Telangana

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Telangana
Montage of Telangana State.jpg
Anthem: Jaya Jaya He Telangana Janani Jayakethanam
(Victory to Mother Telangana!)
IN-TG.svg
Location of Telangana in India
Coordinates(Telangana): 17°21′58″N78°28′30″E / 17.366°N 78.475°E / 17.366; 78.475 Coordinates: 17°21′58″N78°28′30″E / 17.366°N 78.475°E / 17.366; 78.475
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
Formation2 June 2014 ^ (Telangana Day)
Capital and
largest city
Hyderabad
Districts 33
Government
  Body Government of Telangana
   Governor Tamilisai Soundararajan [1]
   Chief Minister K. Chandrashekar Rao (TRS)
   Legislature Bicameral (119 + 40 seats)
   Parliamentary constituency Rajya Sabha 7
Lok Sabha 17
   High Court Telangana High Court
Area
[2]
  Total112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi)
Area rank 11th
Population
 (2011) [2]
  Total35,193,978
  Rank 12th
  Density307/km2 (800/sq mi)
Demonym(s)
GDP (2019–20)
   Total 9.7 lakh crore (US$140 billion)
   Per capita 228,216 (US$3,200)
Languages
  Official Telugu [5]
  Additional official Urdu [5] [6]
Time zone UTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 code IN-TG
Vehicle registration TS-
HDI (2018)Increase2.svg 0.669 [7] medium · 22nd
Literacy (2017-18)72.80% [8]
Symbols of Telangana
Emblem Emblem of Telangana
Emblem-of-telangana-.png
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Charminar
Song Jaya Jaya He Telangana Janani Jayakethanam [9]
Mammal
Chital Chital in Telangana.jpg
Chital
Spotted deer [9]
Bird
Pala Pitta Pala Pitta.jpg
Pala Pitta
Indian Roller [9]
Flower
Tangedu Puvvu Tangedu Puvvu.jpg
Tangedu Puvvu
Senna auriculata [9]
Tree
Jammi Chettu Vanni maram branch.jpg
Jammi Chettu
Prosopis cineraria [9]
^† Temporary Joint Capital with Andhra Pradesh not more than 10 years

Telangana ( /ˌtɛlənˈɡɑːnə/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a state in India situated on the south-central stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. [10] It is the eleventh-largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. [11] On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed state with Hyderabad as its capital. Its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south. [12] The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly of hills, mountain ranges, and thick dense forests covering an area of 27,292 km2 (10,538 sq mi). As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts.

Contents

Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Hindustani powers such as the Cholas, Mauryans, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals of India . [13] The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb culture. [14] During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. [15] In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars (Coastal Andhra) and Ceded Districts (Rayalseema), which were handed over to the East India Company. The annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam's dominion, of the considerable coastline it formerly had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in the central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state. [16]

The Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State (part of the Madras Presidency during the British Raj) to form Andhra Pradesh. A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, and continued until Telangana was granted statehood on 2 June 2014 under the leadership of K. Chandrashekar Rao. [17]

The economy of Telangana is the eighth-largest state economy in India with 9.7 lakh crore (US$140 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 228,000 (US$3,200). [3] [18] Telangana ranks 22nd among Indian states in human development index. [7] The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software, industry and services sector. The state is also the main administrative centre of many Indian defence aero-space and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory. [19]

The cultural hearts of Telangana, Hyderabad and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district. The historic city Golconda in Hyderabad established itself as a diamond trading center and, until the end of the 19th century, the Golconda market was the primary source of the finest and largest diamonds in the world. Thus, the legendary name Golconda Diamonds became synonymous with Golconda itself. The Golconda region has produced some of the world's most famous diamonds, including the colorless Koh-i-Noor (United Kingdom), the blue Hope (United States), the pink Daria-i-Noor (Iran), the white Regent (France), the Dresden Green (Germany), and the colorless Orlov (Russia), Nizam and Jacob (India), as well as the now lost diamonds Florentine Yellow, Akbar Shah and Great Mogul. Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, and Medak Cathedral are several of its most famous places of worship.

