2nd Congress of the Communist Party of India

Last updated

The 2nd Congress of the Communist Party of India was held in Calcutta, West Bengal from February 28 to March 6, 1948. [1] [2] [3] At the Second Party Congress, the party line shifted dramatically under the new General Secretary B.T. Ranadive and subsequently the party engaged in revolutionary insurrections across the country.

West Bengal State in Eastern India

West Bengal is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state. It has an area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi). A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north. It also borders the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata (Calcutta), the seventh-largest city in India, and center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country. As for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, and the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority.

Communist Party of India Indian political party, established 1925

The Communist Party of India (CPI) is the oldest communist party in India. There are different views on exactly when it was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925. The Communist Party of India (Marxist), which separated from the CPI in 1964 following an ideological rift between China and the Soviet Union, continues to claim having been founded in 1925.



The party had seen a rapid growth in membership in the years preceding the Second Party Congress, reaching around 89,000. [4] In 1935 there had been only around 1,000 CPI members, and by 1943 the number had increased to around 16,000. [5]

Whilst the CPI constitution stipulated that an All India Party Conference be held yearly under normal conditions, the last one had been held in 1943. [2] By the time the Second Party Congress finally convened, P.C. Joshi had served a 13-year term as Party General Secretary. [2]

When the Second Party Congress convened, CPI stood at a crossroads. Either they would work within the constitutional framework of the newly independent Indian state or it would engage in insurrectional revolutionary struggles. [6] The incumbent CPI General Secretary, P.C. Joshi, represented the former position, B.T. Ranadive (BTR) the latter. [6] At the time of independence of India and Pakistan in 1947 CPI adhered to a moderate line of 'responsive cooperation' with the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League. [7] But as of December 1947 the leftist group around BTR had won control over the Central Committee of the party. [2] A key factor in the ascent of BTR and the defeat of the incumbent P. C. Joshi clique was post-Partition dissatisfaction with the past policy of alliance with the Muslim League. [8] The group around BTR began to purge the followers of P.C. Joshi. [2] The December meeting of the Central Committee sent out instruction to party branches to hastily elect delegates to the Second Party Congress. [2]

Indian National Congress Major political party in India

The Indian National Congress(pronunciation ) is a broadly based political party in India. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. Congress led India to independence from Great Britain, and powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.

All-India Muslim League political party

The All-India Muslim League was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire. Its strong advocacy for the establishment of a separate Muslim-majority nation-state, Pakistan, successfully led to the partition of British India in 1947 by the British Empire.

Central Committee is the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century. In such party organizations the committee would typically be made up of delegates elected at a party congress. In those states where it constituted the state power, the Central Committee made decisions for the party between congresses, and usually was responsible for electing the Politburo. In non-ruling Communist parties, the Central Committee is usually understood by the party membership to be the ultimate decision-making authority between Congresses once the process of democratic centralism has led to an agreed-upon position.


919 delegates were elected by the party branches, but only 632 were able to attend. [2] [3] For example, only a handful of the 75 delegates elected from Telangana were able to reach Calcutta. [2] Out of the 632, 565 were party whole-timers. [2]

Telangana State in Southern India

Telangana is a state in India situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital. Its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south. The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly of hills, mountain ranges, and thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km. As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts.

Three delegates represented party branches in West Pakistan: Eric Cyprian from Punjab, Jamaluddin Bokhari from Sind and Mohammad Hussein Ata from the North-West Frontier Province. [9] Estimates on the number of delegates from East Pakistan vary, party documents suggested that 60 delegates participated, an intelligence estimate put the figure at 32. [9] Delegates from East Pakistan included Kalpana Datta (P.C. Joshi's wife) and Khokar Roy. [9] Moni Singh claimed that there had been 125 delegates from East Pakistan, representing 12,000 party members, as well as five delegates from West Pakistan. [10]

West Pakistan western wing of Pakistan between 1947-1970

West Pakistan was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.

East Pakistan Former province of Pakistan

East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh. Its land borders were with India and Myanmar, with a coastline on the Bay of Bengal.

Kalpana Datta Indian revolutionary and politican

Kalpana Datta was an Indian independence movement activist and a member of the armed independence movement led by Surya Sen, which carried out the Chittagong armoury raid in 1930. Later she joined the Communist Party of India and married Puran Chand Joshi, then General Secretary of the Communist Party of India in 1943.

