Ball badminton is a sport native to India. It is a racket game, played with a yellow ball made of wool, on a court of fixed dimensions (12 by 24 metres) divided by a net. The game was played as early as 1856 by the royal family in Tanjore, the capital of Thanjavur district in Tamil Nadu, India. It enjoys the greatest popularity in India. Ball badminton is a fast-paced game; it demands skill, quick reflexes, good judgment, agility, and the ability to control the ball with one's wrist.
Games are usually played outdoors during the day. As a result, weather conditions wield a considerable influence, and ball badminton's rules allow the effects of weather conditions to be distributed more-or-less evenly between both teams. More recently, indoor versions of the game have been played under artificial lighting. All-India tournaments are conducted regularly using floodlights in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Karnataka. Ball Badminton sport is managed by "Ball Badminton Federation of India". Ball badminton is now an officially recognised game in India. Total 34 units are affiliated to "Ball badminton federation of India " in which 26 are States units including Bihar, jharkhand, Nagaland etc. 5 Public sector units and 3 provisional affiliated units.
Ball badminton originated in Tanjore, in Tamil Nadu. It became popular, commanding the interest of the Maharaja of Tanjore. The game has attracted many players from southern India.
Previously, ball badminton was an attractive game for rural boys since it required a minimum of equipment. The game drew a large number of students from South India, resulting in the formation of the Ball Badminton Federation of India in 1954. The BBF was among the first three sports federations—along with the Indian Athletic Federation and the Indian Hockey Federation—to form the Indian Olympic Association in 1961. Ball badminton eventually spread to Andhra Pradesh, and the first national championship was conducted at Hyderabad in 1956. It was later introduced at the junior and sub-junior levels.
Types of incumbent The ball is yellow wool, from 27 to 30 grams in weight and from 5 to 5.5 cm in diameter. A standard ball-badminton racket usually weighs from 165 to 185 grams and is 63 to 70 cm in length. The strung oval area of the racket should be 20 to 22 across and 24 to 27 cm in length. The net is made of fine cord to make a 2 cm square mesh along its length and is edged with red tape at the top. The entire net is red, white and blue, 100 cm wide and 13.5 metres in length. It is tied to a centre pole of 183 cm and two poles of 185 cm at the sides of the court to maintain the 183 cm height of the net at the centre. Two posts, each 180 cm high, are fixed one metre outside the court on either side at the end of the line to which the net is tied, strong enough to keep the net well stretched. A hook is fixed at 1.5 metres height to each pole to easily tighten the net whenever necessary. The size of the court for "fives" teams is 12 metres wide and 24 metres long. It is divided across the middle by a net line over which the net is hung, the ends of which are attached to the tops of the two posts. The serving crease lines are drawn one metre away from each side of the net line and parallel to it. The centre line is drawn halfway between the serving crease lines and parallel to the sidelines; this divides the space on each side of the crease line into two-halves, known as the right and left courts. The boundary lines are marked with white tape, 10 mm thick. The centre and crease lines are to be marked so as to be visible, about 10 mm wide
Ball badminton is a team sport. The ball is served (hit from the right or left court of one side to the diagonally opposite court of the other side). The server begins on the right court and moves to the left court each time a point is scored. The ball may be returned by any opposing player. After the first 9th, 18th, and 27th point the teams change positions, with the server continuing to alternate between the right and left courts. The ball is served underhand below the waist, then it must go over the net and beyond the serving crease line on the other side. An overhand service—if the ball is above the server's waist when it is struck—is a fault. The ball must be returned before it touches the ground, and no player may strike the ball twice in succession. The server must not serve until the other side is ready; ordinarily, the players of the receiving side are expected to be ready. During the game the player must not leave the court except in the act of playing, if he has an accident, or with the referee's permission for activities such as changing a racket, tying a shoelace, or tightening a belt. The referee normally grants a player's request for such activities, unless the ball is in play; however, he has the final right to refuse if he deems such activities delaying tactics. In "fives" tournaments, a team consists of ten formally designated players, any five of whom play while the other five remain on the sidelines with the team manager, ready to play. Doubles tournaments use teams of three players. During a match of two or three games, three player substitutions are allowed. Substitutions may be made at any time during the game. The ball may not be changed during a three-game match set, unless it is damaged.