Etymology

A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desa ("land of three lingas"), a region so called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama. [20] According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which according to him, means "south" in Gondi and has been referred to in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years". [21]

One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul (14th century CE), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Telangana. He was the commander of the Warangal Fort (Kataka Pāludu). [22]

A 16th-century travel writer, Firishta, recorded in his book:

During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, Tulingana, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world. Merchants from Toorkistan, Arabia, and Persia resorted to it; and they met with such encouragement that they found in it inducements to return frequently. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board. [23]

The word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telangana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded. [24]

History

Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the Maurya Empire (320 BCE–180 BCE), Satavahana dynasty (180 BCE–220 CE), Vakataka dynasty (250 CE–500 CE), Chalukya dynasty (543 CE–753 CE), Rashtrakuta dynasty (753 CE–982 CE), the Kakatiya dynasty (1083 CE–1323 CE), the Musunuri Nayaks (1326 CE–1356 CE) the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate (1347 CE–1512 CE), Vijayanagara Empire (1336 CE–1646 CE), Qutb Shahi dynasty (1512 CE–1687 CE), Mughal Empire (1687 CE–1724 CE) and Asaf Jahi Dynasty (1724 CE–1948 CE).

Early history

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE) became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota. [25] After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area. [26]

Kakatiya Dynasty

Ramagiri Fort ruins at Kalvacherla in Peddapalli district is an ancient fort initially built by the Sathavahanas and modified many times by other dynasties till the 16th century. Ramagiri Fort.jpg
Ramagiri Fort ruins at Kalvacherla in Peddapalli district is an ancient fort initially built by the Sathavahanas and modified many times by other dynasties till the 16th century.
Kota Gullu, temple ruins built in the 12th century by Kakatiyas at Ghanpur, Mulug in Warangal district. Shiva Temple Warangal.JPG
Kota Gullu, temple ruins built in the 12th century by Kakatiyas at Ghanpur, Mulug in Warangal district.

The Telangana area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, which ruled most parts of the present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE. [26] Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323. [27] [28]

Qutab Shahi and Asaf Jahi's

Golconda Fort Golconda Fort 013.jpg
Golconda Fort

The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golconda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golconda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golconda fort. [29]

During the early seventeenth century a strong cotton-weaving industry existed in Telangana. Large quantities of cotton were produced for domestic and exports consumption. High quality plain and patterned cloth made of muslin and calico was produced. [30]

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba, establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asaf Jahi dynasty. [26] He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi Nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions of Telangana were part of their realm. [31]

India Palace .jpg
Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. The Chowmahalla Palace was home to the Nizams of Hyderabad.
Hyderabad state from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909.jpg
Hyderabad State in 1909.

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. The Nizam Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV signed the subsidiary alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India. [31]

In 1787, heavy flooding killed over 20,000 causing a plague which killed about 10,656,000 Telugus again in Telangana. [32]

Post-independence

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo. [26] It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. [33] He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states, who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad State who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.

In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad (Syed Alam Sharjil) was elected chief minister of Hyderabad after (Dr Burgula Ramakrishana Rao) for one year after he resigned from the post. [34]

Telangana Rebellion

The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad State between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India  (CPI). [35]

The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords ( jagirdars and deshmukhs ) and later against the Nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the government of India's Operation Polo. [36] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy. [37]

States Reorganisation Commission

In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis. [38] An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests. [39] After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

Following this Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956. [40] [41] [42] G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andhra Pradesh state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam from East Godavari and Aswaraopeta from West Godavari to Khammam for administrative convenience.

Telangana movement

There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972 and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana gained momentum in the 21st century by an initiative of Telangana Political Joint Action Committee, TJAC including political leadership representing Telangana area. [43] On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.

The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana. [44] There have been hundreds of claimed suicides, [45] strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood.

Formation of Telangana state in 2014

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India in February 2014. [46] In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. [47] The bill received the assent of the president and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014. [48]

The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samithi party secured majority. [49] Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period, not more than ten years after that period Hyderabad shall be the capital of the state of Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the state of Andhra Pradesh. [50] Andhra Pradesh picked Amaravati as its capital and moved its secretariat in 2016 and legislature in March 2017 to its new capital. [51] [52]

Geography

Telangana and its neighbours Telangana State English Map.svg
Telangana and its neighbours

Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 112,077 square kilometres (43,273 sq mi). [2] The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid. [12] Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Maner, the Manjira and the Musi.

The annual rainfall is between 900 and 1500 mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Telangana contains various soil types, some of which are red sandy loams (Chalaka), Red loamy sands (Dubba), lateritic soils, salt affected soils, alluvial soils, shallow to medium black soils and very deep black cotton soils. These soil types allow the planting of a variety of fruits and vegetable crops such as mangoes, oranges, coconut, sugarcane, paddy, banana and flower crops. [53] [54] [55]

Climate

Telangana is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.

