Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

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Jammu and Kashmir

1846–1952
NWFP-Kashmir1909-a.jpg
Map of Kashmir
Status Princely state
Capital Srinagar
Jammu
Common languages Kashmiri, Dogri, Ladakhi, Balti, Shina, Pahari-Pothwari, Gujari, Kundal Shahi, Bhaderwahi, Burushaski, Brokskat, Domaaki, Khowar, Bateri, Purgi, Zangskari, Tibetan, Punjabi, Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Sanskrit, Sarazi
Religion
Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism
Government Princely state
Maharaja  
 16 March 1846 – 30 June 1857
Gulab Singh (first)
 23 September 1925 – 17 November 1952
Hari Singh (last)
Dewan  
 15 October 1947 – 5 March 1948
Mehr Chand Mahajan (first)
 5 March 1948 – 17 November 1952
Sheikh Abdullah (last)
History 
1846
 Independence from British India
15 August 1947
22 October 1947
 Accession to the Indian Union
26–27 October 1947
 Constitutional state of India
17 November 1952
 Disestablished
1952
Area
 Total
85,885 [1]  sq mi (222,440 km2)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sikh Empire flag.svg Sikh Empire
British Raj Red Ensign.svg British Raj
British Raj Red Ensign.svg Interim Government of India
Jammu and Kashmir (state) Flag of Jammu and Kashmir (1952-2019).svg
Azad Kashmir Flag of Azad Kashmir.svg
Gilgit-Baltistan Flag of Gilgit Baltistan.svg
Today part of Jammu and Kashmir (India)
Ladakh (India)
Azad Kashmir (Pakistan)
Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan)
Hotan County (China)
Kargilik County (China)

Jammu and Kashmir, also known as Kashmir and Jammu, [2] was a princely state during the British East India Company rule as well as the British Raj in India from 1846 to 1947. The princely state was created after the First Anglo-Sikh War, when the East India Company, which had annexed the Kashmir Valley, [3] Jammu, Ladakh, and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs as war indemnity, then sold the region to the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, for rupees 75 lakh. (75,00,000)

Contents

At the time of the partition of India and the political integration of India, Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, delayed making a decision about the future of his state. However, an uprising in the western districts of the State followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, forced his hand. On 26 October 1947, Hari Singh acceded to India in return for the Indian military being airlifted to Kashmir to engage the Pakistan-supported forces, starting the Kashmir conflict [4] The western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory remained under Indian control as the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. [5]

Rulers

S.noNameReignRef
1. Gulab Singh 1846–1857 [1]
2. Ranbir Singh 1857–1885 [1]
3. Pratap Singh 1885–1925 [1]
4. Hari Singh 1925–1948 [1]
5. Karan Singh (Prince Regent)1948–1952

Administration

According to the census reports of 1911, 1921 and 1931, the administration was organised as follows: [6] [7]

In the 1941 census, further details of the frontier districts were given: [6]

Prime Ministers

#NameTook OfficeLeft Office
1Raja Hari Singh 19251927
2 Sir Albion Banerjee January 1927March 1929
3 G. E. C. Wakefield 19291931
4 Hari Krishan Kaul [8] 19311932
5 Elliot James Dowell Colvin [8] 19321936
6Sir Barjor J. Dalal19361936
7Sir N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar 1936July 1943
8 Kailash Narain Haksar July 1943February 1944
9Sir B. N. Rau February 194428 June 1945
10 Ram Chandra Kak 28 June 194511 August 1947
11 Janak Singh 11 August 194715 October 1947
12 Mehr Chand Mahajan 15 October 19475 March 1948
13 Sheikh Abdullah 5 March 194817 November 1952

Geography

1909 map showing Kashmir British Indian Empire 1909 Imperial Gazetteer of India.jpg
1909 map showing Kashmir

The area of the state extended from 32° 17' to 36° 58' N and from 73° 26' to 80° 30' E. [9] Jammu was the southernmost part of the state and was adjacent to the Punjab districts of Jhelum, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Gurdaspur. There is a fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth of low hilly country sparsely wooded, broken, and irregular. This is known as the Kandi, the home of the Chibs and the Dogras. To travel north, a range of mountains 8,000 feet (2,400 m) high must be climbed.

