Guntur district

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Guntur district
Beauty of Sangam jagarlamudi locks in guntur district of the Indian state of andhra pradesh.jpg
Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (India).svg
Location of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates(Guntur): 16°18′N80°27′E / 16.300°N 80.450°E / 16.300; 80.450 Coordinates: 16°18′N80°27′E / 16.300°N 80.450°E / 16.300; 80.450
CountryIndia
State Andhra Pradesh
Headquarters Guntur
Mandals 58
Government
   District collector Sri Vivek Yadav, IAS [1]
   Lok Sabha constituencies Guntur, Narasaraopet, Bapatla
   Vidhan Sabha constituencies 17
Area
   District of Andhra Pradesh 11,391 km2 (4,398 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
   District of Andhra Pradesh 4,887,813
  Density430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
   Urban
33.81%
Demographics
   Literacy 67.40%
  Sex ratio1003
Vehicle registration AP-07 (former)
AP39 (from 30 January 2019) [2]
Major highways NH-16
Website Official website

Guntur district is one of the nine districts in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The administrative seat of the district is located at Guntur, the largest city of the district in terms of area and with a population of 670,073. [3] It has a coastline of approximately 100 km (62 mi) on the right bank of Krishna River, that separates it from Krishna district and extends till it empties into the Bay of Bengal. It is bounded on the south by Prakasam district and on the west by the state of Telangana. [4] It has an area of 11,391 km2 (4,398 sq mi) and is the 2nd most populous district in the state, with a population of 4,889,230 as per 2011 census of India. [5] [6]

Contents

The district is often referred to as the Land of Chillies. [7] It is also a major centre for agriculture, education and learning. It exports large quantities of chillies and tobacco. [8] Amaravati, the proposed capital of Andhra Pradesh is situated in Guntur district, on the banks of the river Krishna.

Etymology

The district derives its name from its district headquarters, Guntur. [9]

There are several opinions on the meaning and origin of the word Guntur. The word owes its origin to words like gundu (a rock), gunta (a pond) and kunta (1/3 of an acre). In Sanskrit Guntur is called Garthapuri (Guntlapuri).

The earliest reference to Guntur, a variant of Guntur, comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I (922-929 AD), the Vengichalakyan King. Guntur also appears in another two inscriptions dated 1147 AD and 1158 AD.

History

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,133,968    
19111,299,257+1.37%
19211,385,050+0.64%
19311,563,095+1.22%
19411,755,986+1.17%
19511,975,395+1.18%
19612,327,246+1.65%
19712,844,488+2.03%
19813,434,724+1.90%
19914,106,999+1.80%
20014,465,144+0.84%
20114,887,813+0.91%
source: [10]
Brahmi Script inscribed on a Railing Pillar at Velpuru Brahmi Script inscribed on a Railing Pillar at Velpuru 02.jpg
Brahmi Script inscribed on a Railing Pillar at Velpuru
Districts of Andhra Pradesh Ap-districts.png
Districts of Andhra Pradesh

The original Sanskrit name (ancient Vedic culture) for Guntur was Garthapuri. The 'Agasthyeswara Sivalayam' in the old city of Guntur is an ancient temple for Siva.[ citation needed ] It has inscriptions on two stones in 'Naga Lipi' (ancient script). It is said that Agastya built the temple in the last Treta Yuga around the Swayambhu Linga and hence the name. The 'Nagas' were said to have ruled the region. The place of Sitanagaram and the Guthikonda Caves can be traced (through Vedic Puranas) back to the traditional timescale Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga .[ citation needed ]

Guntur District is home to the second oldest evidence of human habitation in India, in the form of Palaeolithic (old Stone Age) implements. Ancient history can be traced from the time of Sala kings who ruled during the 5th century BCE. The earliest reference to Guntur, a variant of Guntur, comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I (922–929 CE), the Vengi Chalukyan King. Guntur also appears in two inscriptions dated 1147 and 1158 CE. [ citation needed ]

