Central Board of Secondary Education

Last updated

Central Board of Secondary Education
Formation2 July 1929(93 years ago) (1929-07-02)
TypeGovernmental Board of Education
Legal statusActive
Headquarters New Delhi, India
Official language
Nidhi Chibber, IAS [1]
Parent organisation
Ministry of Education
Affiliations28,526 schools (13 December 2022) [2]
Website www.cbse.gov.in

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by the Government of India. Established in 1929 by a resolution of the government, the Board was an experiment towards inter-state integration and cooperation in the sphere of secondary education. There are more than 27,000 schools in India and 240 schools in 28 foreign countries affiliated to the CBSE. All schools affiliated to CBSE follow the NCERT curriculum especially from class 9 to 12. The current Chairperson of CBSE is Nidhi Chibber, IAS. [3]


The constitution of the Board was amended in 1952 to give its present name, the Central Board of Secondary Education. The Board was reconstituted on 1 July 1962 so as to make its services available to students and various educational institutions in the entire country. [4]


The first education board to be set up in India was the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education in 1921, which was under jurisdiction of Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior. In 1929, the government of India set up a joint Board named Board of High School and Intermediate Education. This included Ajmer, Merwara, Central India, and Gwalior. Later it was confined to Ajmer, Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh. In 1952, it became the Central Board of Secondary Education. [5]


CBSE offers academic subjects in 40 different languages, which are Arabic, Assamese, Bahasa Melayu, Bengali, Bhutia, Bodo, English, French, German, Gujarati, Gurung, Hindi Course-A, Hindi Course-B, Japanese, Kannada, Kashmiri, Lepcha, Limboo, Malayalam, Meitei (Manipuri), Marathi, Mizo, Nepali, Odia, Persian, Punjabi, Rai, Russian, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Spanish, Sherpa, Tamang, Tamil, Tangkhul, Telugu AP, Telugu Telangana, Thai, Tibetan, Urdu Course A and Urdu Course B. [6]


CBSE affiliates all Kendriya Vidyalayas, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, private schools, and most of the schools approved by central government of India. There are 1,138 Kendriya Vidyalayas, 3,011 Government Schools, 16,741 Independent Schools, 595 Jawahar Novodaya Vidyalayas and 14 Central Tibetan Schools. [7]


CBSE conducts the final examinations for Class 10 and Class 12 every year in the month of March. The results are announced by the end of May. [8] The board earlier conducted the AIEEE Examination for admission to undergraduate courses in engineering and architecture in colleges across India, however the AIEEE exam was merged with the IIT-Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) in 2013. The common examination is now called JEE (Main) and is henceforth conducted by National Testing Agency.

CBSE also conducted AIPMT (All India Pre Medical Test) for admission to major medical colleges in India. In 2014, the conduct of the National Eligibility Test for grant of junior research fellowship and eligibility for assistant professor in institutions of higher learning was outsourced to CBSE. [9]

Apart from these tests, CBSE also conducts the Central Teacher Eligibility Test and the Class X optional proficiency test. [9] With the addition of NET in 2014, the CBSE had become the largest exam conducting body in the world. [9] [10]

On 10 November 2017, the Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, cleared a proposal for creation of a National Testing Agency (NTA) serving as the premier autonomous body for conducting entrance examinations in the country. Beginning in 2018 various exams previously conducted by the CBSE were transferred to the NTA including National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (Undergraduate), Joint Entrance Examination – Main, National Eligibility Test, Central Universities Common Entrance Test and others. [11]

Promotion criteria

Class 10

For promotion from Secondary level (Class IX-X) to Senior Secondary level (Class XI-XII), a student must obtain, for all subjects (or best 5 if 6 subjects are taken), 33% overall, without any minimum theory mark requirement. Originally, the passing criteria was set such that a student had to get 33% in both the theory and practical components. However, an exemption was initially granted for students writing the exam in 2018 as they went through the old CCE system in the previous year. [12] However, CBSE later extended this relief for students writing the exam from 2019 and later as well. [13] Students who do not manage to pass up to two subjects can write the compartment in those subjects in July. Those who fail the compartment, or fail in three subjects or more, must rewrite all the subjects taken in the next year.