From French India, the local Communist Party leader and member of the French Senate V. Subbiah participated in the Second Party Congress. [11] On February 24, 1948 he had made a visit to the French colony of Chandernagore together with the French delegate to the Calcutta Youth Conference (see below). [11]


The congress was held under a big tarpaulin in Mohammad Ali Park. [10] BTR held the opening speech of the conference, outlining the new party line. [2] His speech lasted four and a half hours, and presented detailed criticism on the performance of the party leadership. [3]

So far we have been taking a reformist path. We dovetailed with bourgeois interests. We could not take an independent stance in the movement on the issue of freedom. As a result, the reactionary forces of Congress and Muslim League through a forged alliance ushered in a so-called Independence. This is not real independence, it is false! Just as in a postwar situation, there is still grounds for revolution. That is why we must continue our struggle against the bourgeoisie. Strikes, mass rallies, demonstrations, and armed struggles must be used to challenge this false sense of freedom.


BTR echoed the notion that the world was divided in two camps, and in the struggle between the Anglo-American imperialist camp and the Soviet-led democratic camp the Indian state had aligned itself with the imperialists. [2] The second speech was held by Bhowani Sen who presented an overview of tactical questions. [2] Sen presented criticism of the performance of the party 1942–1948, including the support to Sheikh Abdullah's movement in Jammu and Kashmir. [2] The Telangana struggle was presented as the model to be replicated throughout the subcontinent. [2]

BTR and Bhowani's speeches were followed by a long presentation by the now isolated P.C. Joshi. [2] P.C. Joshi expressed self-criticism, stating that he had 'confused and corrupted' the party during his tenure as General Secretary. [2]

The main document debated by the Second Party Congress was its Political Thesis. [2] Many amendments to the document were suggested by delegates, and the Central Committee was tasked with amending it later. [2] The party constitution was amended at the Second Party Congress. [12]

CC election

BTR was elected as new General Secretary of the party. [1] In the election to the new Central Committee all of the candidates proposed by the outgoing leadership were elected, with the exception of P.C. Joshi, who was left out of the new Central Committee. [2]

New party line

The line adopted at the Second Party Congress became popularly known as the 'Ranadive thesis', the 'Ranadive line' or 'Calcutta thesis'. [13] [14] [15] The Second Party Congress raised the slogan that the independence achieved in 1947 was 'sham independence'. [6] The Indian National Congress was denounced as a party of the bourgeoisie. [16] The People's Democratic Revolution was outlined as a one-stage revolution, to be achieved through a united front of workers, peasants and revolutionary intellectuals. [17] Thus the Second Party Congress implied a drastic shift in CPI policy, gearing towards armed insurrection against the nascent Indian state. [17] The new line found inspiration in the Zhdanov Doctrine of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), which saw the world divided in an imperialist camp and a camp of people's democracies. [17] It also drew upon the experiences of Bengali communists in the post-Partition chaos in Calcutta and the resistance against the Nizam regime in the Hyderabad State. [17] [14]

Another meeting held in the city around just a few days before the Second Party Congress was the Conference of Youth and Students of Southeast Asia Fighting for Freedom and Independence, which has been credited with disseminating the Zhdanov insurrectional line throughout the continent. [4] [18] [19] [20]

Founding of the Communist Party of Pakistan

Bhowani Sen presented a 'Report on Pakistan' to the Second Party Congress. [3] He argued that both India and Pakistan were dominated by similar reactionary elites in alliance with imperialist forces. [3] Thus the task of communists in both countries would be the same, to struggle for people's democratic revolution. [3] The Second Party Congress deliberated on the Pakistan question for some time, and eventually agreed that a separate Communist Party should be built in Pakistan. [3] Sen's 'Report on Pakistan' was adopted with some amendments. [9] After the vote the delegates from West Pakistan held a separate meeting at the sidelines of the CPI congress on March 6, 1948 and constituted the Communist Party of Pakistan. [9] [10] Sajjad Zaheer, founder of the All India Progressive Writers Association and a CPI Central Committee member, was named general secretary of the Communist Party of Pakistan. [7] The other eight Central Committee members were Mohammad Hussain Ata, Jamaluddin Bokhari, Ibrahim (a labour leader), Khoka Roy, Nepal Nag, Krishna Binod Roy, Syed Abul Mansur Habibullah (from West Bengal, but moved to East Pakistan after the foundation of CPP) and Moni Singh. [10]

