multiple positions are called "utility players".

A rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field, with four substitutes on the bench. Each of the thirteen players is assigned a position, normally with a standardised number, which reflects their role in attack and defence, although players can take up any position at any time.

Touch rugby

Touch rugby refers to games derived from rugby football in which players do not tackle each other but instead touch their opponents using their hands on any part of the body, clothing, or the ball.

Rugby League International Federation international rugby league governing body

The Rugby League International Federation (RLIF) is the global governing body for the sport of rugby league football. The RLIF is responsible for the Laws of the Game, the development, organisation and governance of rugby leagues internationally, and for the sport's major international tournaments; most notably the Rugby League World Cup.

Rugby league gameplay

Like most forms of modern football, rugby league football is played outdoors on a rectangular grass field with goals at each end that are to be attacked and defended by two opposing teams. The rules of rugby league have changed significantly over the decades since rugby football split into the league and union codes. This article details the modern form of the game and how it is generally played today, however rules do vary slightly between specific competitions.

Five-eighth

Five-eighth or Stand-off is one of the positions in a rugby league football team. Wearing jersey number 6, this player is one of the two half backs in a team, partnering the scrum-half. Sometimes known as the pivot or second receiver, in a traditional attacking 'back-line'. play the five-eighth would receive the ball from the scrum half, who is the first receiver of the ball from the dummy-half or hooker following a tackle.

Comparison of American football and rugby union

A comparison of American football and rugby union is possible because of the games' shared origins, despite their dissimilarities.

The experimental law variations (ELVs) were a proposed set of amendments to the laws of rugby union. They were proposed by the sport's governing body, the International Rugby Board (IRB), and trialled games at Stellenbosch University in 2006. In 2008 thirteen of the 23 variations trialled were played globally including; greater responsibility for assistant referees, corner posts no longer considered to touch in-goal, no gain in ground if the ball is moved into the 22 by a player from the same team as the kicker, quick throw ins can travel backwards, no restrictions to players in the lineout, restrictions on where receivers and opposition hookers can stand in a lineout, pregripping and lifting allowed, mauls can be pulled down and players can enter with their head and shoulders lower than their hips, offside line is five metres away from the scrum for the backs and scrum half must be positioned close to the scrum, all offences apart from foul play and offsides are a free kick, and unplayable rucks and mauls are restarted with a free kick. In 2009 the IRB approved ten of the laws, rejecting the laws relating to mauls, numbers in a lineout and the increase in sanctions punishable by free kicks.

Rugby union gameplay

Rugby union is a contact sport that consists of two teams of fifteen players. The objective is to obtain more points than the opposition through scoring tries or kicking goals over eighty minutes of playing time. The Play is started with one team drop kicking the ball from the halfway line towards the opposition. The rugby ball can be moved up the field by either carrying it or kicking it. However, when passing the ball it can only be thrown laterally or backward. The opposition can stop players moving up the field by tackling them. Only players carrying the ball can be tackled and once a tackle is completed the opposition can compete for the ball. Play continues until a try is scored, the ball crosses the side line or dead-ball line, or an infringement occurs. After a team scores points, the non-scoring team restarts the game at the halfway with a drop kick towards the opposition. The team with the most points at the end wins the game.

This list of rugby league terms is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of rugby league football. The sport has accrued a considerable amount of jargon to describe aspects of the game. Many terms originate from the Laws of the Game. A number of aspects of the game have more than one term that refers to them. Different terms have become popularly used to describe an aspect of the game in different places with notable differences between the northern and southern hemispheres.

Scrum (rugby union) means of restarting play after a minor infringement in rugby union

In rugby union a scrum is a means of restarting play after a minor infringement. It involves up to eight players from each team, known as the pack or forward pack, binding together in three rows and interlocking with the free opposing teams forwards. At this point the ball is fed into the gap between the two forward packs and they both compete for the ball to win possession. Teams can be penalised for intentionally causing the scrum to collapse, and for not putting the ball into the scrum correctly. A scrum is most commonly awarded when the ball is knocked forward, or passed forward, or when a ball becomes trapped in a ruck or maul. Because of the physical nature of scrums, injuries can occur, especially in the front row.

In rugby league football, the Laws of the Game are the rules governing how the sport is played. The Laws are the responsibility of the Rugby League International Federation, and cover the play, officiating, equipment and procedures of the game.

Hooker (rugby league)

Hooker is one of the positions in a rugby league football team. Usually wearing jersey number 9, the hooker is one of the team's forwards. During scrums the hooker plays in the front row, and the position's name comes from their role of 'hooking' or 'raking' the ball back with the foot. For this reason the hooker is sometimes referred to as the rake.

Top-level rugby league in 2011 centered on Australasia's 2011 NRL season and the Super League XVI. High-profile representative competitions included the 2011 Four Nations, the 2011 State of Origin series and the 2011 European Cup. 2013 World Cup qualifying also took place in 2011.

Mark Kheirallah Australian rugby league player

Mark Kheirallah is a French international rugby league footballer who plays for Toulouse Olympique in the Betfred Championship. He plays as a fullback or halfback.

The 1995 Rugby League World Cup final was the conclusive game of the 1995 Centenary World Cup tournament and was played between England and Australia on 28 October 1995 at the Wembley Stadium in London, England. Australia won the final by 16 points to 8 in front of 66,540 fans. Australia, the defending champions, won the Rugby League World Cup for the 8th time.

References

  1. Collins, Tony (1998). Rugby's great split: class, culture, and the origins of Rugby League football. Routledge. ISBN   978-0-7146-4867-5.
  2. RLEF. "What is Rugby League?". Rugby League European Federation. Archived from the original on 20 July 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Dept. Recreation and Sport. "Dimensions for Rugby League". Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
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Further reading

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