Ecology

The Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state, including Hyderabad. The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata and Albizia amara . Over 80% of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture, timber harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve and elsewhere. [56] The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state.

National parks and sanctuaries

Telangana has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.

Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) near Hyderabad Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) near Hyderabad W IMG 4818.jpg
Indian peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) near Hyderabad

Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District, Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district.

Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people. Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna. Some are included within other protected areas, like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar–Srisailam Tiger Reserve, but most stand alone. There are 65 sacred groves Telangana—two in Adilabad district, thirteen in Hyderabad district, four in Karimnagar district, four in Khammam district, nine in Mahbubnagar district, four in Medak district, nine in Nalgonda district, ten in Ranga Reddy district, and three in Warangal district. [57]

Demographics

Language

Languages of Telangana (2011) [58]

   Telugu (77%)
   Urdu (12%)
   Tamil (1%)
   Marathi (2%)
  Others (9%)

Telugu one of the classical languages of India is the official language of Telangana and Urdu is the second official language of the state. [59] About 77% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu and 12% speak Urdu. [58] [60] Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. [61] After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non Hyderabadi Muslims decreased. [62] Both Telugu and Urdu are used in services across the state, such as the Telangana Legislature website, with Telugu and Urdu versions of the website available, [63] as well as the Hyderabad metro, wherein both languages are used on station names and signs along with English and Hindi. [64] The Urdu spoken in Telangana is called Hyderabadi Urdu, which in itself is a dialect of the larger Dakhini Urdu dialects of South India. Although the language is orally spoken by most Hyderabadi Muslims, the language in a literary context has long been lost, and standard Urdu is used. [65] Lambadi is also widely used, and Marathi and Kannada predominate in border areas. Many tribal languages are also spoken, especially in Khammam, the largest being Koya and Gondi. [66]

Religion

Religion in Telangana (2011) [67]

   Hinduism (85.09%)
   Islam (12.68%)
   Christianity (1.3%)
  Others (0.9%)
Sita Ramachandraswamy temple, Bhadrachalam Bhadrachalam temple View from Lord Narasimha Temple in 2015 (cropped).JPG
Sita Ramachandraswamy temple, Bhadrachalam

The religious makeup of Telangana is about 85.1% Hindu, 12.7% Muslim, and 1.3% Christian, and 0.9% others. [68] [69]

Literacy

According to the 2011 census, Telangana's literacy rate is 66.46%. Male literacy and female literacy are 74.95% and 57.92%, respectively. [2] Hyderabad district leads with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district at the bottom with 56.06%. [70]

In a 2019 report, the Key Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India, by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Telangana has a literacy rate of 72.8% which is the fourth lowest of large states. It also has the second lowest literacy rate among rural women at 53.7%. 37.1% of the population aged 3-35 years received free education at pre-primary and higher levels in Telangana. [8]

Administrative divisions

Telangana at the time of formation on 2 June 2014. Telangana.jpg
Telangana at the time of formation on 2 June 2014.
Telangana new districts created in 2016. Telangana new districts 2016.jpg
Telangana new districts created in 2016.

The state is divided into 33 districts. The latest two new districts, Mulugu and Narayanpet, were formed on 17 February 2019. [71] The districts are divided into 70 revenue divisions which are further divided into 584 mandals. [72] [73]

The districts in the state are:

S.NoDistrictHeadquartersEarlier part of
1 Adilabad Adilabad Adilabad
2 Bhadradri Kothagudem Kothagudem Khammam
3 Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad
4 Jagitial Jagitial Karimnagar
5 Jangaon Jangaon Warangal, Nalgonda
6 Jayashankar Bhupalpally Bhupalpally Warangal, Karimnagar
7 Jogulamba Gadwal Gadwal Mahabubnagar
8 Kamareddy Kamareddy Nizamabad
9 Karimnagar Karimnagar Karimnagar
10 Khammam Khammam Khammam
11 Komaram Bheem Asifabad Adilabad
12 Mahabubabad Mahabubabad Warangal, Khammam
13 Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar Mahbubnagar
14 Mancherial Mancherial Adilabad
15 Medak Medak Medak
16 Medchal–Malkajgiri Shamirpet Ranga Reddy
17 Mulugu Mulugu Warangal
18 Nagarkurnool Nagarkurnool Mahabubnagar
19 Nalgonda Nalgonda Nalgonda
20 Narayanpet Narayanpet Mahabubnagar
21 Nirmal Nirmal Adilabad
22 Nizamabad Nizamabad Nizamabad
23 Peddapalli Peddapalli Karimnagar
24 Rajanna Sircilla Sircilla Karimnagar
25 Ranga Reddy Shamshabad Ranga Reddy
26 Sangareddy Sangareddy Medak
27 Siddipet Siddipet Medak, Karimnagar, Warangal
28 Suryapet Suryapet Nalgonda
29 Vikarabad Vikarabad Ranga Reddy
30 Wanaparthy Wanaparthy Mahabubnagar
31 Warangal Rural Warangal Warangal
32 Warangal Urban Warangal Warangal, Karimnagar
33 Yadadri Bhuvanagiri Bhongir Nalgonda