After the congress Zaheer travelled to West Pakistan to build the party there. [9] He was no longer considered a CPI Central Committee member. [9]

Notably, the party structure in East Pakistan would remain under the supervision of the West Bengal committee of CPI for some time afterwards. [9]

Foreign delegations

Four foreign delegations attend the Second Party Congress: the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Vladimir Dedijer and Radovan Zogović), the Communist Party of Australia (Lance Sharkey), the Communist Party of Burma (Thakin Than Tun, Thakin Ba Thein Tin, yebaw Aung Gyi, Bo Yan Aung, Khin Kyi and Hla Myaing) and the Communist Party of Ceylon. [2] [21]

Dedijer's speech detailed the struggle of Yugoslav Partisans and was met with heavy applause from the assembled delegates. [22] Acting as de facto representatives of Cominform, the Yugoslav delegates provided important symbolic support to legitimize B.T. Ranadive's coming to power in the party. [22] The Burmese communist leader Thakin Than Tun also aroused the revolutionary fervour in his speech, highlighting that armed struggle alone would provide a path towards liberation. [10]

Along with the Asian Youth Conference, the CPI Calcutta Congress is credited to have influenced the Burmese communists to initiate armed rebellion at home. [21] Nevertheless, Bertil Lintner argues that the impact of the Calcutta meetings on CPB line is a myth, and that H.N. Goshal (who is credited with the 'Goshal thesis' of armed insurrection in Burma) never attended neither of the two Calcutta conferences. [23]


Following the Second Party Congress and under the leadership of BTR, the party embarked on an 18-month campaign of armed uprisings in Telangana, West Bengal (Kakdwip), Tripura and Travancore-Cochin between October 1948 and March 1950. [17] [4] [24] [25] In Malabar, the party raised the slogan "Telangana's way is our way" and "Land to the tiller and Power to the People" in a campaign April–May 1948. Paddy crops were seized by the party and sold at fair prices. The Malabar revolt was crushed by police forces. [26]

After the Second Party Congress CPI suffered a number of set-backs and repression, and party membership dropped to around 25,000 in early 1950. [4] Likewise the membership of the communist-led All India Trade Union Congress dropped from 700,000 to a mere 100,000. [27] On March 26 1950 CPI was banned by the West Bengal state government. [27] [28] The West Bengal ban would later be followed by prohibitions of the party in Amritsar, Malabar (1949–1951), Madras, Manipur, Ahmednagar, Hyderabad, Travancore-Cochin, Indore and Bhopal. [4] [27] [29] On April 2, 1948 S.A. Dange and other key party leaders in Bombay were jailed. [27] [28] By 1949 2,500 party members were imprisoned across the country. [27]

In January 1950 the Cominform instructed the party to abandon the insurrectional line, through an article in For a Lasting Peace, for a Peoples Democracy! . [4] [12] BTR was demoted in June 1950, denounced as a 'left adventurist' and replaced by C. Rajeshwar Rao as General Secretary. [4] [24] In April 1951 Ajoy Ghosh became the new General Secretary and the Chinese-inspired guerrilla warfare line was condemned by the new CPI leadership. [4] The Telangana rebellion did however, in spite of Cominform instructions, continue until late 1951. [4] In 1951 CPI contested the first parliamentary elections and emerged as the largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha. [4] [30]

The Madurai Party Congress, held in 1954, and the Palghat Party Congress of 1956 marked the definitive break with the 1948 line and fully embraced parliamentarian orientation of the party. [31]

Related Research Articles

Communist Party of India (Marxist) political party

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) is a communist party in India. The party emerged from a split from the Communist Party of India in 1964. The CPI(M) was formed at the Seventh Congress of the Communist Party of India held in Calcutta from 31 October to 7 November 1964. As of 2018, CPI(M) is leading the state government in Kerala and having elected members in 8 state legislative assemblies including Kerala, West Bengal, Tripura, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Jammu & Kashmir, and Rajasthan. It also leads the West Bengal Left Front. As of 2016, CPI(M) claimed to have 1,048,678 members. The highest body of the party is the Politburo.