This is a temperate country with forests of oak, rhododendron, chestnut, and higher up, of deodar and pine, a country of uplands, such as Bhadarwah and Kishtwar, drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river. The steps of the Himalayan range, known as the Pir Panjal, lead to the second story, on which rests the valley of Kashmir, drained by the Jhelum river. [9]

Steeper parts of the Himalayas lead to Astore and Baltistan on the north and to Ladakh on the east, a tract drained by the river Indus. To the northwest, lies Gilgit, west and north of the Indus. The whole area is shadowed by a wall of giant mountains that run east from the Kilik or Mintaka passes of the Hindu Kush, leading to the Pamirs and the Chinese dominions past Rakaposhi (25,561 ft), along the Muztagh range past K2 (Godwin-Austen Glacier, 28,265 feet), Gasherbrum and Masherbrum (28,100 and 28,561 feet (8,705 m) respectively) to the Karakoram range which merges in the Kunlun Mountains. Westward of the northern angle above Hunza and Nagar, the maze of mountains and glaciers trends a little south of east along the Hindu Kush range bordering Chitral and so on into the limits of Kafiristan and Afghan territory. [9]

Transport

There used to be a route from Kohala to Leh; it was possible to travel from Rawalpindi via Kohala and over the Kohala Bridge into Kashmir. The route from Kohala to Srinagar was a cart-road 132 miles (212 km) in length. From Kohala to Baramulla the road was close to the River Jhelum. At Muzaffarabad the Kishenganga River joins the Jhelum and at this point the road from Abbottabad and Garhi Habibullah meet the Kashmir route. The road carried heavy traffic and required expensive maintenance by the authorities to repair. [10]

Flooding

In 1893, after 52 hours of continuous rain, very serious flooding took place in the Jhelum valley and much damage was done to Srinagar. The floods of 1903 were much more severe, a great disaster. [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Kashmir Former princely state, now a conflict territory between India, Pakistan and China

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, the term encompasses a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

History of Kashmir

The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of Central Asia, South Asia and East Asia. Historically, Kashmir referred to the Kashmir Valley. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, the Pakistan-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered regions of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.

Baltistan Place in * Pakistan

Baltistan, also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet, is a mountainous region of Pakistan near the Karakoram mountains just south of K2. Baltistan is bordered by Gilgit to the west, Xinjiang (China) to the north, Ladakh to the southeast, and the Kashmir Valley to the southwest. Its average altitude is over 3,350 metres (10,990 ft).

Gilgit City in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan

Gilgit is the capital city of Gilgit-Baltistan, a territory in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. The city is located in a broad valley near the confluence of the Gilgit River and Hunza River. Gilgit is a major tourist destination in Pakistan, and serves as a hub for trekking and mountaineering expeditions in the Karakoram Range.

Kargil district Place in Ladakh, India

Kargil district is a district in the union territory of Ladakh in northern India. It spans the entire length of Ladakh in the north–south direction, with Jammu and Kashmir to the west, the Leh district to the east, the Pakistan-administered region of Gilgit–Baltistan to the north and Himachal Pradesh to the south. Encompassing two historical regions known as Purig and Zanskar, the district lies to the northwest of the Great Himalayan range and encompasses the majority of the Zanskar Range. Its population inhabits the river valleyes of Dras, Suru, Kartse, Wakha and Zanskar.

Gilgit Agency agency of the British Raj

The Gilgit Agency was a system of administration established by the British Indian Empire over the subsidiary states of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir at its northern periphery, mainly with the objective of strengthening these territories against Russian encroachment.

Jammu and Kashmir Rifles Indian Army regiment

The Jammu and Kashmir Rifles is one of the most prestigious infantry regiment of the Indian Army. Its origins lay in the Jammu and Kashmir State Forces of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. After the accession of the state to the Indian Union in October 1947, the State Forces came under the command of the Indian Army. They remained in the original form until 1956 when Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly effectively ratified the state's accession to India. Then the State Forces became the Jammu and Kashmir Regiment of the Indian Army. In 1963, the designation was changed to Jammu and Kashmir Rifles. After the conversion, the Ladakh Scouts came under the aegis of the Regiment, where it remained until raised as a separate Regiment in 2002.

Dogra Indo-Aryan ethnic group in South Asia

The Dogras or Dogra people, are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India and Pakistan consisting of the Dogri language speakers. Dogra Rajputs ruled Jammu from the 19th century, when Gulab Singh was made a hereditary Raja of Jammu by the Sikh Emperor Maharaja Ranjit Singh, whilst his brother Dhian Singh was the empire’s prime minister, until October 1947. Through the Treaty of Amritsar (1846), they acquired Kashmir as well. They live predominantly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, and in adjoining areas of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and northeastern Pakistan. The Brahmin Dogras are predominantly Saraswat Brahmins, genetically of common origin with Saraswat Brahmins of Kashmir.