Class 12

For class 12 students the promotion criteria is 33% overall, with 33% in both theory and practical examinations (if applicable). Students who do not manage to pass in exactly one subject can write the compartment for that subject in July. Those who fail the compartment, or those who fail in two subjects or more, must rewrite all the subjects taken in the next year.


For the Class 10 and Class 12 exams, CBSE (along with the marks obtained) includes the positional grade obtained by the student, which is dependent on the average performance of the students in that subject. Consequently, the cutoffs required to obtain a particular grade vary every year.

Grading system by CBSE [14]
A1Top 1/8 of passed students in that subject
A2Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
B1Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
B2Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
C1Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
C2Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
D1Next 1/8 of passed students in that subject
D2Last 1/8 of passed students in that subject
EFailed students (in either theory, practical or overall)

The cutoffs required to obtain a particular grade in 2018 are listed below: [15]

Class 12 (2018)
GradeEnglish CoreMathematicsChemistryPhysicsBiologyBiotechnologyEngineering DrawingComputer ScienceEconomicsAccountancyBusiness StudiesInformatics PracticesMultimedia/Web TechPsychologySociology
D23333Variable (33% theory and practical pass required)
Class 10 (2018)
GradeEnglish Language & LiteratureMathematicsScienceSocial ScienceMalayalamHindiFrench
D233 (minimum for all subjects)

During CCE

During 2010–2017, when CBSE implemented a CCE (Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation) for Class X students, only the grades obtained by the student were mentioned in the report card in a 9-point grading scale, which translates as below:

Former grading scale (CCE)



Number of (passed) students obtaining a particular CGPA in Class 10 by gender [16]
Number of (passed) students obtaining a particular CGPA in Class 10 by exam mode [16]


It is the practice adopted by CBSE of "tweaking" candidates' marks to account for paper difficulties and variations. This has been criticized in the past for inflating students' marks in a hyper-competitive society where even one mark counts, [18] and CBSE is in the process of ending it.[ when? ] In 2017, CBSE informed that it would end moderation entirely, but its decision was challenged by a court case at the Delhi High Court, which ruled that moderation should continue for that year. [19]

With the exception of 2018, moderation was applied to account for variations in region sets (as then students in different regions would be answering different question papers). In 2018, when everyone around the world answered the same questions, [20] this practice was renamed as standardisation, with the CBSE gradually phasing out the practice with the reduction on subjects which were given the offset.

In 2018, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Accountancy were given offset of +9, Business Studies given +6, and English given a +3 offset. In 2019, moderation took the effect of giving up to 11 extra marks: [21]

Offset applied for CBSE Class 12 exams (Delhi) [21] [0 = no moderation]
SubjectOffset (2019)Offset (2018)Offset (2017)Offset (2016)
Political Science6055
Business Studies56611

The total mark obtained by a student through moderation cannot exceed 95; if so, it is capped at 95 unless the student's actual mark is 96 or more. This is the reason a mark of 95 is relatively common for such subjects, and why it is much tougher to get 96 than to get a 95.

Moderation was also applied in the infamous CBSE Class 12 mathematics papers of 2015 and 2016, wherein the paper created a huge furore as students and teachers complained that the paper was too tough. [22] Despite a reportedly heavy offset of +16 (+15 for Delhi), [23] students' marks reduced (especially for 2016), as while the A1 cutoff was stable (90), the A2 cutoff reduced to 77, with other grades also experiencing a dip in cutoff.

Moderation can also take the form of giving grace marks to enable students who have scored near the pass mark to pass. This is the reason marks between 25 and 33 are unheard of in subjects like Mathematics, and also explains why the difference between D1 and D2 cutoff is sometimes very small.