All India Forward Bloc Political party of India

The All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) is a left-wing nationalist political party in India. It emerged as a faction within the Indian National Congress in 1939, led by Subhas Chandra Bose. The party re-established as an independent political party after the independence of India. It has its main stronghold in West Bengal. The party's current Secretary-General is Debabrata Biswas. Veteran Indian politicians Sarat Chandra Bose and Chitta Basu had been the stalwarts of the party in independent India.

The Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) was an Indian communist party formed by the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR) at a congress in Calcutta in 1969. The foundation of the party was declared by Kanu Sanyal at a mass meeting in Calcutta on 22 April, Vladimir Lenin's birth anniversary. Later the party splintered into several minor Naxal/Maoist groups.

Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) is a communist political party in India. After the death of Charu Majumdar in 1972 the CPI (M-L) pro Charu Majumdar central committee was led by Mahadev Mukherjee and Sharma, and the Central Committee took a stand to defend the line of Charu Majumdar on 5–6 December 1972. The pro Charu Majumdar CPI (M-L) soon faced a split on the question of Lin Biao and the tenth congress of the Communist Party of China the faction led by Jauhar, Vinod Mishra and Swadesh Bhattacharya parted way from the party by opposing the line of the Central Committee and founded the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation in 1973 which became the pro Charu Majumdar and anti Lin Biao faction. The pro Charu Majumdar and pro Lin Biao faction of the CPI (M-L) was led by Mahadev Mukherjee and this faction organized massive armed assaults on government and rich peasantry in West Bengal, however their attempt of reviving the revolutionary terrorist line of Charu Majumdar did not lasted long due to police repression. The pro Lin Biao faction led by Mahadev Mukherjee held the 2nd Congress of the CPI (M-L) in December 1973 in Kamalpur, Burdwan district of West Bengal and soon Kamalpur became a centre of armed guerilla activity. The armed clashes between government and CPI (M-L) supporter guerillas in Kamalpur led to a division in the Central Committee with one section attempting to purge Mahadev and his supporters in Deganga session of the Central Committee. The division led to the arrest of Mahadev Mukherjee from Shillong. Later in late 70's the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Second Central Committee was formed by Azizul Haque and Nishit Bhattacharya after a split from the Mahadev Mukherjee led Central Committee.

Revolutionary Communist Party of India Indian political party

The Revolutionary Communist Party of India is a small political party in India. The party was founded as the Communist League by Saumyendranath Tagore in 1934, breaking away from the Communist Party of India (CPI). RCPI led armed uprisings after the independence of India, but later shifted to parliamentary politics. The party is active in the West Bengal and Assam. The party was represented in the West Bengal Second United Front Cabinet (1969) as well as in various state government during the Left Front rule in the state (1977–2011). In Assam the party won four Legislative Assembly seats in 1978, but its political influence has since declined.

B. T. Ranadive Indian politician

Bhalchandra Trimbak Ranadive, popularly known as BTR was an Indian communist politician and trade union leader.

Puchalapalli Sundarayya Indian politician

Puchalapalli Sundarayya was a founding member of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and a leader of the peasant revolt in the former Hyderabad State of India, called the Telangana Rebellion. He is popularly known as Comrade PS. Fired by Communist ideals and egalitarian values he changed his name from Sundararami Reddy, to drop his caste suffix. He was so dedicated to the upliftment of the poor that he and his spouse chose not to have children, for the purpose of social service. He directly participated in Telangana armed struggle against the imperialism of the Nizam of Hyderabad.

Puran Chand Joshi, one of the early leaders of the communist movement in India. He was the first general secretary of the Communist Party of India from 1935–47.

Shripad Amrit Dange Indian politician

Shripad Amrit Dange was a founding member of the Communist Party of India (CPI) and a stalwart of Indian trade union movement. During the British Raj, Dange was arrested by the British authorities for communist and trade union activities and was jailed for an overall period of 13 years. After India's Independence, a series of events like Sino-Soviet split, Sino-Indian war, and the revelation that while in jail, Dange had written letters to the British Government, offering them cooperation, led to a split in the Communist Party of India, in 1964. The breakaway Communist Party of India (Marxist) emerged stronger both in terms of membership and their performance in the Indian Elections. Dange, who remained the Chairman of the CPI till 1978, was removed in that year because the majority of party workers were against Dange's political line of supporting Indian National Congress, and Indira Gandhi, the then Congress Prime Minister. He was expelled from the CPI in 1981. He joined the All India Communist Party (AICP), and later, United Communist Party of India. Towards the end, Dange got increasingly marginalised in the Indian Communist movement. He was also a well-known writer and was the founder of Socialist the first socialist weekly in India. Dange played an important role in the formation of Maharashtra state.

