Communist Party of India

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Communist Party of India
AbbreviationCPI
General Secretary D. Raja
Parliamentary Chairperson Binoy Viswam
Lok Sabha leader K. Subbarayan
Rajya Sabha leader Binoy Viswam
Founded26 December 1925(96 years ago) (1925-12-26)
HeadquartersAjoy Bhavan, 15, Indrajit Gupta Marg, New Delhi, India-110002
Newspaper
Student wing All India Students' Federation
Youth wing All India Youth Federation
Women's wing National Federation of Indian Women
Labour wing
Peasant's wing All India Kisan Sabha
Ideology Communism [1]
Marxism–Leninism [2]
Political position Left-wing [3]
International affiliation IMCWP
Colours  Red
ECI Status National Party [4]
Alliance
Seats in  Lok Sabha
2 / 543
Seats in  Rajya Sabha
2 / 245
Seats in  State legislatures
21 / 4,036
(Total)
State Legislatures
17 / 140
(Kerala)
2 / 243
(Bihar)
2 / 234
(Tamil Nadu)
Seats in  State Legislative Councils
2 / 75
(Bihar)
Number of states and union territories in government
3 / 31
Election symbol
Indian Election Symbol Ears of Corn and Sickle.png
Party flag
CPI-banner.svg
Website
www.communistparty.in

TheCommunist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest communist party in India and one of the eight national parties in the country. [5] The CPI was founded in Kanpur on 26 December 1925. [2] [6] [7]

Contents

History

Formation

The Communist Party of India was formed on 26 December 1925 at the first Party Conference in Kanpur, which was then known as Cawnpore. S.V. Ghate was the first General Secretary of CPI. There were many communist groups formed by Indians with the help of foreigners in different parts of the world, Tashkent group of Contacts were made with Anushilan and Jugantar the groups in Bengal, and small communist groups were formed in Bombay (led by S.A. Dange), Madras (led by Singaravelu Chettiar), United Provinces (led by Shaukat Usmani), Punjab, Sindh (led by Ghulam Hussain) and Bengal (led by Muzaffar Ahmed).

Involvement in independence struggle

During the 1920s and the early 1930s the party was badly organised, and in practice there were several communist groups working with limited national co-ordination. The British colonial authorities had banned all communist activity, which made the task of building a united party very difficult. Between 1921 and 1924 there were three conspiracy trials against the communist movement; First Peshawar Conspiracy Case, Meerut Conspiracy Case and the Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case. In the first three cases, Russian-trained muhajir communists were put on trial. However, the Cawnpore trial had more political impact. On 17 March 1924, Shripad Amrit Dange, M.N. Roy, Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain and R.C. Sharma were charged, in Cawnpore (now spelt Kanpur) Bolshevik Conspiracy case. The specific pip charge was that they as communists were seeking "to deprive the King Emperor of his sovereignty of British India, by complete separation of India from Britain by a violent revolution." Pages of newspapers daily splashed sensational communist plans and people for the first time learned, on such a large scale, about communism and its doctrines and the aims of the Communist International in India. [8]

Singaravelu Chettiar was released on account of illness. M.N. Roy was in Germany and R.C. Sharma in French Pondichéry, and therefore could not be arrested. Ghulam Hussain confessed that he had received money from the Russians in Kabul and was pardoned. Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani and Dange were sentenced for various terms of imprisonment. This case was responsible for actively introducing communism to a larger Indian audience. [8] Dange was released from prison in 1927. Rahul Dev Pal was a prominent communist leader

On 25 December 1925 a communist conference was organised in Kanpur. [9] Colonial authorities estimated that 500 persons took part in the conference. The conference was convened by a man called Satya Bhakta. At the conference Satyabhakta argued for a 'National communism' and against subordination under Comintern. Being outvoted by the other delegates, Satyabhakta left the conference venue in protest. The conference adopted the name 'Communist Party of India'. Groups such as Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan (LKPH) dissolved into the CPI. [10] The émigré CPI, which probably had little organic character anyway, was effectively substituted by the organisation now operating inside India.

Soon after the 1926 conference of the Workers and Peasants Party of Bengal, the underground CPI directed its members to join the provincial Workers and Peasants Parties. All open communist activities were carried out through Workers and Peasants Parties. [11]

The sixth congress of the Communist International met in 1928. In 1927 the Kuomintang had turned on the Chinese communists, which led to a review of the policy on forming alliances with the national bourgeoisie in the colonial countries. The Colonial theses of the 6th Comintern congress called upon the Indian communists to combat the 'national-reformist leaders' and to 'unmask the national reformism of the Indian National Congress and oppose all phrases of the Swarajists, Gandhists, etc. about passive resistance'. [12] The congress did however differentiate between the character of the Chinese Kuomintang and the Indian Swarajist Party, considering the latter as neither a reliable ally nor a direct enemy. The congress called on the Indian communists to utilise the contradictions between the national bourgeoisie and the British imperialists. [13] The congress also denounced the WPP. The Tenth Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Communist International, 3 July 1929 19 July 1929, directed the Indian communists to break with WPP. When the communists deserted it, the WPP fell apart. [14]

