Tripura (princely state)

Last updated

Tripura State (Hill Tipperah)
Princely State of British Indian Empire
Unofficial flag of Tripura.png
Flag
Coat of Arms of Tripura Princely State.gif
Coat of arms
Bengalpresidency 1858.jpg
1858 map of the Bengal Presidency and 'Independent Tipperah' in the far right
Capital Agartala
Area 
 1941
10,660 km2 (4,120 sq mi)
Population 
 1941
513,000
History
History 
1809
13 August 1947
15 October 1949
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Twipra Kingdom
Dominion of India Flag of India.svg
'Hill Tipperah' in the Bengal Gazetteer, 1907 Bengal gazetteer 1907-9.jpg
'Hill Tipperah' in the Bengal Gazetteer, 1907
Ujjayanta Palace. Ujjayanta Palace as seen from the Rajbari Lakes.jpg
Ujjayanta Palace.
Neermahal Palace. Neermahal192.jpg
Neermahal Palace.
Maharaja Bir Chandra Manikya with Queen Manamohini Maharaja Birchandra with Maharani Manamohini.jpg
Maharaja Bir Chandra Manikya with Queen Manamohini
Tagore with Maharaja Radha Kishore in 1900 Tagore and Raja Radha Kishore Manikya.jpg
Tagore with Maharaja Radha Kishore in 1900
Queen Kanchan Prabha Devi who signed the instrument of accession as president of the Council of Regency Maharani kanchan prabhadevi.jpg
Queen Kanchan Prabha Devi who signed the instrument of accession as president of the Council of Regency
Kingdom of Tripura
Part of History of Tripura
Maha Manikya c.1400–1431
Dharma Manikya I 1431–1462
Ratna Manikya I 1462–1487
Pratap Manikya 1487
Vijaya Manikya I 1488
Mukut Manikya 1489
Dhanya Manikya 1490–1515
Dhwaja Manikya 1515–1520
Deva Manikya 1520–1530
Indra Manikya I 1530–1532
Vijaya Manikya II 1532–1563
Ananta Manikya 1563–1567
Udai Manikya I 1567–1573
Joy Manikya I 1573–1577
Amar Manikya 1577–1585
Rajdhar Manikya I 1586–1600
Ishwar Manikya 1600
Yashodhar Manikya 1600–1623
Interregnum1623–1626
Kalyan Manikya 1626–1660
Govinda Manikya 1660–1661
Chhatra Manikya 1661–1667
Govinda Manikya 1661–1673
Rama Manikya 1673–1685
Ratna Manikya II 1685–1693
Narendra Manikya 1693–1695
Ratna Manikya II 1695–1712
Mahendra Manikya 1712–1714
Dharma Manikya II 1714–1725
Jagat Manikya 1725–1729
Dharma Manikya II 1729
Mukunda Manikya 1729–1739
Joy Manikya II c.1739–1744
Indra Manikya II c.1744–1746
Udai Manikya II c.1744
Joy Manikya II 1746
Vijaya Manikya III 1746–1748
Lakshman Manikya 1740s/1750s
Interregnum1750s–1760
Krishna Manikya 1760–1783
Rajdhar Manikya II 1785–1806
Rama Ganga Manikya 1806–1809
Durga Manikya 1809–1813
Rama Ganga Manikya 1813–1826
Kashi Chandra Manikya 1826–1829
Krishna Kishore Manikya 1829–1849
Ishan Chandra Manikya 1849–1862
Bir Chandra Manikya 1862–1896
Birendra Kishore Manikya 1909–1923
Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya 1923–1947
Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya 1947–1949
1949–1978 (titular)
Kirit Pradyot Manikya 1978–present (titular)
Tripura monarchy data
Manikya dynasty (Royal family)
Agartala (Capital of the kingdom)
Ujjayanta Palace (Royal residence)
Neermahal (Royal residence)
Rajmala (Royal chronicle)
Tripura Buranji (Chronicle)
Chaturdasa Devata (Family deities)

Tripura State, also known as Hill Tipperah, [1] was a princely state in India during the period of the British Raj and for some two years after the departure of the British. Its rulers belonged to the Manikya dynasty and until August 1947 the state was in a subsidiary alliance, from which it was released by the Indian Independence Act 1947. The state acceded to the newly independent Indian Union on 13 August 1947, and subsequently merged into the Indian Union in October 1949. [2]

Contents

The princely state was located in the present-day Indian state of Tripura. The state included one town, Agartala, as well as a total of 1,463 villages. It had an area of 10,660 km2 and a population of 513,000 inhabitants in 1941.