Socialism in India is a political movement founded early in the 20th century, as a part of the broader Indian independence movement against the colonial British Raj. The movement grew quickly in popularity as it espoused the causes of India's farmers and labourers against the zamindars, princely class and landed gentry. Socialism shaped the principal economic and social policies of the Indian government after independence until the early 1990s, when India moved towards a more market-based economy. However, it remains a potent influence on Indian politics, with a large number of national and regional political parties espousing democratic socialism.

The Workers and Peasants Party (WPP) was a political party in India, which worked inside the Indian National Congress in 1925-1929. It became an important front organisation for the Communist Party of India and an influential force in the Bombay labour movement. The party was able to muster some success in making alliances with other left elements inside the Congress Party, amongst them Jawaharlal Nehru. However, as the Communist International entered its 'Third Period' phase, the communists deserted the WPP project. The WPP was wound up, as its leadership was arrested by the British authorities in March 1929.

Marxist Communist Party of India (United) is a communist party in India, formed in 2005 by the unification of the Marxist Communist Party of India, the Mangat Ram Pasla-led breakaway group from the CPI(M) in Punjab - Communist Party Marxist (Punjab), the BTR-EMS-AKG Janakeeya Vedi and the Hardan Roy group in West Bengal.

Bolshevik Party of India

The Bolshevik Party of India is a communist political party in India. The party was founded in 1939. The party had a certain role in the trade union movement in West Bengal and was briefly represented in the state government in 1969. In later years the party has played a negligible role in Indian politics.

Z.A. Ahmed was an Indian politician from Uttar Pradesh, belonging to the Communist Party of India. In the 1930s, acting on instructions from the CPI, he joined the Congress Socialist Party in which he served as All India Joint Secretary. After a brief period in exile in Pakistan in the 1940s, Ahmed returned to India and became Secretary of the Uttar Pradesh Committee of the CPI. He subsequently served in the Rajya Sabha for four terms, his last term ending in 1994.

Calcutta Thesis is the popular name for the resolution adopted by 2nd Congress of the Communist Party of India held at Kolkata in 1948.

The Politburo is the highest body of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The members of the Politburo are elected by the Central Committee in the immediate aftermath of a National Party Congress, which is held every three years.

1991 West Bengal Legislative Assembly election

Legislative Assembly elections were held in the Indian state of West Bengal in 1991. Legislative Assembly elections were held in the Indian state of West Bengal in 1996.

The Revolutionary Communist Party of India, also known as RCPI (Tagore), was a political party in India, led by Saumyendranath Tagore. RCPI (Tagore) emerged from a split in the Revolutionary Communist Party of India in 1948. RCPI (Tagore) had a very minor role in Indian politics. Tagore served as the chairman of the party. The party published the Bengali fortnightly Ganabani.

Central Organising Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) was a communist party in India, one of the main splinter factions of the original Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist). COC, CPI(ML) occupied an middle position between the pro-Charu Majumdar group led by Mahadev Mukherjee and the anti-Majumdar group led by Satyanarayan Singh. Failing to articulate a common ideological position, COC, CPI(ML) soon suffered internal divisions and splits. Two of the splinter groups of COC, CPI(ML) in Andhra Pradesh are predecessors of the present-day Communist Party of India (Maoist).