If a fault is made by the serving team, the serving player shall be replaced by a teammate. If all five players on a team commit a serving fault, the serve goes to the receiving team. If a fault is made by the receiving team, the serving team is awarded a point and continues to serve. It is a fault if:
A match consists of three games. The team that wins two out of three games is the match winner. The team first scoring the 34th point wins a game. Teams start each game from the side opposite the one they played the previous game. There is a break of two minutes between the end of the first game and the start of the second game, and five minutes between the second and the third games. Choice of side and the right of first service is decided by a coin toss at the beginning of a match. If the team winning the toss chooses to serve, the other team has the choice of side and vice versa. At the beginning of a match the referee allows two trials, one from each side. After the trials are over, the umpire shall call "play" and regular play begins. A ball is in play from the time a player attempts to serve until it touches the ground or until a "fault" or "let" (a re-serve) is called by the umpire.
The officiating team consists of one umpire, two or more line referees and a scorer. When the umpire calls "play", if a team refuses to play it forfeits the match. The umpire is the sole judge on the fairness of a play, weather and lighting conditions. His decisions are final. It is the umpire's responsibility to call "fault" or "let", with (or without) an appeal from the players. If an umpire erroneously calls "fault" and immediately corrects himself and calls "play" but the striker fails to return the ball, a "let" is allowed. Umpires serve for an entire match, unless a change is authorized by the tournament committee. Each of the two (or more) line referees is responsible for one boundary line and one half of the side line opposite the umpire, in addition to any other duties assigned by the umpire. Referees signal the umpire in a code prescribed by the BBF. The scorer records the points scored and the number of hands on the score sheet. A ball may be replaced by an umpire if it is lost or damaged. The umpire can overrule a line referee's decision, if he feels that an error has been committed.
The umpire is also responsible for the net. He announces the score (for the benefit of the scorer) when a point is scored or a server is out. In announcing the score he calls the number of the serving hand, followed by the score of the serving team and the score of the other team. If a match is suspended by the umpire for any reason (e.g. weather and light), it is resumed from the point at which it was stopped. In case of a tie between two or more teams in any tournament, a match is not replayed. If the tie is unbroken, teams are ranked based on game and point scores. In a league tournament, if two (or more) teams have identical won/lost records their game scores are used to break the tie.
The number of games won and lost by each team in each league match is recorded. Keeping in mind that each match is played as a best of three games, a team winning a match after three games has won two games and lost one. If a team wins a match in two straight games, its official won/lost record is 3–0. The losing team in each case has a record of 1–2 and 0–3, respectively. The difference between the number of games won and lost is a team's game score. The team with the highest game score is the winner in the event of a tie; if two or more teams have the same game score, their point scores will also break the tie.
Points scored in each game by each team in all league matches are recorded. A team winning a match in two straight games, after recording the points scored for and against in the two games played also receives 35 points in favour and zero points against for the third (unplayed) game. Correspondingly, zero points in favour and 35 points against are recorded for the losing team. The difference between total points in favour and against in all the matches is a team's point score. The team scoring the most net points (for minus against) is the winner.
The umpire can warn a player if the player behaves on-court in a manner bringing discredit to the referee, other players or the officials, or otherwise lowering the image of the game. A second warning triggers a yellow card. A third warning triggers a red card and ejection from the game; following a red card, the player's team continues with four players. A team manager substitute for a player shown a yellow card, if a sufficient number of substitutions remain.
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" and "doubles". Badminton is often played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach; formal games are played on a rectangular indoor court. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court.
Tennis is a racket sport that is played either individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to manoeuvre the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball validly will not gain a point, while the opposite player will.
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small solid rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, the rules are generally as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce once on their side of the table and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. A point is scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules. It has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. Beach volleyball was introduced to the programme at the Atlanta 1996. The adapted version of volleyball at the Summer Paralympic Games is sitting volleyball.
Racquetball is a racquet sport and a team sport played with a hollow rubber ball on an indoor or outdoor court. Joseph Sobek invented the modern sport of racquetball in 1950, adding a stringed racquet to paddleball in order to increase velocity and control. Unlike most racquet sports, such as tennis and badminton, there is no net to hit the ball over, and, unlike squash, no tin to hit the ball above. Also, the court's walls, floor, and ceiling are legal playing surfaces, with the exception of court-specific designated hinders being out-of-bounds. Racquetball is played between various players on a team who try to bounce the ball with the racquet onto the ground so it hits the wall, so that an opposing team’s player cannot bounce it back to the wall.