Changes for the 2019 exam

Earlier duration for vocational exams

The CBSE has decided that vocational exams (which very few students take) are to be held earlier – in mid/late February compared to March for most other exams. This is to ensure the exams finish earlier. [24] [25]

More internal options

For many core subjects, the number of internal choices (wherein students pick one to answer out of two) has increased. [26]

English paper modifications

The English (Core) paper of Class 12 has been modified in a bid to make it less 'speedy'. [27]

Changes for 2020 Exam

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) will now conduct two separate examinations for Mathematics in class 10 board examination starting from 2020 session. The current Mathematics exam is termed as Mathematics (Standard), and an easier version of Mathematics has been introduced, called as Mathematics (Basic). Students taking the latter version may not study Mathematics to any further level.

The option of choosing mathematics will be mentioned in the registration form for class 10 CBSE board examination. Candidates will be required to select their choice of test while filling the registration form for CBSE Class 10 board examination 2020. [28]

Minister of Education, MoE (previously Minister of Human Resource Department, HRD) amid the coronavirus outbreak had ordered rescheduling of pending examinations. The exams rescheduled were to be conducted between 1 and 15 July. [29] [30] On 26 June, CBSE released as circular which cancelled the remaining exams and give scores based on the scores of the exams already taken by students. For some students of Delhi, who were able to give 3 or less exams were scored as per their performance in internal exams. [31] This decision came after a judicial ruling. [32]

Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic on 2021 & 2022 Exams

Due to rapid increase in COVID-19 cases in country, CBSE cancelled the board exams of 10th class & postponed the 12th class exams. [33]

Like 10th, Class 12th Board Exam 2021 has also been cancelled. Prime Minister Narendra Modi took a decision on this after a long meeting on 1 June 2021. [34] [35]

Later, in a letter dated 5 July 2021, CBSE announced a special scheme of assessment for board examination of classes X and XII for the session 2021–22 in which the academic year was divided into 2 terms with approximately 50% syllabus in each term to increase the probability of boards being conducted by CBSE and to avoid depending on schools for declaring results.

The Term 1 examination was successfully conducted by CBSE in objective mode from 22 November to 12 December 2021 for Class 10 and from 16 November to 30 December 2021 for Class 12. However, the Term-I examination was criticised by many for having wrong answer keys, tough question papers and wrong or controversial questions with a question being dropped in Sociology exam of class 12 and a paragraph in English Language and Literature exam for class 10 by CBSE following which CBSE dropped the experts who set the Sociology and English paper from paper-setting panels. [36] The Term 2 examination were conducted from 26 April 2022 for both Class 10 and 12 and ended on 24 May for Class 10 and 15 June for Class 12.The results of Class 12 were declared on July 22, 2022 followed by the declaration of Class 10 results on the same day.

2018 question paper leak

In March 2018, there were reports that CBSE Class 10 mathematics and Class 12 economics question papers were leaked. [37] In response, CBSE announced that these exams will be cancelled and re-exams will be conducted. [37] However, CBSE later announced that there will be no re-exam for Class 10 mathematics paper because the paper leak may have been confined to a few alleged beneficiaries. [38]

On 7 April 2018, economics teacher Rakesh Kumar and two other employees of a private school in Una, Himachal Pradesh were arrested for leaking the Class 12 economics paper. [39] According to the police, Rakesh Kumar had gone inside the strong room of a bank to pick up packets of computer science question papers but also picked up a packet of economics question paper. [39] He asked a student to make a handwritten copy of the question paper (to avoid being traced from the handwriting). [39] He then sent photos of the handwritten copy of the paper on WhatsApp to a relative in Punjab. [39] This relative shared the photos with her son and nephew, who shared them with their friends on WhatsApp groups, from where it was forwarded to other Whatsapp groups. [39] On 12 April 2018, the police said that Rakesh Kumar, who leaked the class 12 economics paper, had leaked class 10 mathematics paper also. [40] Consequently, the Central Board of Secondary Education has put in place a system of "encrypted" question papers, which are supposed to be printed by the schools half an hour before the exam starts. [41]