Portrait of 25 of the Meerut Prisoners taken outside the jail. Back row (left to right): K. N. Sehgal, S. S. Josh, H. L. Hutchinson, Shaukat Usmani, B. F. Bradley, A. Prasad, P. Spratt, G. Adhikari. Middle Row: Radharaman Mitra, Gopen Chakravarti, Kishori Lal Ghosh, L. R. Kadam, D. R. Thengdi, Goura Shanker, S. Bannerjee, K.N. Joglekar, P. C. Joshi, Muzaffar Ahmed. Front Row: M. G. Desai, D. Goswami, R.S. Nimbkar, S.S. Mirajkar, S.A. Dange, S.V. Ghate, Gopal Basak. Meerut prisoners outside the jail.jpg
Portrait of 25 of the Meerut Prisoners taken outside the jail. Back row (left to right): K. N. Sehgal, S. S. Josh, H. L. Hutchinson, Shaukat Usmani, B. F. Bradley, A. Prasad, P. Spratt, G. Adhikari. Middle Row: Radharaman Mitra, Gopen Chakravarti, Kishori Lal Ghosh, L. R. Kadam, D. R. Thengdi, Goura Shanker, S. Bannerjee, K.N. Joglekar, P. C. Joshi, Muzaffar Ahmed. Front Row: M. G. Desai, D. Goswami, R.S. Nimbkar, S.S. Mirajkar, S.A. Dange, S.V. Ghate, Gopal Basak.

On 20 March 1929, arrests against WPP, CPI and other labour leaders were made in several parts of India, in what became known as the Meerut Conspiracy Case. The communist leadership was now put behind bars. The trial proceedings were to last for four years. [15] [16]

As of 1934, the main centres of activity of CPI were Bombay, Calcutta and Punjab. The party had also begun extending its activities to Madras. A group of Andhra and Tamil students, amongst them P. Sundarayya, were recruited to the CPI by Amir Hyder Khan. [17]

The party was reorganised in 1933, after the communist leaders from the Meerut trials were released. A central committee of the party was set up. In 1934 the party was accepted as the Indian section of the Communist International. [18]

When Indian left-wing elements formed the Congress Socialist Party in 1934, the CPI branded it as Social Fascist. [12]

The League Against Gandhism, initially known as the Gandhi Boycott Committee, was a political organisation in Calcutta, founded by the underground Communist Party of India and others to launch militant anti-Imperialist activities. The group took the name ‘League Against Gandhism’ in 1934. [19]

In connection with the change of policy of the Comintern toward Popular Front politics, the Indian communists changed their relation to the Indian National Congress. The communists joined the Congress Socialist Party, which worked as the left-wing of Congress. Through joining CSP, the CPI accepted the CSP demand for a Constituent Assembly, which it had denounced two years before. The CPI however analysed that the demand for a Constituent Assembly would not be a substitute for soviets. [20]

In July 1937, clandestine meeting held at Calicut. [21] Five persons were present at the meeting, P. Krishna Pillai, K. Damodaran, E.M.S. Namboodiripad, N. C. Sekhar and S.V. Ghate. The first four were members of the CSP in Kerala. The CPI in Kerala was formed on 31 December 1939 with the Pinarayi Conference. [22] The latter, Ghate, was a CPI Central Committee member, who had arrived from Madras. [23] Contacts between the CSP in Kerala and the CPI had begun in 1935, when P. Sundarayya (CC member of CPI, based in Madras at the time) met with EMS and Krishna Pillai. Sundarayya and Ghate visited Kerala at several times and met with the CSP leaders there. The contacts were facilitated through the national meetings of the Congress, CSP and All India Kisan Sabha. [17]

In 1936–1937, the co-operation between socialists and communists reached its peak. At the 2nd congress of the CSP, held in Meerut in January 1936, a thesis was adopted which declared that there was a need to build 'a united Indian Socialist Party based on Marxism-Leninism'. [24] At the 3rd CSP congress, held in Faizpur, several communists were included into the CSP National Executive Committee. [25]

In Kerala communists won control over CSP, and for a brief period controlled Congress there.