Since the beginning of Buddhist time, Guntur stood in the forefront in matters of culture, education and civilisation. Gautama Buddha preached at Dharanikota/Dhanyakatakam near Guntur and conducted Kalachakra ceremony, which takes its antiquity to 500 BCE. [11] Taranatha, a Buddhist monk writes: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of "The Glorious Lunar Mansions" (Kalachakra). [12] Buddhists established universities in ancient times at Dhanyakataka and Amaravathi. Scores of Buddhist stupas were excavated in the villages of Guntur district. Acharya Nagarjuna, an influential Buddhist philosopher taught at Nagarjunakonda and is said to have discovered Mica in 200 BCE. Chinese traveller and Buddhist monk Hiuen Tsang (Xuanzang) visited Amaravati in 640 C.E., stayed for sometime and studied 'Abhidhammapitakam'. He observed that there were many Viharas and some of them were deserted, which points out that Hinduism was gaining ground at that time. Xuanzang wrote a glorious account of the place, Viharas and monasteries that existed. [13]

Guntur was successively ruled by famous dynasties such as the Satavahanas, Andhra Ikshvakus, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Vishnukundina, Kota Vamsa, Chalukyas, Cholas, Kakatiyas, Musunuris, Reddys, Vijayanagara and Qutb Shahis during ancient and medieval times. The famous battle of Palnadu which is enshrined in legend and literature as Palnati Yuddham was fought in Guntur district in 1180 CE.

Qutb Shahis, Nizams and later

During the 16th century Guntur became part of the Mughal empire. In 1687 CE when the emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Qutb Shahi sultanate of Golconda, of which Guntur was then a part. In 1724 CE, Asaf Jah, viceroy of the empire's southern provinces, declared his independence as the Nizam of Hyderabad. The coastal districts of Hyderabad, known as the Northern Circars, were occupied by the French in 1750. During this time, the Manur Rao family of Deshastha Brahmin community, the Vasireddi family of Kamma community and the Manik Rao family of Velama community were prominent Zamindar families in the present day Guntur district. The Manur Rao family were rulers of Chilakaluripet Zamindari and Sattenapalle Zamindari, The Vasireddi family were rulers of Amaravathi Zamindari and The Manik Rao family were the rulers of Repalle Zamindari. [14]

Post Independence

The Guntur region played a significant role in the struggle for independence and the formation of Andhra Pradesh. The northern, Telugu- speaking districts of Madras State, including Guntur, advocated to become a separate state after independence. The new state of Andhra region named Andhra State, was created in 1953 from the eleven northern districts of Madras State. In 1970, part of Guntur district was split off to become part of the Prakasam district. [15]

The district suffers from Naxalite insurgency and is a part of the Red corridor. [16]

Geography

Guntur Coast by NASA NASA-GNT.jpg
Guntur Coast by NASA

Guntur district occupies an area of approximately 19,391 square kilometres (7,487 sq mi), [17] comparatively equivalent to Indonesia's Bangka Island. [18] The Krishna River forms the northeastern and eastern boundary of the district, separating it from Krishna district. The district is bounded on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Prakasam district, on the west by Mahabub Nagar district, Telangana and on the northwest by Nalgonda district, Telangana.

Guntur Coast is located on the south east coast of India (also known as the Coromandel Coast) (quotes from NASA site). Krishna river merges into Bay of Bengal at the coastal area of Guntur district. The braided stream channels, broad floodplain, and extensive sandbars suggest that this part of the Krishna river flows through relatively flat terrain and carries substantial amounts of sediment, especially during the monsoon season. Suryalanka Beach near Bapatla, Bobbarrlanka in Repalle, Nizampatnam Beach in Nizampatnam are tourist beaches in Guntur coastline.

Demographics

As of 2011 census of India, the district had a population of 4,887,813 with a density of 193 inhabitants per square kilometre (500/sq mi). The total population constitute, 2,440,521 males and 2,447,292 females – a sex ratio of 1003 females per 1000 males. The total urban population is 16,52,738 (33.81%). [6] :19 There are 29,60,441 literates with a literacy rate of 67.40%. [6] :20

At the time of the 2011 census, 87.69% of the population spoke Telugu, 10.33% Urdu and 1.18% Lambadi as their first language.