History

The predecessor state of Tripura was founded about 100 AD. According to legend the Manikya dynasty derived its name from a jewel ('Mani' in Sanskrit) that had been obtained from a frog. The first king who ruled the state under the royal title of Manikya was Maharaja Maha Manikya, who ascended the throne in 1400. The kingdom is mentioned in Ming Shilu as Di-wu-la. It is further stated that it was occupied by Da-Gu-la, a unidentified state in what is Northern Myanmar or Assam. [3] The Rajmala , a chronicle of the Kings of Tripura, was written in Bengali verse in the 15th century under Dharma Manikya I. [4] The kingdom of Tripura reached its maximum expansion in the 16th century.[ citation needed ]

In 1764, when the British East India Company took control of Bengal, the parts of Bengal that had been under the Mughal Empire were taken over by the British administration. In 1809, Tripura became a British protectorate, and in 1838 the Rajas of Tripura were recognised by the British as sovereigns.

Between 1826 and 1862 the eastern part was subject to the ravages caused by Kuki invaders that plundered and destroyed villages and massacred their inhabitants.

There were troubles in every succession among the Tripura royal family members when the aspiring princes often resorted to use the services of the Kukis to cause disturbances. Thus in 1904, the British enacted a sanad that regulated permanently the succession of the royal family. Thenceforward the succession would have to be recognised by the Viceroy of India representing the British Crown.

Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the foundation of the Agartala Municipal Corporation.

In 1905, Tripura became part of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam and was designated as 'Hill Tippera'. [5] In addition to the Hill Tippera area, which corresponds to Tripura State, the kings retained a fertile estate known as Chakla Roshnabad with an area of 1476 km2, located in the flatland of Noakhali, Sylhet and Tipperah districts; the latter is now mostly included in the Comilla District of Bangladesh.

King Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarma died in May 1947, shortly before Indian Independence. His son Kirit Bikram Kishore was a minor at that time, and, so, Maharani Kanchan Prava Devi presided over the Council of Regency formed to govern the state. On 13 August 1947, the Maharani signed the Instrument of Accession, joining the Indian Union. There was turmoil in the state in the succeeding months and several changes in the administrative structure took place in quick succession. Finally, on 9 September 1949, the Maharani signed the Merger Agreement with the Dominion of India, which became effective on 15 October, and Tripura became a centrally administered Part C State (Chief Commissioner's Province) of India. [2] [6]

Kirit Pradyot Deb Barman (b. 1978) was the son of the last King - and is the current titular monarch.

Rulers

The head of the royal family of Tripura held the title of 'Maharaja' from 1919 onwards. Since 1897 the rulers were entitled to a 13 gun salute by the British authorities.[ citation needed ]

Rajas

Maharajas

Dewans (chief ministers)

British political agents

  • 3 July 1871 – February 1874 Ambrose William Bushe Power (b. 18.. – d. 1907)
  • 11 February 1874 – May 1875 Edward Gordon Lillingston
  • 27 May 1875 – February 1876 W.L. Samuels
  • 22 August 1876 – April 1877 Thomas Edward Coxhead (b. 1842 – d. 1890)
  • February 1877 – April 1877 James Francis Bradbury (acting for Coxhead)
  • 26 April 1877 – 28 October 1878 C.W. Bolton
  • 1878 – 1879 F. Jones
  • 1879 – 1882 G. Toynbee

Symbols

Flag

The flag features the coat of arms, on a background of saffron and red.

Coat of Arms

The motto is "Bir ta Saramekam" (Courage is the one thing most needed or nothing is better than a warrior).

See also

Notes

  1. "Tripura".
  2. 1 2 Nag, Sajal (2007), Making of the Indian Union: Merger of princely states and excluded areas, Akansha Pub. House, p. 321, ISBN   978-81-8370-110-5
  3. "The MSL records that the territory of this polity was in the early 15th century occupied by Da Gu-la (Tai-zong 269.3a-b), which suggests an area near Assam, There seems little doubt that it refers to Tripura, which lies south of the Brahmaputra and north of Bengal"( Wade 1994 :253)
  4. Hill Tippera – History The Imperial Gazetteer of India , 1909, v. 13, p. 118.
  5. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hill Tippera"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 469.
  6. Das, J. K. (2001), Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples, APH Publishing, pp. 224–225, ISBN   978-81-7648-243-1

Related Research Articles

Agartala City and state capital in Tripura, India

Agartala is the capital city of the Indian state of Tripura, and is one of the largest cities in northeast India. The city is governed by the Agartala Municipal Corporation. The city is the seat of the Government of Tripura. It is located on the banks of the Haora River, near the Bangladesh border, about 90 kilometres (55 mi) east of Bangladesh's capital Dhaka and about 2,499 km (1,522 mi) from the national capital New Delhi. Agartala is being developed under the Smart Cities Mission, a flagship scheme of the Government of India.