Two communists, E.M.S. Namboodiripad and Z.A. Ahmed, became All India joint secretaries of CSP. The CPI also had two other members inside the CSP executive. [20]

On the occasion of the 1940 Ramgarh Congress Conference CPI released a declaration called Proletarian Path, which sought to utilise the weakened state of the British Empire in the time of war and gave a call for general strike, no-tax, no-rent policies and mobilising for an armed revolutionary uprising. The National Executive of the CSP assembled at Ramgarh took a decision that all communists were expelled from CSP. [26]

In July 1942, the CPI was legalised, as a result of Britain and the Soviet Union becoming allies against Nazi Germany. [27] Communists strengthened their control over the All India Trade Union Congress. At the same time, communists were politically cornered for their opposition to the Quit India Movement.

CPI contested the Provincial Legislative Assembly elections of 1946 of its own. It had candidates in 108 out of 1585 seats, winning in eight seats. In total the CPI vote counted 666 723, which should be seen with the backdrop that 86% of the adult population of India lacked voting rights. The party had contested three seats in Bengal, and won all of them. One CPI candidate, Somnath Lahiri, was elected to the Constituent Assembly. [28]

The Communist Party of India opposed the partition of India and did not participate in the Independence Day celebrations of 15 August 1947 in protest of the division of the country. [29]

After independence

The Telangana armed struggle (1946-1952), was a peasant rebellion by communists against the feudal lords of the Telangana region in the princely state of Hyderabad. Armed peasants - Telangana armed struggle.jpg
The Telangana armed struggle (1946–1952), was a peasant rebellion by communists against the feudal lords of the Telangana region in the princely state of Hyderabad.
Guerrillas of the Telangana armed struggle Telangana Armed Struggle guerrillas.jpg
Guerrillas of the Telangana armed struggle
CPI election campaign in Karol Bagh, Delhi, for the 1952 Indian general election.
First Council of Ministers, First CPI Ministry in Kerala
. A Communist Party camp in Karol Bagh, Delhi, 1952.jpg
CPI election campaign in Karol Bagh, Delhi, for the 1952 Indian general election.
First Council of Ministers, First CPI Ministry in Kerala Kerala Council of Ministers 1957 EMS.jpg
First Council of Ministers, First CPI Ministry in Kerala
.

During the period around and directly following Independence in 1947, the internal situation in the party was chaotic. The party shifted rapidly between left-wing and right-wing positions. In February 1948, at the 2nd Party Congress in Calcutta, B. T. Ranadive (BTR) was elected General Secretary of the party. [30] The conference adopted the 'Programme of Democratic Revolution'. This programme included the first mention of struggle against caste injustice in a CPI document. [31]

In several areas the party led armed struggles against a series of local monarchs that were reluctant to give up their power. Such insurgencies took place in Tripura, Telangana and Kerala.[ citation needed ] The most important rebellion took place in Telangana, against the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Communists built up a people's army and militia and controlled an area with a population of three million. The rebellion was brutally crushed and the party abandoned the policy of armed struggle. BTR was deposed and denounced as a 'left adventurist'.

In Manipur, the party became a force to reckon with through the agrarian struggles led by Jananeta Irawat Singh. Singh had joined CPI in 1946. [32] At the 1951 congress of the party, 'People's Democracy' was substituted by 'National Democracy' as the main slogan of the party. [33]

Communist Party was founded in Bihar in 1939. Post independence, communist party achieved success in Bihar (Bihar and Jharkhand). Communist party conducted movements for land reform, trade union movement was at its peak in Bihar in the sixties, seventies and eighties. Achievement of communists in Bihar placed the communist party in the forefront of left movement in India.[ citation needed ] Bihar produced some of the legendary leaders like Kishan leaders Sahajanand Saraswati and Karyanand Sharma, intellectual giants like Jagannath Sarkar, Yogendra Sharma and Indradeep Sinha, mass leaders like Chandrasekhar Singh and Sunil Mukherjee, Trade Union leaders like Kedar Das and others.[ citation needed ] It was in Bihar that JP's total revolution was exposed and communist party under the leadership of Jagannath Sarkar fought Total Revolution and exposed its hollowness. "Many Streams" Selected Essays by Jagannath Sarkar and Reminiscing Sketches, Compiled by Gautam Sarkar, Edited by Mitali Sarkar, First Published : May 2010, Navakaranataka Publications Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore . In the Mithila region of Bihar Bhogendra Jha led the fight against the Mahants and Zamindars. He later went on the win Parliamentary elections and was MP for seven terms.[ citation needed ]

In early 1950s young communist leadership was uniting textile workers, bank employees and unorganised sector workers to ensure mass support in north India. National leaders like S A Dange, Chandra Rajeswara Rao and P K Vasudevan Nair were encouraging them and supporting the idea despite their differences on the execution. Firebrand Communist leaders like Homi F. Daji, Guru Radha Kishan, H L Parwana, Sarjoo Pandey, Darshan Singh Canadian and Avtaar Singh Malhotra were emerging between the masses and the working class in particular.[ citation needed ] This was the first leadership of communists that was very close to the masses and people consider them champions of the cause of the workers and the poor. In Delhi, May Day (majdoor diwas or mai diwas) was organised at Chandni Chowk Ghantaghar in such a manner that demonstrates the unity between all the factions of working classes and ignite the passion for communist movement in the northern part of India.[ citation needed ]