Administrative Setup

Collectorate

The Collectorate play a pivotal role in the district administration. Collector in the cadre of IAS heads the district. He acts as the District Magistrate for maintaining Law and order in his jurisdiction. He deals mainly with planning and development. Law and Order, scheduled areas/ agency areas, general elections, arms licensing etc.

The Joint Collector, who also belongs to the IAS cadre, runs the Revenue administration under various enactments in the district. He is also designated as Additional District Magistrate. He mainly deals with civil supplies,land matters, mines and minerals,village officers etc.

The District Revenue Officer (DRO), in the cadre of Special Grade Deputy Collectors, assists the Collector and Joint Collector in discharging their duties. The District Revenue Officer looks after all the branches of the Collectorate. He deals mainly with general administration and is vested with supervision of day-to-day functions of the collectorate.

The administrative officer in the rank of a Tahsildar is the general assistant to the collector. He directly supervises all the sections in the collectorate and most of the files are routed through him.

The collectorate is divided into 8 sections as per the administrative reforms taken up by the Government of Andhra Pradesh.

Revenue Divisions

The district is divided into four Revenue divisions, namely, Guntur, Tenali, Narasaraopet and Gurazala. These are sub-divided into 58 mandals, [19] which are in turn divided as 57 Panchayat Samiti (Block)s, 712 villages and 16 towns. These 16 towns includes, 1 municipal corporation, 14 municipalities [20] and 1 census town. Gurazala revenue division was newly formed in the year 2013. [21] [22] Guntur city is the only municipal corporation and district headquarter. Vaddeswaram is categorised as a census town. [23] The 14 municipalities in the district are Mangalagiri, Sattenapalle, Tadepalle, Tenali, Ponnur, Bapatla, Repalle, Narasaraopet, Chilakaluripet, Vinukonda, Macherla, Piduguralla, Dachepalle and Gurazala. [24] [20]

Mandals

Guntur District Mandal Map Guntur District Mandal Map.jpg
Guntur District Mandal Map

The below table categorises 58 mandals into their respective revenue divisions in the district: [3] [25]

# Guntur Division # Tenali Division # Narasaraopet Division # Gurazala Division [21]
1 Amaravati 21Amruthalur39Bollapalle50Dachepalle
2 Atchampet 22 Bapatla 40 Chilakaluripet 51Durgi
3Bellamkonda23 Bhattiprolu 41Edlapadu52Gurazala
4 Guntur East 24 Chebrolu 42Ipur53Karempudi
5 Guntur West 25 Cherukupalle 43Nadendla54Machavaram
6Krosuru26 Duggirala 44 Narasaraopet 55 Macherla
7 Mangalagiri 27Kakumanu45Nekarikallu56Piduguralla
8 Medikonduru 28Karlapalem46Nuzendla57Rentachintala
9Muppalla29 Kollipara 47Rompicherla58Veldurthy
10 Pedakakani 30 Kolluru 48Savalyapuram
11Pedakurapadu31Nagaram49Vinukonda
12 Pedanandipadu 32 Nizampatnam
13Phirangipuram33Pittalavanipalem
14 Prathipadu 34 Ponnur
15Rajupalem35 Repalle
16 Sattenapalle 36 Tenali
17 Tadepalle 37 Tsunduru
18 Tadikonda 38 Vemuru
19 Thullur
20Vatticherukuru

Village Panchayats

Guntur district has 1022 Gram Panchayats covering 58 mandals including seized mandals. Panchayat secretaries have been working for the cluster Headquarter Gram Panchayats. The main objective of the Panchayat Raj Department is to provide civic amenities to the rural public.