Regional offices

CBSE Regional Offices [42]
Regional OfficeStates/UT's/Areas covered
Ajmer Gujarat and Rajasthan
Bengaluru Karnataka
Bhopal Madhya Pradesh
Bhubaneswar West Bengal, Odisha and Chhattisgarh
Chandigarh Chandigarh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh
Chennai Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Puducherry and Tamil Nadu
Dehradun Uttarakhand and few districts of Uttar Pradesh (Badaun, Bijnour, J.P.Nagar/ Amroha, Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Rampur, Saharanpur and Sambhal)
Delhi East East Delhi, South East Delhi, South Delhi, South West Delhi, New Delhi and Shahdara districts of Delhi, and foreign schools
Delhi West West Delhi, North West Delhi, North Delhi, North East Delhi and Central Delhi districts of Delhi
Guwahati Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram
NoidaAgra, Aligarh, Baghpat, Bareilly, Bulandshahar, Etah, Firojabad, Gautam Budh Nagar, Ghaziabad, Hapur, Hathras, Kasganj / Kashi Ram Nagar, Mainpuri, Mathura, Meerut, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur and Shamli districts of Uttar Pradesh
Panchkula Haryana and Himachal Pradesh
Patna Bihar and Jharkhand
PrayagrajAmbedkar Nagar, Amethi, Auraiya, Ayodhya, Azamgarh, Bahraich, Ballia, Balrampur, Banda, Barabanki, Basti, Bhadohi, Chandauli, Chitrkoot, Deoria, Etawah, Farukkhabad, Fatehpur, Ghazipur, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Hamirpur, Hardoi, Jalaun, Jaunpur, Jhanshi, Kannauj, Kanpur Dehat, Kanpur Nagar, Kaushambi, Kushi Nagar, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lalitpur, Lucknow, Maharajganj, Mahoba, Mau, Mirjapur, Pratapgarh, Prayagraj, RaiBareilly, Sant Kabir Nagar, Shrabasti, Siddharth Nagar, Sitapur, Sonbhadra, Sultanpur, Unnao and Varanasi districts of Uttar Pradesh
Pune Maharashtra, Goa and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu
Thiruvananthapuram Kerala and Lakshadweep
Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh and Telangana

Foreign Schools

According to the official website of CBSE, there are 28 government as well as private affiliated schools in different countries outside India. The reason of their establishment is largely serving the Indian community abroad, or at least, children or relative of Indian diplomats.

Present Countries

For countries where the population of Indian nationals even surpasses the country's native population or in countries where they form a substantial share of the population, like Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, etc., Indian embassies have set up CBSE schools and have allowed Indians or locals to set up private CBSE schools serving the needs of Indians in that particular country.

But, however, in countries where Indians do not reside, the Indian diplomatic missions have set up schools in countries like Russia and Iran which mainly serves children of diplomats.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joint Entrance Examination – Advanced</span> Indian National Entrance Exam for Indian institute of technologies and other institutions

Joint Entrance Examination – Advanced (JEE-Advanced), is an academic examination held annually in India. It is organised by one of the seven zonal IITs under the guidance of the Joint Admission Board (JAB) on a round-robin rotation pattern for the qualifying candidates of the JEE-Main. It was used to be the sole prerequisite for admission to the Indian Institutes of Technology bachelor's programs before the introduction of UCEED, Online B.S. and Olympiad entries, but seats through these new mediums are very low.

The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, a private board designed to provide an examination in a course of general education, in accordance with the recommendations of the New Education Policy 1986 (India), through the medium of English.