In 1952, CPI became the first leading opposition party in the Lok Sabha, while the Indian National Congress was in power.[ citation needed ]

Communist movement or CPI in particular emerged as a front runner after Guru Radha Kishan undertook a fast unto death for 24 days to promote the cause of textile workers in Delhi. Till than it was a public misconception that communists are revolutionaries with arms in their hands and workers and their families were afraid to get associated with the communists but this act mobilised general public in the favour of communist movement as a whole. During this period people with their families used to visit 'dharna sthal' to encourage CPI cadre.[ citation needed ]

This model of selflessness for the society worked for the CPI far more than what was expected. This trend was followed by almost all other state units of the party in the Hindi heartland. Communist Party related trade union AITUC became a prominent force to unite the workers in textile, municipal and unorganised sectors, the first labour union in unorganised sector was also emerged in the leadership of Comrade Guru Radha Kishan during this period in Delhi's Sadar Bazaar area.[ citation needed ] This movement of mass polarisation of workers in the favour of CPI worked effectively in Delhi and paved the way for great success of CPI in the elections in working class dominated areas in Delhi. Comrade Gangadhar Adhikari and E.M.S. Namboodiripad applauded this brigade of dynamic comrades for their selfless approach and organisational capabilities. This brigade of firebrand communists gained more prominence when Telangana hero Chandra Rajeswara Rao to be General Secretary of the Communist Party of India.[ citation needed ]

In the 1952 Travancore-Cochin Legislative Assembly election, Communist Party was banned, so it couldn't take part in the election process. [34] In the general elections in 1957, the CPI emerged as the largest opposition party. In 1957, the CPI won the state elections in Kerala. This was the first time that an opposition party won control over an Indian state. E. M. S. Namboodiripad became Chief Minister. At the 1957 international meeting of Communist parties in Moscow, the Chinese Communist Party directed criticism at the CPI for having formed a ministry in Kerala. [35]

Liberation of Dadra-Nagar Haveli : The Communist Party of India, along with its units in Bombay, Maharashtra and Gujarat, decided to start armed operations in the area in the July 1954. Both the areas were liberated by the beginning of August. Communist leaders like Narayan Palekar, Parulekar, Vaz, Rodriguez, Cunha and others emerged as the famous Communist leaders of this movement. Thereafter, the struggle to liberate Daman and Diu was begun by the Communist Party in Gujarat and other forces. [36]

Goa Satyagraha : The countrywide Goa satyagraha of 1955-56 is among the unforgettable pages in the history of freedom struggle, in which the Communists played a major and memorable role. The CPI decided to send batches of satyahrahis since the middle of 1955 to the borders of Goa and even inside. Many were killed, many more others arrested and sent to jails inside Goa and inhumanly treated. Many others were even sent to jails in Portugal and were brutally tortured. The satyagraha was led and conducted by a joint committee known as Goa Vimochan Sahayak Samiti. S.A. Dange, Senapati Bapat, S.G. Sardesai, Nana Patil and several others were among the prominent leaders of the Samiti. Satyagraha began on 10 May 1955, and soon became a countrywide movement. [37]

Ideological differences led to the split in the party in 1964 when two different party conferences were held, one of CPI and one of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).[ citation needed ]

During the period 1970–77, CPI was allied with the Congress party. In Kerala, they formed a government together with Congress as part of a coalition known as the United Front, with the CPI-leader C. Achutha Menon as Chief Minister. This government continued governing throughout the emergency period and was responsible for the many acts of repression throughout the period carried out against political opponents in the guise of fighting naxals, manifesting most infamously in the Rajan Case. The United Front government also used this opportunity to pursue class struggle by punishing those from the managerial classes, money lenders, bosses with anti-labour stances, ration shopkeepers and truckers engaged in black marketing, under stringent provisions of MISA and DIR. [38]

After the fall of the regime of Indira Gandhi, CPI reoriented itself towards co-operation with CPI(M).