Uri, Jammu and Kashmir Town in Jammu and Kashmir, India

Uri is a town and a tehsil in the Baramulla district, in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Uri is located on the left bank of the Jhelum River, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the Line of Control with Pakistan

Kargil Town in Ladakh Union Territory, India

Kargil is a town in Kargil district and the joint capital of the Indian administered union territory of Ladakh. Kargil is the second largest town in Ladakh after Leh. It is located 60 km and 204 km from Drass and Srinagar to the west respectively, 234 km from Leh to the east, 240 km from Padum to the southeast and 1,047 km from Delhi to the south. Kargil was the location of centre at the time of Ladakh wazarat till 1979 which consists of 3 prominent places that are Skardu, Kargil and Leh.

Bunji, Pakistan Town in Pakistan

Bunji (Urdu:بنجی) is a small town in Astore District, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. it is historically important being in the end of Dogra Rule before 1948 and on the brim of Ancient Yagistan. It was economically hub for Barter trade between Yagistan and Dogras. The distance from Bunji to Gilgit is about 50 kilometres (31 mi) on the Karakoram Highway. Bunji, located at the junction of Three Great Mountain Ranges, has its historical importance. The Village has its prominent traces in the socio-political and economical situations of the region in History. River Indus covers the village from North to west while from eastern side it is connected with river Astore. Baltistan region joins its territory from the North-East.

Kohala, Pakistan Town in Punjab, Pakistan

Kohala is a town in Pakistan on the River Jhelum, north of Murree, south of Muzaffarabad, and east of Bagh. The town was at the independence of Pakistan in 1947 a border town between newly created Pakistan and the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, but is today only the border between the rest of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir.

Bhimber Place in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Bhimber is the capital of Bhimber District, in the Pakistan-administered territory of Azad Kashmir. The town is on the border between Kashmir and Pakistan, about 29 mi (47 km) by road southeast of Mirpur.

Dogra dynasty Hindu dynasty of Jammu and Kashmir

The Dogra dynasty was a Hindu Dogra Rajput dynasty that formed the royal house of Jammu and Kashmir.

Poonch District was a district of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, currently divided between India and Pakistan. The Pakistani part of Poonch District is part of the Azad Kashmir territory, whilst the Indian Poonch District is part of the Kashmir union territory. The capital of the Pakistan-controlled side is Rawalakot; while the capital of the Indian side is Poonch.

Gilgit-Baltistan Region administered by Pakistan

Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a region administered by Pakistan as an administrative territory, and constituting the northern portion of the larger Kashmir region which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China from somewhat later. It is the northernmost territory administered by Pakistan. It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, and the Indian-administered union territories Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh to the southeast.

History of Gilgit-Baltistan

Gilgit Baltistan is an administrative territory of Pakistan, that borders the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, Azad Kashmir to the southwest, Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the northwest, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China to the north, and the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir to the south and southeast.

History of Azad Kashmir

The history of Azad Kashmir, a part of the Kashmir region administered by Pakistan, is related to the history of the Kashmir region during the Dogra rule. Azad Kashmir borders the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the south and west respectively, Gilgit–Baltistan to the north, and the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir to the east.

Under Dogra rule, people in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir launched several political movements. Despite ideological differences and varying goals they aimed to improve the status of Muslims in a state ruled by a Hindu dynasty.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 David P. Henige (2004). Princely States of India: A Guide to Chronology and Rulers. Orchid Press. p. 99. ISBN   978-974-524-049-0.
  2. "Kashmir and Jammu", Imperial Gazetteer of India, Secretary of State for India in Council: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 15: 71–, 1908
  3. Panikkar, Gulab Singh 1930, p. 111–125.
  4. "Q&A: Kashmir dispute – BBC News".
  5. Bose, Sumantra (2003). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace . Harvard University Press. pp.  32–37. ISBN   0-674-01173-2.
  6. 1 2 Karim, Maj Gen Afsir (2013), Kashmir The Troubled Frontiers, Lancer Publishers LLC, pp. 29–32, ISBN   978-1-935501-76-3
  7. Behera, Demystifying Kashmir 2007, p. 15.
  8. 1 2 Copland, Ian (1981), "Islam and Political Mobilization in Kashmir, 1931–34", Pacific Affairs, 54 (2): 228–259, JSTOR   2757363
  9. 1 2 3 "Kashmir and Jammu" Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 72.
  10. "Kashmir and Jammu" Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 79.
  11. "Kashmir and Jammu" Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 89

Bibliography

This article incorporates text from the Imperial Gazetteer of India , a publication now in the public domain.