Joint Entrance Examination – Main (JEE-Main), formerly All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE), is an Indian standardised computer-based test for admission to various technical undergraduate programs in engineering, architecture, and planning across colleges in India. The exam is conducted by the National Testing Agency for admission to B.Tech, B.Arch, etc. programs in premier technical institutes such as the National Institutes of Technology (NIT) and Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIIT), which are based on the rank secured in the JEE-Main. It is usually conducted twice every year. Since 2019, the JEE has been conducted fully online as a computerised test.

UGC NET or NTA-UGC-NET, is the examination for determining the eligibility for the post of assistant professor and/or Junior Research Fellowship award in Indian universities and colleges. The examination is conducted by National Testing Agency on behalf of University Grants Commission. Until July 2018, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducted the UGC NET exam, which the NTA has been conducting since December 2018. Currently, the exam is being conducted twice a year in the months of June and December in online mode.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Council of Educational Research and Training</span> Indian organization for school education

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous organisation of the Government of India which was established in 1961 as a literary, scientific and charitable Society under the Societies Registration Act. Its headquarters are located at Sri Aurbindo Marg in New Delhi. Roshan is Director of the council since 2022.

In India, board examinations refer to the public examinations that are conducted at the end of the 10th grade education (SSC), and at the end of the 12th grade education (HSC). The scores achieved in these exams are considered very important for getting into universities, professional courses or training programmes and other occupations

The Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) is an engineering entrance assessment conducted for admission to various engineering colleges in India. It is constituted by two different examinations: the JEE-Main and the JEE-Advanced.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination</span> Examination for admission to engineering colleges in India

West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination or the WBJEE is a state-government controlled centralised test, conducted by the West Bengal Joint Entrance Examinations Board for admission to many private and governmental engineering institutions in West Bengal.

Madhyamik Pariksha or simply Madhyamik is a centralized examination conducted by the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education in West Bengal, India, at the end of the 10th year of school education. Similarly, one examination is also conducted at the state of Tripura for its students studying in Govt or Govt Aided school under the control of Tripura Board of Secondary Education. By count of examinees, it is among the better-known 10th standard examinations in India. In WBSE, over 600,000 students took the exam in 2000, and the number has increased substantially since then. The number of students reached a record 1 million in the 2011 Madhyamik examination. Compulsory subjects are first language, second language, physical science, life science, mathematics, history and geography.

The "School Level Certificate" popularly abbreviated as SLC, is the final examination of Class 11 and Class 12 which is also known as +2 course in Nepal. +2 is generally pursued after completing SEE examination .+2 Course is equivalent to GCE also known as school leaving qualification and SEE is equivalent to GCSE, the academic qualifications in England.

Before 2021, Rajasthan Pre-Engineering Test (RPET) was the state-level entrance examination for undergraduate engineering programs in Rajasthan State, India.

All India Secondary School Examination, commonly known as board exams, is a centralized public examination that students in schools affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education in India and elsewhere take after class 10. The board conducts the examination during the period of February every year even after implementing the ambitious project of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation. Now that the board has ended the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation pattern as a result Joint Employment Test, NEET, etc., the exam is conducted by the National Testing Agency instead. In this exam, Mathematics, Science and Social Science are compulsory with any two languages. Students can also opt skill subject such as information technology, painting, yoga, music or artificial intelligence. Successful candidates are awarded the Secondary School Completion Certificate, a Statement of Marks, and a Migration Certificate stating that the candidate has completed Secondary Schooling and can pursue higher education. For the 2016-17 academic year, the Central Board of Secondary Education has revived the old system of syllabus and marking scheme (complete syllabus for All India Secondary School Examination and marks out of 500 India has state exams and central exams.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation</span> Education system in India

Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) was a process of assessment, mandated by the Right to Education Act, of India in 2009. This approach to assessment was introduced by state governments in India, as well as by the Central Board of Secondary Education in India, for students of sixth to tenth grades and twelfth in some schools. From this the smaller classes student would have a practice to face the exam of board in younger age. The Karnataka government introduced CCE for grades 1 through 9 later it was also introduced for 12th grades students. The main aim of CCE was to evaluate every aspect of the child during their presence at the school. This was believed to help reduce the pressure on the child during/before examinations as the student will have to sit for multiple tests throughout the year, of which no test or the syllabus covered will be repeated at the end of the year, whatsoever. The CCE method was claimed to bring enormous changes from the traditional chalk and talk method of teaching, provided it is implemented accurately.