In the 1980s, CPI opposed the Khalistan movement at Punjab. In 1986, CPI's leader in Punjab and MLA in the Punjabi legislature Darshan Singh Canadian was assassinated by Sikh extremists. Altogether about 200 communist leaders out of which most were Sikhs were killed by Sikh extremists in Punjab.[ citation needed ]

Present situation

Communist Party of India (CPI) and CPI-M regional control.
State/s which had a chief minister from the CPI.
State/s which had a chief minister from the CPI-M.
State/s which had chief ministers from both the CPI-M and the CPI.
States which did not have/had a chief minister from the CPI-M or the CPI.
Union territories without a state government. Communist Parties of India in states.png
Communist Party of India (CPI) and CPI-M regional control.
  State/s which had a chief minister from the CPI.
  State/s which had a chief minister from the CPI-M.
  State/s which had chief ministers from both the CPI-M and the CPI.
  States which did not have/had a chief minister from the CPI-M or the CPI.
  Union territories without a state government.
Mural in Thiruvananthapuram Cpipkvtvnd (87).JPG
Mural in Thiruvananthapuram

CPI was recognised by the Election Commission of India as a 'National Party'. To date, CPI happens to be the only national political party from India to have contested all the general elections using the same electoral symbol. Owing to a massive defeat in 2019 Indian general election where the party saw its tally reduce to 2 MP, the Election Commission of India has sent a letter to CPI asking for reasons why its national party status should not be revoked. [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] If similar performance is repeated in the next election, the CPI will no longer be a national party.

On the national level they supported the Indian National Congress-led United Progressive Alliance government along with other parliamentary Left parties, but without taking part in it. Upon attaining power in May 2004, the United Progressive Alliance formulated a programme of action known as the Common Minimum Programme. The Left bases its support to the UPA on strict adherence to it. Provisions of the CMP mentioned to discontinue disinvestment, massive social sector outlays and an independent foreign policy.

On 8 July 2008, the General Secretary of CPI(M), Prakash Karat, announced that the Left was withdrawing its support over the decision by the government to go ahead with the United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act. The Left parties combination had been a staunch advocate of not proceeding with this deal citing national interests. [44]

In West Bengal it participates in the Left Front. It also participated in the state government in Manipur. In Kerala the party is part of Left Democratic Front. In Tripura the party is a partner of the Left Front, which governed the state till 2018. In Tamil Nadu it is part of the Secular Progressive Alliance and in Bihar it is the part of Mahagathbandhan. It is involved in the Left Democratic Front in Maharashtra. In 2022 February CPI and Congress formed an alliance in Manipur named Manipur Progressive Secular Alliance. [45] [46] The current general secretary of CPI is D. Raja.

Presence in states

As of 2020, the CPI is a part of the state government in Kerala. Pinarayi Vijayan is Chief Minister of Kerala. CPI have 4 Cabinet Ministers in Kerala. In Tamil Nadu it is in power with SPA coalition led by M. K. Stalin. The Left Front governed West Bengal for 34 years (1977–2011) and Tripura for 25 years (1993–2018)

State Governments

S.NoState/Govt SinceChief MinisterAllianceCoalition Seats in AssemblyLast election
PortraitNamePartySeatsSince
1 Kerala 26 May 2016 Pinarayi.JPG Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M) 62 26 May 2016 Left Democratic Front (Kerala) 6 April 2021
2 Tamil Nadu 7 May 2021 Hon CM Photo.jpg M. K. Stalin DMK 133 7 May 2021 Secular Progressive Alliance 6 April 2021
Seats won by CPI in state legislative assemblies
State legislative assemblyLast electionContested
seats
Seats wonAllianceResultRef.
Bihar Legislative Assembly 2020 6
2 / 243
Mahagathbandhan in government
Kerala Legislative Assembly 2021 23
17 / 140
Left Democratic Front in government
Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly 2021 6
2 / 234
Secular Progressive Alliance in Government
Seats won by CPI in state legislative councils
State legislative assemblyLast electionContested
seats
Seats wonAllianceResultRef.
Bihar Legislative Council 2020 2
2 / 75
Mahagathbandhan in government

List of Members of Parliament

List of Rajya Sabha (Upper House) members

No.NameStateDate of AppointmentDate of Retirement
1 Binoy Viswam Kerala 2 July 20181 July 2024
2 P. Sandosh Kumar Kerala 4 April 20223 April 2028

List of Lok Sabha (Lower House) members

No.NameConstituencyState
1 K. Subbarayan Tiruppur Tamil Nadu
2 M. Selvarasu Nagapattinam Tamil Nadu

Leadership

The following are the members of the Central Control Commission, National Council and Candidate Members to National Council, National Executive, National Secretariat and Party Programme Commission were elected at the 23rd Party Congress of Communist Party of India held from 25 to 29 April 2018 in Kollam, Kerala. [47]

General Secretary

National Secretariat

  1. S. Sudhakar Reddy
  2. D. Raja
  3. Atul Kumar Anjaan
  4. Amarjeet Kaur
  5. Ramendra Kumar
  6. K. Narayana
  7. Kanam Rajendran
  8. Binoy Viswam
  9. Bhalchandra Kango
  10. Pallab Sen Gupta