There are a total of 12 cities in the state. Hyderabad is the biggest city in the state and 4th largest city in India. There are 13 municipal corporations and 132 municipalities in the state.

Government and politics

Telangana is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.

  1. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the chief minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.
  2. The legislature, the Telangana Legislative Assembly and the Telangana Legislative Council, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the speaker or the deputy speaker in the speaker's absence. The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council. Terms of office run for five years unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one-third members retiring every two years.
  3. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts.

Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats , for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha.

The main players in the regional politics are the Telangana Rashtra Samithi, All India Forward Bloc, All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, Bharatiya Janata Party and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly Election in 2014, the Telangana Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected to power.

Economy

Coal Handling Ropeway near Manuguru, Bhadradri Kothagudem district. Coal Handling Ropeway near Pamulapalli.jpg
Coal Handling Ropeway near Manuguru, Bhadradri Kothagudem district.

The economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Farmers in Telangana mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for irrigation. Rice is the major food crop. Other important crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango, and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam. [74] [75]

The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. Telangana is one of top IT-exporting states of India. There are 68 Special Economic Zones in the state. [76]

Telangana is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Collieries Company. [77]

Agriculture

Paddy fields in Warangal district Warangal IMG 4286.JPG
Paddy fields in Warangal district

Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are maize, tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane. [78] Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. The Godavari and Krishna rivers flow through the state, providing irrigation. Apart from major rivers, there are small rivers like Tunga Bhadra, Bima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Pranahitha, peddavagu and Taliperu. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam. [79]

Agri Export Zones for the following produce have been proposed for the following locations: [80] [ citation needed ]

Industries

The HITEC City is a major IT hub of Hyderabad Hitech city.jpg
The HITEC City is a major IT hub of Hyderabad

Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components, spices, mines and minerals, textiles and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture, and poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana. [81]

In terms of services, Hyderabad is nicknamed "Cyberabad" due to the location of major software industries in the city. [82] [83] Prior to secession, it contributed 10% to India's and 98% to Andhra Pradesh's exports in the IT and ITES sectors in 2013 [84] With Hyderabad in the front line of Telangana's goal to promote information technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC City as its premier hub.

The state government is in the process of developing industrial parks at different places, for specific groups of industries. The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad, HITEC City for software units, Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli, Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram, Biotechnology park at Turkapally.[ citation needed ]

Hyderabad is also a major site for healthcare-related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organisations such as Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Yashoda Hospitals, LV Prasad Eye Care, Akruti Institute of cosmetic and plastic surgery, Fever Hospital, Durgabai Deshmukh, Continental Hospitals and Apollo Hospitals. Many pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical-related companies like Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Shantha Biotechnics and GVK BIO are based out of Hyderabad.

In addition, Hyderabad-based healthcare non-profits include the Indian Heart Association, a cardiovascular disease NGO. [85]

Tourism

Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana. [86] Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places, monuments, forts, waterfalls, forests and temples.

Awards

Telangana state has won CNBC-TV18's Promising State of the Year Award for the year of 2015. The Jury for the India Business Leader Awards (IBLA) has collectively chosen Telangana for the award. [87] [88]

Media

Telangana state has English and Telugu News papers. Which are published from different cities. The print media mainly consists of Telugu and English newspapers. Sakshi , Andhra Jyoti and Namaste Telangana are all Telugu news papers. Mainly in English newspaper are Deccan Chronicle, The Times Of India, Hindu and The Hans India. [89]

Infrastructure

Rstps4.jpg
Ramagundam Thermal Power station
Outer Ring Road (Nehru ORR) at Narsinghi.jpg
Hyderabad Outer Ring Road

Power

Hydel and thermal power projects in the state meet the power requirements of the state. A number of new power projects are coming up in the State which is expected to generate additional power capacity in the state.