Odisha Joint Entrance Examination (OJEE) is a state-government controlled centralised test for admission to many private and governmental medical, engineering & management institutions in Odisha. The test is taken after the 12th grade, diploma, graduate degree, postgraduate degree for admission to graduation of lateral entry in B.Tech, lateral entry in B.Arch, B.Pharm, BDS,, MBA, MCA, PDCM, PGDM, M.Pharm, and M.Tech courses. MBBS and B.Tech courses have been removed from OJEE after the announcement of All India Pre Medical Test (AIPMT) and JEE (Main).

The Teacher Eligibility Test, known as TET, is the minimum qualification required in India for a person to be eligible for an appointment as a teacher for Classes I to VIII. The test is mandatory for teaching jobs in Indian government schools. Similarly, UP Government introduced another qualifying after UPTET called Super TET. The TET is conducted by both the central and state governments of India. Most states conduct their own TET. The test is conducted to meet the objectives of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. The TET certificate is valid for lifetime.

The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (Undergraduate) or NEET (UG), formerly the All India Pre-Medical Test (AIPMT), is an all India pre-medical entrance test for students who wish to pursue undergraduate medical (MBBS), dental (BDS) and AYUSH (BAMS, BUMS, BHMS, etc.) courses in government and private institutions in India and also, for those intending to pursue primary medical qualification abroad.

The All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) also called Class 12Board Exams in common language, is the final examination conducted every year for high school students by the Central Board of Secondary Education on behalf of the Government of India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vardhman Academy</span> Private school in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India

Vardhman Academy is a private secondary school run by the Jain Boarding House Society in Meerut, India. It is a co-educational day-cum-boarding school affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).

Chhattisgarh Board of Secondary Education is a board of education in state of Chhattisgarh, India. CGBSE is state agency of Government of Chhattisgarh in India, it is responsible for promotion and development of secondary education in Chhattisgarh. The Board has conducted its exams independently from the year 2002, and conducts High School, Higher Secondary and Diploma Courses.

The Bihar School Examination Board is a statutory body under section 3 of Bihar School Examination Act - 1952 which is functioning under Government of Bihar devised to conduct examinations at secondary and senior secondary standard in both government and private schools belonging to state of Bihar.