National Executive

  1. S. Sudhakar Reddy
  2. D. Raja
  3. Atul Kumar Anjaan
  4. Amarjeet Kaur
  5. Ramendra Kumar
  6. K. Narayana
  7. Kanam Rajendran
  8. Binoy Viswam
  9. Bhalchandra Kango
  10. Pallab Sengupta
  11. Nagendra Nath Ojha
  12. Girish Sharma
  13. Annie Raja
  14. Azeez Pasha
  15. K. Ramakrishna
  16. Satya Narayan Singh
  17. Janaki Paswan
  18. Ram Naresh Pandey
  19. Bhubneshwar Prasad Mehta
  20. K.E. Ismail
  21. Moirangthem Nara
  22. Dibakar Naik
  23. R. Mutharasan
  24. C. Mahendran
  25. Chada Venkat Reddy
  26. K. Subbarayan
  27. Swapan Banerjee
  28. Bant Singh Brar
  29. Munin Mahanta
  30. C.H. Venkatachalam

Ex-Officio Members

  1. Pannian Ravindran (Chairperson, Central Control Commission)

Invitees

  1. Rama Krushna Panda
  2. Manish Kunjam

National Council Members

Members from Centre:

Andhra Pradesh

Assam

Bihar

Chhattisgarh

Delhi

Goa

Gujarat

Haryana

Himachal Pradesh

Jharkhand

Jammu and Kashmir

Vacant

Karnataka

Kerala

Manipur

Meghalaya

Maharashtra

Madhya Pradesh

Odisha

Puducherry

Punjab

Rajasthan

Tamil Nadu

Telangana

Tripura

Uttar Pradesh

Uttarakhand

West Bengal

Candidate Members

Invitee Members

Central Control Commission

  1. Pannian Ravindran (Chairman)
  2. C. A. Kurian
  3. Dr Joginder Dayal (Punjab)
  4. C.R. Bakshi (Chhattisgarh)
  5. P.J.C. Rao (Andhra Pradesh)
  6. Bijoy Narayan Mishra (Bihar)
  7. Moti Lal (Uttar Pradesh)
  8. M. Sakhi Devi (Tripura)
  9. T. Narsimhan (Telangana)
  10. M. Arumugham (Tamil Nadu)
  11. Apurba Mandal (West Bengal

Party Programme Commission

  1. Pallab Sen Gupta
  2. K. Prekash Babu
  3. C.R. Bakshi
  4. Moirangthem Nara
  5. Anil Rajimwale

State Council Secretaries

Sources [47]

List of General secretaries and Chairmen of CPI

Article XXXII of the party constitution says:

"The tenure of the General Secretary and Deputy General Secretary, if any, and State Secretaries is limited to two consecutive terms—a term being of not less than two years. In exceptional cases, the unit concerned may decide by three-fourth majority through secret ballot to allow two more terms. In case such a motion is adopted that comrade also can contest in the election along with other candidates. As regards the tenure of the office-bearers at district and lower levels, the state councils will frame rules where necessary." [51]

General secretaries and Chairmen [52] [53] [54] [55] [56]
NumberPhotoNameTenure
1st Sachchidanand Vishnu Ghate 1925-1933
2nd Gangadhar Adhikary.jpg Gangadhar Adhikari 1933-1935
3rd PC Joshi 1937.jpg Puran Chand Joshi 1936-1948
4th B.T.Ranadive.jpg B. T. Ranadive 1948-1950
5th Chandra Rajeswara Rao 1950-1951, 1964-1990
6th Ajoy Ghosh 1951-1962
Chairman S.A. Dange.jpg Shripad Amrit Dange 1962-1981
7th E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg E. M. S. Namboodiripad 1962-1964
8th Indrajit Gupta 1990-1996
9th Bardan.JPG Ardhendu Bhushan Bardhan 1996-2012
10th SUDAKAR REDDY DSC 0686.JPG Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy 2012-2019
11th D.Raja M.P.JPG D. Raja 2019–Incumbent

Party Congress

Party Congress [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70]
Party CongressYearPlace
Founding Conference1925 December 25 – 28Kanpur
1st1943 May 23–1 JuneBombay
2nd 1948 February 28–6 MarchCalcutta
3rd1953 December 27 – 1, 954 January 4Madurai
4th1956 April 19 – 29Palghat
5th1958 April 6 – 13Amritsar
6th1961 April 7 – 16Vijayawada
7th1964 December 13 – 23Bombay
8th1968 February 7 – 15Patna
9th1971 October 3 – 10Cochin
10th1975 January 27–2 FebruaryVijayawada
11th1978 March 31–7 AprilBathinda
12th1982 March 22 – 28Varanasi
13th1986 March 2 – 17Patna
14th1989 March 6 – 12Calcutta
15th1992 April 10 – 16Hyderabad
16th1995 October 7 – 11Delhi
17th1998 September 14 – 19Chennai
18th2002 March 26 – 31Thiruvananthapuram
19th2005 March 29–3 AprilChandigarh
20th2008 March 23 – 27Hyderabad
21st2012 March 27 – 31Patna
22nd2015 March 25 – 29Puducherry
23rd2018 April 25 – 29Kollam

Principal mass organisations

In Tripura, the Ganamukti Parishad is a major mass organisation amongst the Tripuri peoples of the state.