Irrigation Projects

ProjectRiverDistrict
Kaleswaram Godavari Jayashankar Bhupalpally
Sriram Sagar Godavari Nizamabad
Nagarjuna Sagar Krishna Nalgonda, Guntur
Srisailam Krishna Mahabubnagar, Kurnool
Nizam Sagar Manjira Nizamabad
Singur Dam Manjira Medak
Lower Manair Dam Maner Karimnagar
Mid Manair Dam Maner Rajanna Sircilla
Upper Manair Dam Maner Rajanna Sircilla
Sripada Yellampalli Godavari Peddapalli, Mancherial
Jurala Krishna Jogulamba Gadwal
Koil Sagar Krishna Mahabubnagar
Osman Sagar Musi Ranga Reddy district
Himayat Sagar Musi Ranga Reddy district

Major Cities

Major Towns

Transport

The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) Bus TSRTC's JnNURM Metro Express bus in Khammam.jpg
The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) Bus

The state is well connected with other states by means of road, rail and airways. The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages. [90] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia. [91] [92] Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services.

Roadways

The state has a total of 16 national highways and accounts for a total length of 2,690.23 km (1,671.63 mi). [93]

Railways

The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad in 1874. The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway, which had its beginnings in a line built privately by the HEH the Nizam. Much to the dismay of the British authorities, The Nizam bore all the expenses for the construction of the line. [94]

It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad and Hyderabad are the main divisions of South Central Railway that fall in the state. [95]

Airports

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport Rajiv Gandhi International Airport.jpg
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country. The government has plans to upgrade Warangal Airport, Nizamabad Airport [96] and Ramagundam Airport. It also plans to construct airports in Ramagundam and Kothagudem. [97]

Warangal has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal were done through the Warangal Airport.[ citation needed ]

Culture

Sammakka Saralamma Jatara is a famous tribal Hindu festival in Telangana Sammakka gadde at sammakka saarakka jatara.jpg
Sammakka Saralamma Jatara is a famous tribal Hindu festival in Telangana

Telangana culture combines cultural customs from Persian traditions, embedded during the rule of the region by the Mughals, Qutub Shahis and Nizams, with prominent and predominantly south Indian traditions and customs. The State has a rich tradition in classical music, painting and folk arts such as Burra Katha, shadow puppet show, and Perini Shivatandavam, Gusadi Dance, Kolatam.

Monuments

Charminar, Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Chowmahalla Palace, Falaknuma Palace, Birla Mandir and Nagarjun sagar, Bhongir Fort, Warangal Fort, Khammam Fort are some of the monuments in and around Hyderabad.

Religious destinations

There are religious worship centers of different religions in the state.

Hindu worship destinations include Bhadrachalam Temple, Gnana Saraswati Temple, Yadagirigutta Temple, Ramappa Temple, Vemulawada Raja Rajeswara temple, the Thousand Pillar Temple.

The Muslim worship destinations such as Makkah Masjid near Charminar, Khairtabad Mosque, Koh-e-qaim, Mian Mishk Masjid, Toli Masjid and Spanish Mosque.

Christian worship centers include the Diocese of Dornakal of the Church of South India, Bahe Church of South India, and Medak Cathedral. There are also some Buddhist destinations, such as Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka. [98]

Telugu cinema

Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet as Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language, and is centered in the Hyderabad, Telangana neighbourhood of Film Nagar. [99] In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film industry is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood. [100] In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood. [101] [102] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world. [103]

Waterfalls

Kuntala Waterfall (45 metres (148 ft)) located in Kuntala, Adilabad district.

Bogatha Waterfall is waterfall located in Koyaveerapuram G, Wazeedu Mandal, Jayashankar Bhupalpally district, Telangana. It is located 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Bhadrachalam, 140 kilometres (87 mi) away from Warangal and 329 kilometres (204 mi) from Hyderabad. [104] [105]

Savatula Gundam Waterfalls are one of the many waterfalls located in Adilabad district, Telangana, India. They are located 30 km (19 mi) from Komaram Bheem and 350 km (220 mi) from Hyderabad, the state capital.