History of Tripura

The State of Tripura has a long history. The Twipra Kingdom at its peak included the whole eastern region of Bongal from the Brahmaputra River in the north and west, the Bay of Bengal in the south and Burma to the east during the 14th and 15th centuries AD.

Tripuri people Ethnic group of North-East India and Bangladesh

The Tripuri are an ethnic group originating in the Indian state of Tripura. They are the original inhabitants of the Twipra/Tripura Kingdom in North-East India and Bangladesh. The Tripuri people through the Manikya dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Tripura for many years until the kingdom joined the Indian Union on 15 October 1949.

Kokborok(Tiprakok/Tripuri) is the native language of Tripuri people in present Tripura state in North East of India. During 20th centuries many of Royal family and its officials contributes to develop the Kokborok Language in many ways.

Rajmala is a chronicle of the Kings of Tripura, written in Bengali verse in the 15th century under Dharma Manikya I.

Debbarma

Debbarma is the one of the main clan the of Tripuri community, predominantly in state of Tripura, India and Bangladesh who speak Kokborok, a Tibeto-Burman language. They belong to the Kshatriya Varna.

The State of Tripura was one of the ancient princely states of India. According to the Rajmala, Tripura was ruled continuously by as many as 184 Tripuri Kings with sovereign and independent status prior to its merger with the Indian Union in 1949, after the death of the last ruling King, Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman. His successor, Kirit Bikram Kishore Deb Barman, was thirteen years old at the time of the merger. King Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman had died in 1947, after which a Council of Regency was formed to run the administration under the presidency of Queen Kanchan Prava Devi, mother of Kirit Bikram Kishore Deb Barman.

Twipra Kingdom was one of the largest historical kingdoms of the Tripuri people in the North-east India.

Manikya dynasty

The Manikya dynasty was the ruling house of the Twipra Kingdom and later the princely Tripura State, what is now the Indian state of Tripura. Ruling since the early 15th century, the dynasty at its height controlled a large swathe of the north-east of the Indian subcontinent. After coming under British influence, it had lost some parts of kingdom present "Cumilla" and "Chittagong Hill Tracts" in Bangladesh.

Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman

Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya Debbarma Bahadur was a king of Tripura State.

Kirit Pradyot Manikya Deb Barman Bahadur is an Indian political activist. He is the current head of the Tripuran Royal Family and is the Titular King.

Mahamanyabar Rajkumar Srila-Srijukta Nabadwipchandra Dev Burman, also transliterated as Nabadwip Chandra Deb Barman, was a noted Indian sitarist and Dhrupad singer. He was the father of composer S. D. Burman and grandfather of another composer R. D. Burman.

Tripuri Kshatriya is a Vaishnav caste group which encompasses almost all the members of the Tripuri, Reang, Jamatia and Noatia ethnic groups, most of whom live in the Indian state of Tripura. The Tripuri Royal Family belonged to the Tripuri ethnic group, from the DebBarma clan. Originally the term "Tripur Kshatriya" was used to denote the Tripuri ethnic group only, but in due time, the Maharajah included the remaining three ethnic groups as well, in an attempt to foster a sense of kinship among his people. With the influx of the Bengali immigrants from neighbouring places, the Tripuris lost their majority in their own kingdom and the Maharajah's power was taken away by the Indian government. Formerly, the community was organized under the Tripura Kshatriya Samaj, which was headed by the Maharajah of Tripura himself.

Bir Chandra Manikya King of Tripura

Maharaja Bir Chandra Manikya of the Manikya Dynasty was the king of Tripura from 1862 to 1896.

Kanchan Prava Devi

Maharani Kanchan Prava Devi was a Queen of Tripura as the wife of Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarma, King of Tripura State. After her husband's death in 1947, she was regent of Tripura until it was merged with India in 1949.

Kanchanbari Village in Tripura, India

Kanchanbari is a village in Kumarghat subdistrict, under Unakoti district in the state of Tripura, in India. This progressive village is located 28 km to the south of the district headquarters at Kailasahar and 91 km from the state capital at Agartala. Approximately this village has a population of 6,649 people.

Maharaja Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya Deb Barman Bahadur (1933–2006) was the 185th and last King of Tripura, a princely state in northeastern India. His formal coronation was held in 1941, but he never gained the powers of a king.

The Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance Indiam political party

Tipraha Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance or TIPRA or Tipra Motha is a regional political party which was initially a social organization of Tripura, India. The TIPRA is led by Pradyot Bikram Manikya DebBarma.

References

Coordinates: 23°50′N91°17′E / 23.833°N 91.283°E / 23.833; 91.283