Former chief ministers

Former chief ministers [71] [72] [73]
PhotoNameTenureState
E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg E. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957 1959) Kerala
C. Achutha Menon.jpg C. Achutha Menon (1969 1970; 1970 1977)
P.K. Vasudevan Nair.jpg P. K. Vasudevan Nair (1978 1979)

Notable leaders

General election results

Performance of Communist Party of India in Lok Sabha elections

Lok Sabha

YearTotal Lok Sabha constituenciesSeats won / contestedChange in seatsTotal votesPercentage of votesChange in vote %Ref.
First 1952489
16 / 49
-3,487,4013.29%- [74]
Second 1957494
27 / 109
Increase2.svg 1110,754,0758.92%Increase2.svg 5.63% [75]
Third 1962494
29 / 137
Increase2.svg 0211,450,0379.94%Increase2.svg 1.02% [76]
Fourth 1967520
23 / 109
Decrease2.svg 067,458,3965.11%Decrease2.svg 4.83% [77]
Fifth 1971518
23 / 87
Steady2.svg 006,933,6274.73%Decrease2.svg 0.38% [78]
Sixth 1977542
7 / 91
Decrease2.svg 165,322,0882.82%Decrease2.svg 1.91% [79]
Seventh 1980529 ( 542* )
10 / 47
Increase2.svg 034,927,3422.49%Decrease2.svg 0.33% [80]
Eighth 1984541
6 / 66
Decrease2.svg 046,733,1172.70%Increase2.svg 0.21% [81] [82]
Ninth 1989529
12 / 50
Increase2.svg 067,734,6972.57%Decrease2.svg 0.13% [83]
Tenth 1991534
14 / 43
Increase2.svg 026,898,3402.48%Decrease2.svg 0.09% [84] [85]
Eleventh 1996543
12 / 43
Decrease2.svg 026,582,2631.97%Decrease2.svg 0.51% [86]
Twelfth 1998543
09 / 58
Decrease2.svg 036,429,5691.75%Decrease2.svg 0.22% [87]
Thirteenth 1999543
04 / 54
Decrease2.svg 055,395,1191.48%Decrease2.svg 0.27% [88]
Fourteenth 2004543
10 / 34
Increase2.svg 065,484,1111.41%Decrease2.svg 0.07% [89]
Fifteenth 2009543
04 / 56
Decrease2.svg 065,951,8881.43%Increase2.svg 0.02% [90]
Sixteenth 2014543
1 / 67
Decrease2.svg 034,327,2980.78%Decrease2.svg 0.65% [91]
Seventeenth 2019543
2 / 49
Increase2.svg 013,576,1840.58%Decrease2.svg
0.2%
[92] [93]

* : 12 seats in Assam and 1 in Meghalaya did not vote.

StateNo. of candidates 2019No. of elected 2019No. of candidates 2014No. of elected 2014No. of candidates 2009No. of elected 2009Total no. of seats in the state
Andhra Pradesh 201020(25)(2014)/42(2009)
Arunachal Pradesh 0000002
Assam 20103014
Bihar 20207040
Chhattisgarh 10201011
Goa 0020202
Gujarat 10101026
Haryana 10201010
Himachal Pradesh 0000004
Jammu and Kashmir 0000106
Jharkhand 30303014
Karnataka 10301028
Kerala 40414020
Madhya Pradesh 40503029
Maharashtra 20403048
Manipur 1010102
Meghalaya 0010102
Mizoram 0000001
Nagaland 0000001
Odisha 10401121
Punjab 20502013
Rajasthan 30302025
Sikkim 0000001
Tamil Nadu 22803139
Tripura 0000002
Telangana 2017
Uttar Pradesh 120809080
Uttarakhand 0010105
West Bengal 30303242
Union Territories:
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 0000001
Chandigarh 0000001
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 0000001
Daman and Diu 0000001
Delhi 0010107
Lakshadweep 1 [94] 010001
Puducherry 0010001
Total:502671564543

[92] [93] [95] [96]