Erstwhile Talukas

S.No.Erstwhile Talukas

in 1971

Newly formed Talukas

in 1978

Newly formed Mandals

in 1985

1GunturGunturGuntur, Pedakakani, Chebrolu [part]
PrathipaduPrathipadu, Vatticherukuru, Pedanandipadu [part]
TadikondaTadikonda, Thullur, Amaravathi [part]
MangalagiriMangalagiri, Tadepalli,
2TenaliTenaliTenali, Tsundur,Vemuru [part], Chebrolu [part]
EmaniDuggirala, Kollipara,
AmruthalurAmruthalur, Kolluru, Vemuru [part]
3RepalleRepalleRepalle, Bhattiprolu,
PallapatlaCherukupalli, Nagaram, Nizampatnam,
4BapatlaBapatlaBapatla, Karlapalem, Pittalavanipalem
PonnurPonnuru, Kakumanu,
5NarsaraopetaNarsaraopetaNarasaraopeta, Nakirekallu, Rompicherla,
ChilakaluripetaChilakaluripeta, Edlapadu, Nadendla, Pedanandipadu [part],
6VinukondaVinukondaVinukonda, Nuzendla, Savalyapuram [part]
IpurIpur, Bollapalle, Savalyapuram [part]
7PalnaduPalnaduGurajala, Karempudi, Rentachintala [part],
MacherlaMacherla, Durgi, Veldurthy, Rentachintala [part],
PidugurallaPiduguralla, Dachepalle, Machavaram,
8SattenapalleSattenapalleSattenapalle, Phirangipuram, Medikonduru,
RajupalemRajupalem, Bellamkonda, Muppala, Krosuru [part]
TalluruAtchampet, Pedakurapadu, Amaravathi [part], Krosuru [part]

Towns

Municipal Bodies in Guntur District
S.No.City / TownCivic Status of TownMunicipality

Formation Year

2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1GunturMunicipal Corporation1866670,073514,461417,051367,699
2TenaliMunicipality Grade - Special1912164,937153,756143,726119,257
3NarsaraopetaMunicipality Grade - 11915117,48995,34988,72667,032
4MangalagiriMunicipality Grade - 11969107,19763,34959,15246,172
5ChilakaluripetaMunicipality Grade - 11964101,39891,65679,14261,645
6TadepalleMunicipality Grade - 1200970,69441,69928,94224,542
7BapatlaMunicipality Grade - 1195170,77768,39762,53655,347
8PidugurallaMunicipality Grade - 2200563,10350,12735,04020,889
9VinukondaMunicipality Grade - 2200562,55052,51934,60724,238
10PonnurMunicipality Grade - 2196459,91357,64054,36350,206
11MacherlaMunicipality Grade - 2198357,29049,22143,98730,719
12SattenapalleMunicipality Grade - 2198456,72151,40445,44233,000
13RepalleMunicipality Grade - 2195650,86642,53936,49334,155
14DachepalliMunicipality Grade - 2202136,280------
15GurajalaMunicipality Grade - 2202130,464------

Note -

Erstwhile Talukas [Non-Municipalities] Population.
S.NoTownCivic Status of Town2011 Census

Population

1PrathipaduGrama Panchayat14,305
2TadikondaGrama Panchayat18,505
3AmruthalurGrama Panchayat6,524
4IpurGrama Panchayat5,935
5Talluru. [Krosur]Grama Panchayat4,217
6RajupalemGrama Panchayat4,139
7Pallapatla. [Nizampatnam]Grama Panchayat3,190

Culture

Lord Hanuman temple, Ponnur Ponnur Anjaneya Swamy Temple 02.jpg
Lord Hanuman temple, Ponnur

The district has many festivals such as Rama Navami, [26] Maha Sivaratri, [27] Vinayaka Chavithi, [28] Vijaya Dasami, [29] Deepawali, [30] Holi, [31] Ugadi, [32] Eid, [33] Krishnastami, [34] Christmas. [35] There are hill temple festivals at Kotappakonda, Mangalagiri.

Tourism

Places of historical importance in the district include Amaravathi, Bapatla, Ponnur, Bhattiprolu, Vinukonda, Kotappakonda, Undavalli Caves, Gurazala, Macherla, Kondaveedu Fort, Tenali and the archaeological museum in Guntur. There are many places of interest like Uppalapadu Bird Sanctuary, Kondaveedu Fort, Guttikonda Caves. The district has coastline of almost 100 km (62 mi), with beaches like Suryalanka Beach.