  1. "Nidhi Chibber appointed CBSE chairperson". ThePrint. 13 May 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  2. "CBSE - Central Board of Secondary Education".
  3. "Senior IAS officer Nidhi Chibber appointed CBSE chairperson". Jagran English. 13 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  4. "CBSE - Central Board of Secondary Education".
  5. "History (and the Expansion) of the Central Board of Secondary Examination". studypost.com. 16 December 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  6. "CBSE | Academics Unit : Curriculum/Syllabus". cbseacademic.nic.in. Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  7. "CBSE introduction".
  8. "CBSE Results Announcement Dates: Class 12 on May 25, Class 10 on May 27". news.biharprabha.com. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  9. 1 2 3 "After UGC's failure, CBSE to conduct NET". The Times of India . 24 July 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  10. Joshua, Anita (23 July 2014). "NET to be held under CBSE's watch". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  11. "National Testing Agency". www.nta.ac.in. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  12. "CBSE says overall 33% marks enough to pass Class 10 this year". hindustantimes.com. 27 February 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  13. "CBSE Eases Class 10 Passing Marks Criteria as Combined Marks Extended from 2019 Board Exams". News18. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  14. "Grading info" (PDF). cbseacademic.nic.in.
  15. Not publicly released by CBSE, but can be verified by looking at students' grades
  16. 1 2 "Press Note for Class 10" (PDF). CBSE. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  17. For the given dataset, if students took improvement exams (i.e, rewrote them) and hence wrote fewer than five subjects, the average of those subjects alone were taken. In all other cases like absenteeism in an exam for which the student has been registered for, a score is 0 is taken in this case. This means that it is not possible to distinguish from the graph - though it is from the dataset - whether a student actually scored zero or did not show up for the exam itself.
  18. "CBSE Result 2018: The Curious Case of 'Magic Mark 95'". 27 May 2018.
  19. "CBSE moderation row: Board awarded up to 11 extra marks in this year's Class 12th exams – Firstpost". firstpost.com. 2 June 2017.
  20. This article shows evidence that CBSE reverted to the past practice in 2019: Chakrabarty, Roshni (7 March 2019). "CBSE Class 10 Mathematics paper analysis: Board examiner says moderate paper, check student reactions and full question paper." IndiaToday.in. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  21. 1 2 5; if so, it is capped at 95 unless the student's actual mark is 96 or more. This is the reason a mark of 95 is relatively common for such subjects, and why it is much tougher to get 96 than to get a 95.
  22. "A CBSE Math Paper So Tough, It Made Students Cry". 16 March 2016.
  23. "With no more 'marks moderation', CBSE Class XII results likely to dip; will bring down DU cutoffs". 18 May 2017.
  24. "CBSE 10th, 12th board exams 2019 date sheet released, check it now". Hindustan Times. 23 December 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  25. "Info" (PDF). cbseacademic.nic.in. 2018.
  26. "Info" (PDF). cbseacademic.nic.in. 2018.
  27. "Notification" (PDF). cbseacademic.nic.in. 2018.
  28. Team, BS Web (10 August 2019). "CBSE Class 10 exam 2020: 2 separate examinations to be held for mathematics". Business Standard India.
  29. "CBSE Board Exams Postponed Over Coronavirus Outbreak". NDTV.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  30. "CBSE Board Class 10, 12 Exam Date Sheet 2020 HIGHLIGHTS: 'Step is inappropriate', parents oppose move". The Indian Express. 19 May 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  31. Bharadwaj, Dr Shayam (25 June 2020). "CBSE/CE/SPS/2020" (PDF). CBSE. CBSE. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  32. "सीबीएसई 10वीं-12वीं के जुलाई में होने वाले एग्जाम रद्द होंगे, जानिए अब स्टूडेंट्स के पास क्या हैं विकल्प". News18 India. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  33. "CBSE Board Exams 2021: Class 10 exams cancelled, Class 12 postponed". Hindustan Times. 14 April 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  34. "Covid-19: Centre cancels CBSE Class 12 exams, CISCE follows suit - Times of India". The Times of India. 2 June 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  35. "12th Board Exam 2021 LIVE Updates: CBSE, ISC 12th Exam Cancelled; Assessment Criteria Soon". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  36. "CBSE drops experts who set Sociology, English paper". The Indian Express. 22 January 2022. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  37. 1 2 "CBSE paper leak: Board announces re-exam; HRD initiates probe". The Economic Times . Press Trust of India. 28 March 2018. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  38. Shihabudeen Kunju S (3 April 2018). "No Re-Exam For Class 10 Maths Paper: CBSE". NDTV . Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 Sikdar, Shubhomoy (8 April 2018). "How a Punjab housewife led Delhi cops to source of CBSE Economics paper leak". Hindustan Times . Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  40. "Una teacher leaked both CBSE economics and maths question papers: Police". Business Standard . Press Trust of India. 12 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  41. "Contacts". CBSE. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  42. "Contact Us". Central Board of Secondary Education. Retrieved 21 March 2021.