State Legislative assembly results

YearStateTotal
assembly seats
Seats won /
Seats contested
Change
in seats
VotesVote %Change in
vote %
2021 Assam 126
0 / 1
Steady2.svg27,2900.84%Decrease2.svg 0.14%
Kerala 140
17 / 23
Decrease2.svg 21,579,2357.58%Decrease2.svg0.54%
Puducherry 30
0 / 1
Steady2.svg7,5220.90%Decrease2.svg 0.2%
Tamil Nadu 234
2 / 6
Increase2.svg 2504,5371.09%Increase2.svg0.3%
West Bengal 294
0 / 10
Decrease2.svg 1118,6550.20%Decrease2.svg 1.25%
2020 Bihar 243
2 / 6
Increase2.svg 2349,4890.83%Decrease2.svg 0.57%
2019 Andhra Pradesh 175
0 / 7
Steady2.svg34,7460.11%
Jharkhand 81
0 / 18
Steady2.svg68,5890.46%Decrease2.svg 0.43%
Maharashtra 288
0 / 16
Steady2.svg35,1880.06%Decrease2.svg 0.07%
Odisha 147
0 / 3
Steady2.svg29,2350.12%Decrease2.svg 0.39%
2018 Chhattisgarh 90
0 / 7
Steady2.svg48,2550.34%Decrease2.svg 0.32%
Rajasthan 200
0 / 16
Steady2.svg42,8200.12%Decrease2.svg 0.06%
Telangana 119
0 / 3
Decrease2.svg 183,2150.40%
Tripura 60
0 / 1
Decrease2.svg 119,3520.82%Decrease2.svg 0.85%
2017 Himachal Pradesh 68
0 / 3
Steady2.svg1,6860.04%Decrease2.svg 0.15%
Uttar Pradesh 403
0 / 68
Steady2.svg138,7640.16%Increase2.svg 0.03%
StateNo. of candidatesNo. electedTotal no. of seats in AssemblyYear of Election
Andhra Pradesh 701752019
Assam 101262021
Bihar 622432020
Chhattisgarh 20902018
Delhi 30702020
Goa 20402017
Gujarat 201822017
Haryana 40902019
Himachal Pradesh 30682017 [97]
Jammu and Kashmir 30872014
Jharkhand 160812019
Karnataka 402242018
Kerala 23171402021
Madhya Pradesh 1802302018
Maharashtra 1602882019
Manipur 60602017
Meghalaya 10602013
Mizoram 00402013
Odisha 1201472019
Puducherry 10302021
Punjab 2301172017
Rajasthan 4202002018
Telangana 301192018
Tamil Nadu 622342021
Tripura 10602018
Uttar Pradesh 6804032017
Uttarakhand 40702017
West Bengal 1002942021

Results from the Election Commission of India website. Results do not deal with partitions of states (Bihar was bifurcated after the 2000 election, creating Jharkhand), defections and by-elections during the mandate period.

See also

Footnotes

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Further reading

Primary sources

  • G. Adhikari (ed.), Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India: Volume One, 1917-1922. New Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1971.
  • G. Adhikari (ed.), Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India: Volume Two, 1923-1925. New Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1974.
  • V.B. Karnick (ed.), Indian Communist Party Documents, 1930-1956. Bombay: Democratic Research Service/Institute of Public Relations, 1957.
  • Rao, M. B., Ed. Documents Of The History Of The Communist Party Of India(1948-1950), Vol. 7 (1960) online

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Hare Krishna Konar was an Indian Marxist revolutionary, radical activist and Communist politician. Konar was a founding member of Communist Party of India (Marxist), and the leader to start the first land reforms and agrarian reforms in India as well as the chief architect of the West Bengal land and property distribution. In 1930s for making arms and bombs for the Jugantar group, he was deported to the Cellular Jail for 6 years at the age of 18 and there he took part in the first hunger strike and in 1935 he founded the Communist Consolidation and led the historical second hunger strike. Konar was the mentor of freedom fighters like Batukeshwar Dutt, Shiv Verma, Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Ganesh Ghosh, etc.

1964 split in the Communist Party of India

In 1964 a major split occurred in the Communist Party of India. The split was the culmination of decades of tensions and factional infighting. When India became independent in 1947, differences arose of how to adapt to the new situation. As relations between the Nehru government and the Soviet Union improved, a faction that sought cooperation with the dominant Indian National Congress emerged within CPI. This tendency was led by S.A. Dange, whose role in the party hierarchy became increasingly controversial. When the Sino-Indian War broke out in 1962 Dange's opponents within CPI were jailed, but when they were released they sought to challenge his leadership. In 1964 the party was finally divided into two, with the left faction forming the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The split had a lot of regional variations. It also impacted other organizations, such as trade union and peasant movements. The split has been studied extensively by scholars, who have sought to analyze the various domestic and international factors involved.

Communists were actively involved in Indian independence movement through multiple series of protests, strikes and other activities. It was a part of revolutionary movement for Indian independence.