Gowri Gundaala waterfalls at Sabitham village near Manthani in Peddapalli district.

Education

NIT Warangal main gate Nitw main gate.JPG
NIT Warangal main gate

Telangana has multiple institutes of higher education universities along with numerous primary and secondary schools. The state is home to a number of institutes, which impart higher education. The Department of Higher Education deals with matters relating to education at various levels in the state of Telangana.

The government has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies Basar (RGUKT Basar) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Telangana. [106] The higher education includes many colleges, universities and research institutes providing professional education in the fields of arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary sciences, with undergraduate and post-graduation. The Indian School of Business (Hyderabad), The Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad (IIT Hyderabad or IITH), a public engineering and research institution is situated in Sangareddy district in Telangana.

Sports

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium RGIS HYD.jpg
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium

The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and has won twice. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad and has won the trophy once. Deccan Chargers, a currently defunct franchise from Hyderabad, also won the Indian Premier League once. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of both Hyderabad cricket team and Sunrisers Hyderabad. It hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Hyderabad Hunters, a Premier Badminton League franchise; the Telugu Titans, a Pro Kabaddi League franchise; the Hyderabad Sky, a UBA Pro Basketball League franchise and the Telugu Tigers, a Premier Futsal franchise are also based in Hyderabad. Hyderabad Hunters are previous winners of the Premier Badminton League title.

Notable sports persons from the state are Mohammad Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Mithali Raj, Pragyan Ojha, Ambati Rayudu, Saina Nehwal, P.V. Sindhu, Jwala Gutta, Parupalli Kashyap, Gagan Narang, Mukesh Kumar and Pullela Gopichand (Andhra Pradesh), as well as Sania Mirza who has been appointed as the "brand ambassador" of Telangana.

Other stadiums include G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium, Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and Gachibowli Indoor Stadium.

See also

Related Research Articles

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History of Andhra Pradesh aspect of history

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 28 states of India whose recorded history begins in the Vedic period. It is mentioned in Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana. The Assaka Mahajanapada was an ancient kingdom located between the Godavari and Krishna Rivers in southeastern India.

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.

Andhra Pradesh is a state in the southern part of India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act. Andhra Pradesh is bordered by the Bay of Bengal to the east, Karnataka to the west, Maharashtra to the north-west, Orissa to the north-east, Chhattisgarh to the north and Tamil Nadu to the south. The state covers an area of 106,195 sq mi (275,045 km²), or 5.83% of the total geographical area of India. It comprises 23 districts. Telugu is the primary official language of Andhra Pradesh and spoken as a native language by about 83.88% of the people. Other ethnic minorities in the state as of 2001 are Urdu people (8.63%), Tamil people (3.01%), Kannada people (2.60%), Marathi people (0.70%) and Odia people (0.44%).

Hyderabad State (1948–1956) former state of India (1948-1956)

Hyderabad State was a state in Dominion and later Republic of India, formed after the accession of the princely state of Hyderabad into the Indian Union on 17 September 1948. It existed from 1948 to 1956.

History of Hyderabad

Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana. It is a historic city noted for its many monuments, temples, mosques and bazaars. A multitude of influences has shaped the character of the city in the last 400 years.

History of Telangana aspect of history

The history of Telangana, located in the Deccan region, includes its governance by many rulers. It was ruled by the Satavahana Dynasty, the Kakatiya Dynasty (1083–1323), the Musunuri Nayaks (1326–1356) the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1512), Golconda Sultanate (1512–1687) and Asaf Jahi dynasty (1724-1950).

Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana, a state in the Southern region of India. The retired Director General of Police Pervaram Ramulu is the appointed First chairman of Telangana State Tourism. Tourist attractions in Telangana include historical places, monuments, forts, water falls, forests and temples.

Culture of Telangana Cultural history of an Indian state

The Culture of Telangana in India has a cultural history of about 5,000 years. The region emerged as the foremost centre of culture in Indian subcontinent during the rule of Kakatiya, the Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi dynasties—. The rulers' patronage and interest for arts and culture transformed Telangana into a unique multi-cultural region where two different cultures coexist together, thus making Telangana the representative of the Deccan Plateau and its heritage with Warangal and Hyderabad being its epicenter. The regions' major cultural events celebrated are "Kakatiya Festival" and Deccan Festival along with religious festivals Bonalu, Bathukamma, Dasara, Ugadi, Sankranthi, Milad un Nabi and Ramadan.

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