Squash is a racket and ball sport played by two or four players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. The players alternate in striking the ball with their rackets onto the playable surfaces of the four walls of the court. The objective of the game is to hit the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. There are about 20 million people who play squash regularly world-wide in over 185 countries. The governing body of Squash, the World Squash Federation (WSF), is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), but the sport is not part of the Olympic Games, despite a number of applications. Supporters continue to lobby for its incorporation in a future Olympic program. The Professional Squash Association (PSA) organizes the pro tour. The sport is infrequently called "squash rackets", to distinguish itself from the related sport of rackets.
Beach volleyball is a team sport played by two teams of two or more players on a sand court divided by a net. Similar to indoor volleyball, the objective of the game is to send the ball over the net and to ground it on the opponent's side of the court. Each team works in unison to prevent the opposing team from grounding the ball on their side of the court.
Sepak takraw, or Sepaktakraw, also called kick volleyball, is a team sport played with a ball made of rattan or synthetic plastic between two teams of two to four players on a court resembling a badminton court. It is similar to volleyball and footvolley in its use of a rattan ball and players using only their feet, knees, shoulders, chest and head to touch the ball. Sepak Takraw is often referred to as a mixture of volleyball, due to its use of a net, and association football, as players use their feet.
American handball, known as handball in the United States and sometimes referred to as wallball, is a sport in which players use their hands to hit a small, rubber ball against a wall such that their opponent(s) cannot do the same without the ball touching the ground twice nor hitting out-of-bound. The three versions are four-wall, three-wall and one-wall. Each version can be played either by two players (singles), three players (cutthroat) or four players (doubles), but in official tournaments, singles and doubles are the only versions played.
Pickleball is an indoor or outdoor racket/paddle sport where two players (singles), or four players (doubles), hit a perforated hollow polymer ball over a 36-inch-high (0.91 m) net using solid faced paddles. The two sides hit the ball back and forth over the net until one side commits a rule infraction. Pickleball was invented in 1965 as a children's backyard game on Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA. In 2022 pickleball was adopted as the official state sport of Washington.
A point in tennis is the smallest subdivision of the match. A point can consist of a double fault by the server, in which case the point is automatically won by the receiver. In all other cases, a point begins when a legal serve is hit by the server to the receiver on the opposite side of the court, and continues until one side fails to legally return the ball to the opposite side. Whichever side fails to do so loses the point and their opponent wins it.
This page is a glossary of tennis terminology.
Crossminton is a racket game that combines elements from different sports like badminton, squash and tennis. It is played without any net and has no prescribed playground, so it can be executed on tennis courts, streets, beaches, fields or gyms.
Peteca is a traditional sport in Brazil, played with a "hand shuttlecock" from indigenous origins and reputed to be as old as the country itself. The same name is given to the shuttlecock-object itself.
Several sports related to volleyball have become popular. Indoor volleyball and beach volleyball are both events at the Olympics, and sitting volleyball is an event at the Paralympics. Other varieties are localised, or are played at an amateur or informal level.
In tennis, an official is a person who ensures that a match or tournament is conducted according to the International Tennis Federation Rules of Tennis and other competition regulations.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to tennis. Tennis is a sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a specialized racquet that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponent's court.
A serve in tennis is a shot to start a point. A player will hit the ball with a racquet so it will fall into the diagonally opposite service box without being stopped by the net. Normally players begin a serve by tossing the ball into the air and hitting it. The ball can only touch the net on a return and will be considered good if it falls on the opposite side. If the ball contacts the net on the serve but then proceeds to the proper service box, it is called a let; this is not a legal serve in the major tours although it is also not a fault. Players normally serve overhead; however serving underhand is allowed. The serve is the only shot a player can take their time to set up instead of having to react to an opponent's shot; however, as of 2012, there is a 25-second limit to be allowed between points.
This glossary provides definitions and context for terminology related to, and jargon specific to, the sport of pickleball. Words or phrases in italics can be found on the list in their respective alphabetic sections.