  1. 1 2 Chandra, Bipan & others (2000). India after Independence 1947–2000, New Delhi:Penguin, ISBN   0-14-027825-7, p.204
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Marshall Windmiller. Communism in India. University of California Press. pp. 229, 270–274. GGKEY:NSY99CAKNFU.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Kamran Asdar Ali (2015). Surkh Salam: Communist Politics and Class Activism in Pakistan, 1947–1972. pp. 39–40, 56–57. ISBN   978-0-19-940308-0.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Geoffrey Jukes (1 January 1973). The Soviet Union in Asia. University of California Press. p. 103-104. ISBN   978-0-520-02393-2.
  5. Dr.Chandravadan Naik. GLIMPSES OF ICHALKARANJI CITY. Lulu.com. p. 145. ISBN   978-1-329-82942-8.
  6. 1 2 3 Arupjyoti Saikia (12 August 2015). A Century of Protests: Peasant Politics in Assam Since 1900. Routledge. p. 208. ISBN   978-1-317-32560-4.
  7. 1 2 Talukder Maniruzzaman (1975). Radical politics and the emergence of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Books. p. 4.
  8. Selig S. Harrison (8 December 2015). India: The Most Dangerous Decades. Princeton University Press. p. 154. ISBN   978-1-4008-7780-5.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Kamran Asdar Ali (2015). Surkh Salam: Communist Politics and Class Activism in Pakistan, 1947–1972. pp. 81–82, 321. ISBN   978-0-19-940308-0.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Meghna Guhathakurta; Willem van Schendel (30 April 2013). The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. pp. 170–172. ISBN   0-8223-5318-0.
  11. 1 2 Sailendra Nath Sen (2012). Chandernagore: From Boundage to Freedom, 1900–1955. Primus Books. p. 84. ISBN   978-93-80607-23-8.
  12. 1 2 Amar Farooqui (2000). Remembering Dr. Gangadhar Adhikari: Life, Reminiscences, Tributes, Selected Writings. People's Publishing House. pp. xlvi, 384.
  13. Késavakurup Raman Pillai (1969). India's foreign policy: basic issues and political attitudes. Meenakshi Prakashan. p. 11.
  14. 1 2 Bidyut Chakrabarty (13 November 2014). Left Radicalism in India. Routledge. p. 52. ISBN   978-1-317-66805-3.
  15. Subrata Kumar Mitra; Mike Enskat; Clemens Spiess (2004). Political Parties in South Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 81. ISBN   978-0-275-96832-8.
  16. Siddhārtha Guharāẏa (2007). Calcutta Tramwaymen: A Study of Working Class History. Progressive Publishers. p. 129. ISBN   978-81-8064-129-9.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 Trond Gilberg (1989). Coalition Strategies of Marxist Parties. Duke University Press. p. 214. ISBN   0-8223-0849-5.
  18. Mark N. Katz; Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (1990). The USSR and Marxist Revolutions in the Third World. Cambridge University Press. p. 23. ISBN   978-0-521-39265-5.
  19. Low, Francis. Struggle for Asia . Essay index reprint series. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1972. pp. 96–97
  20. Robert S. Walters (15 December 1970). American and Soviet Aid: A Comparative Analysis. University of Pittsburgh Pre. p. 27. ISBN   978-0-8229-7586-1.
  21. 1 2 Bertil Lintner (January 1990). The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Burma (CPB). SEAP Publications. pp. 11–12. ISBN   978-0-87727-123-9.
  22. 1 2 Miskovic, N. The pre-history of the non-aligned movement: India's first contacts with the communist Yugoslavia, 1948–1950
  23. Bertil Lintner (1 April 2015). Great Game East: India, China, and the Struggle for Asia's Most Volatile Frontier. Yale University Press. p. 183. ISBN   978-0-300-21332-4.
  24. 1 2 Francis Mulhern (7 November 2011). Lives on the Left: A Group Portrait. Verso Books. p. 75. ISBN   978-1-84467-699-6.
  25. Hamlet Bareh (2001). Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Tripura. Mittal Publications. p. 26. ISBN   978-81-7099-795-5.
  26. Peasant Struggles, Land Reforms and Social Change: Malabar 1836–1982. Radhakrishnan. p. 64. ISBN   978-1-906083-16-8.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 Society for the Philosophical Study of Dialectical Materialism; Howard L. Parsons; John Somerville (1 January 1977). Marxism, Revolution, and Peace: From the Proceedings of the Society for the Philosophical Study of Dialectical Materialism. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 39. ISBN   90-6032-066-2.
  28. 1 2 Frank N. Trager (1959). Marxism in Southeast Asia: A Study of Four Countries. Stanford University Press. p. 266. ISBN   978-0-8047-0592-9.
  29. V. V. Kunhi Krishnan (1 January 1993). Tenancy Legislation in Malabar, 1880–1970: An Historical Analysis. Northern Book Centre. p. 120. ISBN   978-81-7211-051-2.
  30. Myron Weiner (8 December 2015). Party Politics in India. Princeton University Press. p. 103. ISBN   978-1-4008-7841-3.
  31. Sadhna Sharma (1995). States Politics in India. Mittal Publications. p. 153. ISBN   978-81-7099-619-4.