Tradition and spirituality

Prolaya Vema Reddi built number of Lord Shiva temples during his reign. Number of temples were constructed in Krishna valley during the reign of Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu. Tall towers (Gaali Gopuram) of these temples in many villages and towns of Guntur district stand testimony to his devotion and munificence. Some of the famous destinations are Nadivelamma Talli Temple in Rajavolu, and there will be annual festival on Full moon day in the month of Chaitra maas. Amaravathi temple, the abode of Lord Shiva, present in the form of a 15 ft (4.6 m) Shiva Linga. The Auspicious Hill of Mangalagiri town, is dedicated to Lord Narasimha with three temples of Panakala Narasimha Swamy on the hill, Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy at the foot of the temple, Gandala Narasimha Swamy at the top of the hill, are also famous. Other famous temples are Bhavanarayanaswami temple in Bapatla, Sri Laxmi Chennakesava Swamy Temple in Macherla, Kotappakonda, [36] Pedakakani, Vykuntapuram in Tenali.and also subramaneswara Swamy temple,polleramathalli temple, agastheswaraswamy temple (which was built in 8 century by agasthaya mahrashi and rebuilt by Sri Krishna Devaraya)

Panorama of Amaravathi Cultural Heritage Museum.jpg
Amaravathi Cultural Heritage Museum

Economy

Tobacco Drying at Grandhasiri village in Guntur district Tobacco Drying at Grandhasiri village.JPG
Tobacco Drying at Grandhasiri village in Guntur district

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the district is 49,722 crore (US$6.6 billion) and it contributes 9.5% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 82,026 (US$1,100). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 16,111 crore (US$2.1 billion), 8,770 crore (US$1.2 billion) and 24,841 crore (US$3.3 billion) respectively to the GDDP. [37]

The major products contributing to the GVA of the district from agriculture and allied services are paddy, cotton kapas, chillies, banana, milk, meat and fisheries. The GVA to the industrial and service sector is contributed from construction, electricity, manufacturing, transport and education. [37]

Healthcare

General Hospital in Guntur Government General Hospital, Guntur.jpg
General Hospital in Guntur

Healthcare is provided by government and private institutions. The Guntur Government Hospital provides free healthcare. [38] All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) is situated in Mangalagiri. [39] The nonprofit or charity hospitals are the Sankara Eye Hospital. [40] [41]

Transport

The total road length of state highways in the district is 1,258 km (782 mi). [42] There exists 406 km (252 mi) of rail network in the district. [37]

Education and research

A college campus Hindu college in Guntur.jpg
A college campus
A university campus Acharyanagarjuna3.JPG
A university campus

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state. [43] [44] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, there are a total of 4,739 schools. They include, 32 government, 2,839 mandal and zilla parishads, 2 residential, 1329 private, 14 model, 24 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 296 municipal and 203 other types of schools. [45] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 637,031. [46] The district being home to the capital city, it is experiencing a growth in private international schools as well. [47] The Central Board of Secondary Education, Secondary School Certificate or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education are the different types of syllabus followed by different schools. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu and Urdu. [48] [49]

There are several junior colleges which are under government, residential, social welfare, disabled welfare, private aided and unaided for the purpose of imparting (10+2) education and the students sit for the certificate of Board of Intermediate Education. [50] AC college is the oldest private aided college of the district, established in 1885. [50] The higher education colleges have various fields of study like medical, nursing, degree, post graduate, polytechnic, law, teaching, pharmacy, engineering, veterinary etc. [51] The Acharya Nagarjuna University is a state university which has fourteen autonomous colleges as per Universities Grant Commission. [52] [53] The KMC, GMC, AIIMS are some of the premier medical institutes in Guntur. There are also many private universities like Vignan University, KL University in the district. The Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University at Lam is a public agricultural university, equipped with a Regional Agricultural Research Station. [54] [55]

See also

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References

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